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Scientific Revolution

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Scientific Revolution Commonly viewed as a foundation and origin of modern science. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific Revolution


1
Scientific Revolution
Commonly viewed as a foundation and origin of
modern science.
2
The Scientific Revolution Science Breaks with
Tradition
3
What do the following pictures have in common???
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Answer The people who studied these things all
went against sacred Catholic teachings.
11
  • An Overview

12
Theories
Scientific Revolution
Scientists
Roots
Inventions
13
  • ROOTS

14
Greek Rationalists
  • The Greeks used reason and logic to figure out
    scientific explanations.
  • Hippocrates famous physician known as the
    father of medicine
  • Aristotle philosopher who developed logic
  • Plato Aristotles teacher
  • Pythagoras famous mathematician known for the
    Pythagorean Theorem
  • Ptolemy astronomer who said the sun and planets
    revolve around the Earth.

15
Scholars of Three Faiths
  • Muslim Scholars
  • Introduced Arabic numerals to Europe the
    beginning of modern math.
  • Muslim scholars preserved the Greek books on
    science.
  • Jewish and Christian Scholars agreed
  • Aristotles logic and reasoning was the way to
    go.
  • There is no conflict between reason and faith.
  • Its okay to study science it will not conflict
    with religion.

16
Renaissance Humanism
  • Humanists
  • Revived Greek reason and logic to explore new
    ideas in every field.
  • Questioned old ideas such as superstition
  • Stressed the importance of speaking and writing
    well
  • Believed science is the way to understand the
    universe
  • Alchemy
  • Experiments to try to turn other metals into gold
  • Learned more about how nature worked

17
The Age of Exploration
  • New knowledge from global exploration
  • Christopher Columbus had a theory If I sail
    west, I should land in Asia. In 1492, he
    conducted an experiment to test his theory. He
    was dead wrong
  • There were two continents (North and South
    America) that Europeans did not know about.
  • This made scientists throw accepted ideas out
    the window. From then on, scientists questioned
    EVERYTHING.

18
  • THEORIES

19
New Scientific Theories
Newton (1642-1727 England) The universe operates
by regular laws!
Kepler (1571-1630 Germany) My math proves
planets move in elliptical orbits!
Galileo (1564-1642 Italy) Use my telescope to
see that Copernicus was right!
Brahe (1546-1601 Sweden) Carefully and
accurately record what you observe!
Copernicus (1473-1543 Poland) Sorry! The sun is
the center of the universe!
Ptolemy (ancient Greece) The earth is the
center of the universe!
20
New way of thinking ...
Heliocentric everything revolves around the sun
Old way of thinking...
Geocentric everything revolves around the Earth
21
  • SCIENTISTS

22
Francis Bacon
  • Concept of experimental thinking
  • He popularized the new scientific method of
    observation and experimentation.
  • From England

23
Nicholas Copernicus
  • Founder of modern astronomy
  • Polish astronomer
  • Concluded that the sun is the center of our solar
    system
  • The earth is merely one of several planets
    revolving around the sun.

24
Nicholas Copernicus believed the sun was center
of the universe
25
HELIOCENTRIC Copernicus belief that the sun
is the center of the universe.
26
Johannes Kepler
  • German astronomer
  • Determined that the planets follow an elliptical,
    not a circular, orbit in revolving around the
    sun.
  • Helped explain the paths followed by human-made
    satellites today.

27
4 Galileo Galilei
  • Came up with law of inertia
  • Invented the first effective telescope
  • Challenged Church authority

28
Galileo Galilei
  • Italian astronomer and physicist
  • Demonstrated the law of falling bodies and
    greatly improved the telescope
  • Confirmed the Copernican theory

29
Galileos map of the starsnot the Hollywood
types!
30
TELESCOPES Galileo believed that all should
study the stars and the planets. Telescopes
certainly helped.
31
Galileo defending his work.
32
6 Isaac Newton
  • English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist
  • Invented calculus
  • Discovered laws of light and color
  • Formulated the laws of motion
  • Calculated the law of gravitation

33
5 Issac Newton
  • Made great strides in study of gravity, heat and
    light.

34
Newton believed in the theory of Gravitynow we
know it is true.
35
Rene Descartes
  • French Scientist, mathematician, and philosopher
  • Discovered laws of optics and is considered the
    founder of analytic geometry.
  • I think, therefore, I am.

36
Vesalius
  • Flemish Physician
  • Undertook dissections of the human body
  • Founded the science of anatomy

37
3 Andreas Vesalius
  • First to study human anatomy in 1500 years.

38
Examples of tools used by Vesalius for
dissection/inspection of bodies
39
Dissection would answer many questions the people
hadbut it was not approved of by the Catholic
Church!
40
William Harvey
  • English Physician, demonstrated that blood
    circulates through the body
  • His research furthered the study of medicine

41
1 William Harvey
  • First to correctly prove that the heart pumps
    blood.

42
William Harvey blood circulates through the
heart and body
43
Where does blood come from?
Nofood doesnt turn into blood YesHarvey
proved blood circulated through the body inside
veins and arteries
44
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  • Dutch naturalist
  • Perfected the microscope

45
How did these scientists change Church beliefs of
the time?
  • Harvey changed belief on function of heart
  • Copernicus came up with heliocentric theory
    (earth revolves around sun)
  • Vesalius changed belief on how human anatomy
    (body) functions
  • Galileo used telescope to map stars
  • Newton/Galileo gravity forces objects to fall
    at the same speed

46
Quiz Time
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48
  • INVENTIONS

49
Telescope
  • Who invented it
  • The Dutch, 1608. Galileo built his in 1609.
    Magnified 30 times
  • What it does
  • Magnifies things at a distance.
  • Improves human observation in astronomy.
  • Why it was significant
  • Galileo observed Moons revolved around Jupiter.
    So everything does not revolve around the Earth.

50
Microscope
  • Who invented it
  • Robert Hooke, 1667
  • What it does
  • Magnifies small objects.
  • Improves observation in biology and medicine.
  • Why it was significant
  • Discovered plant cells

51
Thermometer
  • Who invented it
  • Fahrenheit
  • Celsius
  • What it does
  • Measures temperature.
  • Why it was significant
  • Boiling point (212F) freezing point (32F)
  • Boiling point (100C) freezing point (0C)

52
Barometer
  • Who invented it
  • Torricelli, 1645
  • What it does
  • Measure atmospheric pressure.
  • Why it was significant
  • It allows you to forecast the weather.
  • When the barometer falls dramatically, you are in
    for bad weather.

53
Calculus
  • Who invented it
  • Sir Isaac Newton of England and Gottfried Wilhelm
    Leibniz of Germany
  • What it does
  • It provides a systematic way for the exact
    calculation of many areas, volumes, and other
    quantities.
  • Why it was significant
  • Its the source of todays modern world.
  • Without it, we wouldnt have cars, cell phones,
    computers, motorcycles, etc.

54
The Scientific Method
  • The five scientists all had to write down their
    observations and follow strict rules for
    conducting their experiments. These rules are
    known as The Scientific Method.
  • What are the three steps?

3) Make conclusions based on the experiment
1) Form a hypothesis
2) Test your hypothesis
55
The Scientific Method gave people new ways of
looking at the world.
56
Which of the steps do you consider to be the most
important and why?
57
What was the Impact of Scientific Revolution on
  • Philosophy Enlightenment and ideas on
  • government
  • World application of science to solve problems
    in society
  • Religion mistaken conflict between faith
  • and science

58
One of Galileos Telescopes
Some telescopes were HUGE!
59
Rationalism and Democracy
60
Going against Church beliefs examples
  • 1 Church taught Heavy objects would fall
    faster then lighter ones.
  • Newton proved Objects can fall at
    same speed.
  • 2 Church taught Earth was center of
    universe. Galileo/Copernicus proved Its not,
    (using a telescope.)
  • 3 Church taught Dissecting human bodies was
    immoral and a sin.
  • Vesalius proved Human anatomy is
    important (to understand diseases)

61
Effects of the Scientific Revolution
  • People felt that human understanding of the
    universe could be reduced to mathematical laws
  • The universe no longer appeared to be a mystery-
    people felt that it was orderly, rational and
    most importantly, could be understood by humans
  • People felt that humans were able to control
    their own destiny
  • The concept of natural laws developed
  • Laws similar like those found in science by
    Newton, could govern other aspects of life (ex
    economics, politics, ethics)

62
Effects of the SR continued
  • Science gained a wider appeal and unprecedented
    popularity
  • Science became a profession
  • Increased knowledge
  • Greater toleration (scientific and religious)
  • Less superstition
  • More scientific answers
  • Freedom to deviate from established theories
    which increased new developments

63
Scientific Views and Democratic Ideas
  • Why could it be easier for a scientist to come up
    with a new idea today in America?
  • Americans allow freedom of speech AND religion
  • Many opportunities for new exploration
  • Most Americans are more understanding and open
    minded
  • Not as much influence from the Church

64
Is there new science today that would be hard to
experiment if not for American Democracy?
  • Sure!
  • Example Genetically Altered Food
  • The team of scientists from Harvard, the
    University of Missouri and the University of
    Pittsburgh used a gene from an earthworm, which
    naturally produces omega-3 fatty acids, to
    genetically make their pigs less harmful for
    humans to eat.
  • Source LA Times, 3/27/06
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