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The United States and World War I


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Title: The United States and World War I

  • The United States and World War I

OGT Benchmark Connect developments related to
World War I with the onset of World War II
  • Causes of the Great War
  • The United States and the War, 1914-1917
  • The United States Enters the War
  • The Home Front
  • The Struggle for Peace (League of Nations and
    Treaty of Versailles)

I. Causes of World War I
  • A. Nationalism
  • B. Imperialism
  • C. Militarism
  • D. Alliances
  • E. War Breaks Out Archduke Frances Ferdinand
    and his wife assassinated.

A. Reason 1 Nationalism
  • Nationalism Deep love of ones country. This
    can lead to desperate actions, including fighting
    or war.
  • 1. Desire for Self-Rule
  • A. Europe made of several empires
  • B. They were multinational
  • C. Each group wanted own identity
  • Example Austro-Hungarian Empire made up of
    Germans, Hungarians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks,
    Serbs, Croatians, Jews, and Gypsies

Nationalism, Continued
  • 2. Rivalry Among Nations
  • A. Pride competition rivalries
  • B. This led to violent relationships between
  • 3. Economic Competition
  • A. Industrial Revolution
  • Fighting for raw materials
  • Fighting for markets
  • to sell goods

  • B. Reason 2 Imperialism
  • 1. Countries competed for lands and raw
  • 2. This competition led to conflicts
  • C. Reason 3 Militarism
  • 1. glorification of military power
  • 2. Nations increased size of military
  • 3. Nations increase weapons production
  • 4. New technology better and deadlier weapons

D. Reason 4 Alliances
  • 1. War looked inevitable
  • 2. Nations started forming alliances
  • Examples
  • Germany allied with Austria-Hungary and Italy
    (Triple Alliance)
  • France allied with Russia and Great Britain
    (Triple Entente) Later These countries known
    as The Allies
  • many other agreements made
  • An attack on one is an attack on all.

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E. War Breaks Out
  • The Story of How the First World War Began
  • A country in Europe called Bosnia was a part of
    Austria-Hungary. Bosnia did not like this. They
    wanted to be a part of Serbia instead. Things
    were getting very tense, so the Emperor of
    Austria-Hungary sent his nephew, Archduke
    Ferdinand, to Bosnia. He was to try to smooth
    things over with the the government of Bosnia.
  • People in Bosnia did not like Archduke Ferdinand
    being there. One man named Gavrilo Princip
    decided to shoot Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie.
    Sophie died immediately and Ferdinand died
    shortly after.
  • The Emperor of Austria-Hungary, Francis Joseph,
    then declared war on Serbia. World War I had

Archduke Ferdinand and his family.
F. Countries Quickly Choose Sides
  • Russia declared war on A-H
  • Germany declared war against Russia
  • France declared war on Germany
  • Germany declared war France
  • Great Britain declared war on Germany
  • By August 14, 1914, 7 European countries were at
    war. Before World War I was over, more than 20
    countries had fought, including the U.S.

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 1. _____ The first declaration of war involved
  • A. Serbia declaring against Bosnia
  • B. Russia declaring against Serbia
  • C. Bosnia declaring against Italy
  • D. Austria-Hungary declaring against Serbia

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 2. _____ World War I began with the
    assassination of
  • A. Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife,
  • B. Kaiser Wilhelm
  • C. Czar Nicholas
  • D. the King of Serbia

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 3. _____ (Blue Book, 2005) At the start of World
    War I, all of the following were members of the
    Triple Entente except
  • A. Germany
  • B. Great Britain
  • C. France
  • D. Russia

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 4. (Practice Test Booklet 2005) One of
    the causes of World War I was the nations of
    Europe had aligned into two alliance systems.
    Which of the following combination of nations
    comprised of the Allies?
  • A. France, Great Britain, and Russia
  • B. Germany, Great Britain, and Russia
  • C. Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy
  • D. Austria-Hungary, France, and Italy

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 5 (Blue Book, 2005) Which factor guaranteed
    that a war between Britain and Germany would
    involve other nations?
  • A. the system of entangling alliances
  • B. new war technologies such as poison gas and
  • C. the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in
  • D. the sinking of the Sussex

OGT Extended Response
  • (Blue Book, 2005) List and describe 2 major
    long-term causes of World War I. (4 points)

II. The United States and the War 1914-1917
  • A. Neutrality--not choosing sides
  • 1. The U.S. wanted peace
  • 2. Woodrow Wilson is President
  • a. declared U.S. neutrality immediately
  • b. urged Americans to not take sides
  • c. this was not possible, not even for

  • B. Ties that bind
  • 1. U.S. was for Britain
  • a. spoke English
  • b. read English books
  • c. laws and customs are English
  • d. born in Britain (or their parents)
  • People in the United States started taking the
    sides of their ancestry.

President Woodrow Wilson He favored
neutrality at the onset of World War I
C. Propaganda
  • Very influential manner of trying to make people
    support their group
  • Both sides sides used propaganda to influence
    people in the U.S.
  • The British cut the communications cable from
    Germany to the U.S. All information came from
    Britain about the war.

Propaganda Poster
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D. Trade with the Allies
  • A. More and more we sided with Allies
  • 1. Trade
  • a. food
  • b. weapons and ammo
  • c. raw materials
  • Britain had a naval blockade of Germany. This
    made it difficult to trade with the Central
  • 2. Loans
  • a. 2 billion
  • b. No loan no trade depression
  • 1914-1916 (beginning of WWI)
  • Trade with Allies from 800 million to 3
  • Trade with Germany 170 million to 1 million

E. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare by Germany
  • Germany did not like the U.S. trading with the
  • Germany announced they would use U-Boats
    (submarines) to attack U.S. merchant ships
    heading to England
  • Wilson warned Germany not to do this
  • Germany used the U-Boat anyway

U-Boats, continued
  • A. Germany could not follow international law
  • 1. Germany had 27 subs (U-Boats)
  • 2. began to use the subs
  • B. Feb. 4, 1915
  • 1. Germans declare waters around British Isle
  • a war zone
  • 2. urged American ships not to go there
  • 3. urged Americans to not travel on Brit ships
  • 4. Wilson didnt listen
  • a. told Germany they would be responsible
  • if any ships sunk
  • 5. Now, Britain begins seizing ships
  • a. this gagged Germany

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F. Sinking of the Lusitania
  • A. May 7, 1915
  • B. Lusitania British ship
  • C. U-Boats sank it
  • D. 1000 killed, 100 Americans
  • E. Later found it had war supplies on it
  • F. American public outraged
  • G. NO WAR YET! Wilson sent letters to Germany
    in protest

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G. Arabic and Sussex Pledges
  • A. Wilson sends strong message to Germany
  • 1. U.S. will sail wherever it wants
  • 2. neutrality laws
  • B. Many in U.S. want war
  • 1. Teddy Roosevelt
  • C. The Arabic
  • 1. British ship
  • 2. sunk by U-Boats
  • 3. 2 Americans killed
  • 4. Germany backed down
  • a. they didnt want war with us
  • b. Arabic Pledge--would not sink any ships

  • D. The Sussex
  • 1. French ship
  • 2. sunk by the Germans March 1916
  • 3. May 31, 1916--Sussex Pledge
  • a. another promise by the Germans
  • E. Germans wanted same rules
  • 1. They killed with their U-Boats
  • 2. British blockade starved Germans

H. The Zimmerman Note
  • A. wrote by German Arthur Zimmerman
  • B. sent to Mexico
  • 1. wants Mexico to
  • help Germany by attacking
  • the U.S.
  • 2. this would keep us out of Europe
  • 3. In return, Germany would help Mexico gain
  • back Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico
  • C. British intercepted the note
  • D. They relayed the message to Wilson
  • E. Wilson publishes the Zimmerman Note

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OGT Multiple Choice
  • 1. When World War I first broke out the United
    States stated they were
  • A. on the side of the Allies
  • B. on the side of the Central Powers
  • C. neutral

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 2. During the first 3 years of the war, United
    States trade
  • A. increased with the Central Powers
  • B. decreased with the Allies
  • C. increased with the Allies
  • D. stayed the same with both sides

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 3. (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the
    following is not an example of propaganda?
  • A. A gov. poster to get people to enlist in the
    military during a war
  • B. The listing of names, addresses, and
    telephone numbers in the telephone directory
  • C. An advertisement to convince consumers to buy
    a particular brand of shoes
  • D. A candidates campaign slogan to help him or
    her get elected

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 5. America tended to favor the Allies because of
    all the following except
  • A. language and cultural ties to Great Britain
  • B. reports of German atrocities coming from
  • C. the huge numbers of Irish and German
    immigrants in the United States
  • D. the sinking of ships by the German U-Boats

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 6. (Blue Book, 2005) The single most important
    factor in causing the entry of the U.S. into
    World War I was
  • A. Britains naval blockade
  • B. the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    in Sarajevo
  • C. unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany
  • D. the sinking of the Sussex

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 7. Two ships that were sunk by the Germans and
    resulted in them sending pledges to not sink any
    more ships were
  • A. the Arabic and Sussex
  • B. the Maine and the Arabic
  • C. the Maine and the Sussex
  • D. the Lusitania and the Andreodorea

OGT Extended Response
  • List and explain 2 reasons why the United States
    became involved in World War I. (4 points)

III. The U.S. Goes to War
  • April 2, 1917
  • 1. Wilson asks Congress for Declaration of
    War against Germany
  • 2. Wilson The world must be made safe for
  • 3. Four days later, Congress votes
  • Senate 82 to 6 in favor
  • House 373 to 50 in favor
  • (Read 1st paragraph on right on page 555)

The Sides During World War I
  • The Allies
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Russia
  • United States
  • The Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • U.S. soldiers during WWI were called DOUGHBOYS.

American Doughboy
  • When U.S. entered, the Allies were in bad
    trouble. Central Powers almost had the war won.
    Submarines had kept everything (food, money, men,
    ammo) out of the Allied countries.

A. War on the Western Front
  • A. Trench warfare
  • 1. machine guns
  • 2. defensive war
  • 3. stationary war
  • a. front lines changed little for over 3
  • 4. Conditions
  • a. front trenches
  • b. behind were supply trenches (5 miles)
  • c. connected by tunnels and railways
  • 5. trench fever trench foot trench
  • --all caused by filth and fatigue
  • 6. isolation, dark, constant firing
  • 7. shell shock--mental disorder

War on the Western Front (Cont)
  • B. The battle
  • 1. A group from one trench charges over to
  • the enemy trench
  • 2. They fire their machine guns/weapons
  • 3. Try to open up a hole in the line
  • 4. This was tough
  • a. barbed wire
  • b. enemy machine gun

Trapped in Barbed Wire
B. Early Losses in the War
  • A. 1914 500,000 men killed from each side
  • B. 1915 no advancement over 3 miles
  • 1. French still lost 1.5 million
  • C. 1916 French lost 1 million

C. The American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
  • A. The U.S. came in time
  • B. All other sides were tired and weary
  • C. August 1918--U.S. had 500,000 soldiers
  • 1. they pushed the Germans back
  • D. End of Sept. 1918--U.S. had 1.25 million
  • 1. Pushed Germans further back
  • 2. took over trenches the Germans had for 3 yrs
  • 3. cut the German supply lines
  • 4. French British also pushing back Germans
  • E. German mistake--they did not believe the
  • would be this strong

U.S. lost only 50,000 men. Other countries
lost millions. We came in late and took care of
business. Nov. 11, 1918 armistice. This
ended World War I.
  • Lets look at a video clip from United Streaming
    on European Conflict
  • This clip is 448 in length.

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 1. World War I was the bloodiest war in history
    because of
  • A. the lack of medical personnel
  • B. the use of naval blockades
  • C. the development of new weapons such as the
    machine gun
  • D. its length

OGT Short Answer
  • (Blue Book, 2005) Prior to the entry of the
    United States into World War I, two views
    prevailed. One favored preparedness, increasing
    our military strength to be ready for war. The
    other opposed military buildup and advocated
    pacifism. Pacifists argued that if the United
    States prepared for war, it was more likely to
    use the weapons that had been developed. Choose
    one of the points of view and write 2 reasons
    that explains your answer (2 points).

IV. The Home Front
  • During World War I the U.S. government told
    everybody what to do
  • 1. how much and what they could eat
  • 2. what factories could make and buy

A. Mobilization of Men and Women
  • A. Selective Service Act--set up the draft.
  • 1. Passed May, 1917
  • 2. By end of war 24 million drafted for
    different areas (army, Nat. Guard, etc)
  • B. American factories
  • 1. began to make weapons/ammo/boots/clothes/foo
    d rations

B. Mobilizing Money
  • A. War cost 2.3 billion to U.S.
  • 1. Raised taxes
  • 2. War Bonds

C. The Government Takes Control
  • A. Railroads
  • B. Farming
  • 1. farmers benefit from war
  • 2. farm prices rose

D. The War Industries Board
  • A. formed to make war time decisions at home
  • 1. decide what goods should be produced
  • 2. set prices

E. The Labor Force
  • A. Women had to work
  • 1. mills and factories
  • 2. assembly lines
  • 3. After war, they returned home
  • B. Blacks from the South moved to North to work
  • in factories
  • C. There was a shortage of workers during war
  • D. National War Labor Board
  • 1. settled labor disputes during war

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  • Lets look at a video clip from United Streaming
    on Women on the Homefront.
  • This clip is 212 in length.

  • Lets look at a video clip from United Streaming
    on African-Americans on the Homefront
  • This clip is 620 in length.

F. Mobilizing Minds
  • A. Many didnt want war
  • 1. German Americans
  • 2. Conscientious objectors
  • 3. Pacifists

G. Germanaphobia
  • 1. People hated Germans
  • 2. No German foods or traditions practiced in
    the U.S. (Ex sauerkraut now is liberty
  • 3. German-Americans changed their names
  • 4. Spy scares
  • 5. Could be arrested for making unpatriotic

  • Lets look at a video clip from United Streaming
    on Fear on the Homefront The Espionage and
    Sedition Acts
  • This clip is 519 in length.

H. The Attack on Civil Liberties
  • A. Illegal to speak against the war.

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 1. During the war, the right of free speech
  • A. became greater
  • B. became less
  • C. was unaffected
  • D. was respected by the United States government

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 2. The war affected farmers by
  • A. causing a drop in prices for crops
  • B. causing a rise in prices for crops
  • C. making them cut back on their acreage
  • D. causing a drop in prices for crops and making
    them cut back on their acreage

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 3. The Selective Service Act of 1917 provided for
  • A. the draft of men between ages 21 and 31
  • B. hiring substitutes to replace those not
    wishing to be drafted
  • C. draft dodgers to be tried for treason
  • D. drafting of women for medical and clerical

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 4. _____(2005 Practice Test) Charles Schenck was
    found guilty of violating the 1917 Espionage Act
    by distributing leaflets through the mail urging
    men to resist induction under the military draft
    for World War I. On appeal, Schencks attorneys
    argued the distribution of the leaflets was
    protected by the 1st Amendment. The Supreme
    Court upheld his convictions. This case
    illustrates how individual rights can be balanced
  • A. the rights of other individuals
  • B. the security of the nation in a time of war
  • C. The opportunities for people to enlist in the
  • D. the interest of the gov. in keeping courts
    open to provide justice

OGT Extended Response
  • During World War I, the United States government
    took away some rights of the people. (4 points)
  • List and explain two of these rights taken away
    during time of war.
  • Is it right that the government took these
    rights away? Why or why not?

V. The Struggle For Peace
A. The Versailles Treaty
  • When Germans lost, they felt the peace would
    not be bad. They were in for a shock!
  • The Big Four wanted to punish Germany and get
    as much land and money from them as possible.

The Big Four
  • . The Treaty
  • 1. Not as harsh as G.B., France, and Italy hoped
  • 2. Not as easy as Wilson hoped (fourteen
  • 3. Each got land
  • 4. Poland and Czechoslovakia were created
  • 5. Germany lost their colonies (coal fields)
    in Africa
  • 6. Reparations--payment for losing the war
  • a. Germany made to pay the TOTAL COST (33
    Billion owed, 4.5 billion actually paid)
  • 6. Wilson tries to get the League of
    Nations (fourteen points)

B. The fight over the treaty begins
  • A. Senate must have 2/3 vote to pass treaty
  • B. Big debate Article 10
  • 1. If a country in the League of Nations
    was attacked, all other nations would help

C. The Failure to Enter the League
  • A. Wilson went to people
  • 1. traveled 8000 miles
  • 2. visited 29 cities
  • 3. gave 40 speeches in 22 days
  • 4. collapsed and taken back to White House
  • 5. had stroke
  • 6. sick for 8 months

Failure (cont)
  • B. Election of 1920
  • 1. Wilson wants League
  • a. moral reasons
  • 2. Warren G. Harding
  • a. ran against Wilson
  • b. against the League of Nations
  • 3. Harding wins
  • a. U.S. did not join League

The League of Nations never had any power,
because the most powerful country in the world
did not join!
Military Deaths in World War 1914-1918Belgium
45,550British Empire
942,135France 1,368,000Greece
680,000Japan 1,344Montenegro
8,145Romania 300,000Russia
1,700,000Serbia 45,000United
States 116,516Austria-Hungary
1,200,000Bulgaria 87,495Germany
1,935,000Ottoman Empire 725,000
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OGT Multiple Choice
  • 1.(Practice Test Booklet 2005) The main purpose
    of President Wilsons Fourteen Points at the end
    of World War I was to
  • A. help leaders of Europe gain additional
    territory at Germanys expense
  • B. assure peace in the future by not treating
    Germany as a vanquished nation
  • C. divide Germany into several parts so it would
    not be a threat in the future
  • D. gain reparations from Germany to help pay for
    the cost of the war

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 2.(Practice Test Booklet 2005) The international
    organization created to preserve the peace after
    World War I was the
  • A. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • B. United Nations
  • C. Organization of American States
  • D. League of Nations

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 3. (Blue Book, 2005) Which of the following was
    a part of Wilsons Fourteen Points?
  • A. Allies reparations to the Germans
  • B. maintenance of national boundaries as they
    existed when World War I began
  • C. a guilt clause for Germany
  • D. the establishment of a League of Nations

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 4 (Base Test March 2005) The League of Nations
    was created after World War I as a forum for
    resolving international conflicts. However, the
    League was unable to resolve tensions that led to
    World War II.
  • One factor that contributed to the
    ineffectiveness of the League was the
  • A. breakup of colonial empires in Africa and
  • B. decision of the United States not to join the
  • C. opposition of League members to the Treaty of
  • D. rise of the Cold War between the United
    States and the Soviet Union.

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 5._____ (Blue Book, 2005) Which of the
    following statements is most accurate?
  • A. The U.S. Senate approved the Versailles
    Treaty with some hesitation.
  • B. The U.S. Senate rejected the Versailles
  • C. The U.S joined the League of Nations after
    the Versailles Treaty was rejected.
  • D. Wilsons Fourteen Points rejected the idea of
    a League on Nations.

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 6. The Big Four were the leaders of the
    countries who won World War I. They included
  • A. France, Spain, Germany, and England
  • B. France, Germany, Italy, and the United States
  • C. France, England, Italy, and the United States
  • D. the United States, England, France, and

OGT Multiple Choice
  • 7. The major reason for American opposition to
    the League of Nations was
  • A. fear of being required to get involved in
    future European wars
  • B. Wilsons failure to promote the League to the
  • C. the desire of Americans to punish the Central
  • D. the high financial costs of joining the

OGT Extended Response
  • (Base Test March 2005) Historians often cite the
    harshness of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany
    as a primary cause of the eventual outbreak of
    World War II. Summarize two provisions of the
    Versailles Treaty relating to Germany and discuss
    how each helped lead to World War II.
  • (4 points)
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