The Beginning of the Cold War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Beginning of the Cold War

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February 1945 Constant global confrontation between the Soviet Union and United States. Avoidance of direct armed conflict between the two Superpowers . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Beginning of the Cold War


1
The Beginning of the Cold War
  • Post World War II

2
Yalta Conference
  • February 1945

3
The Cold War1945-1989
  • Constant global confrontation between the Soviet
    Union and United States.
  • Avoidance of direct armed conflict between the
    two Superpowers.

4
The Iron Curtain
  • Winston Churchill
  • Speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri
    on March 5, 1946.
  • An iron curtain has descended across the
    Continent.
  • Describes Soviet sphere of influence and control
    in eastern Europe.

5
The Cold War
6
End of World War II
  • United Nations established.
  • Security Council - Veto power for permanent
    members.
  • General Assembly.
  • MacArthur commands U.S. army of occupation in
    Japan.
  • U.S., Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union
    divide Germany into zones of occupation.
  • Federal Republic of (West) Germany - 1949.
  • U.S. initially enjoys atomic bomb monopoly.
  • Neglect of conventional military forces begins.
  • Communist control of Eastern Europe.
  • Puppet states dominated by the Soviet Union.

7
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8
Containment of Communism
  • Pacific
  • China - Civil War between Communists and
    Nationalists.
  • Leaders Mao Tse Tung and Chiang Kai Shek.
  • Japanese Constitution adopted - relies on U.S.
    for defense.
  • Europe
  • Communist threat to Turkey and Greece.
  • Great Britain unable to supply enough aid.
  • Truman Doctrine - March 1947
  • I believe that it must be the policy of the
    United States to support free peoples who are
    resisting attempted subjugation by armed
    minorities or outside pressure.
  • Economic and Military aid to Greece and Turkey.
  • Non-communist governments secured.

9
Containment
  • Marshall Plan - June 1947
  • U.S. economic aid to rebuild western Europe.
  • George Kennan's "X Article" in Foreign Affairs,
    July 1947
  • Enunciated the theory of containment of
    communism.
  • Official U.S. doctrine and policy by 1950.
  • Berlin Airlift June 1948 - May 1949.
  • Communist Coup in Czechoslovakia - February 1948.
  • 1949 - Chinese Nationalists evacuate to Formosa.
  • Communist Peoples Republic established on
    mainland China under Mao.
  • Pact signed with Soviet Union.
  • U.S. supports Chiangs Nationalist government on
    Formosa (Taiwan) as legitimate government of
    China.

10
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11
NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Established in 1949.
  • Military Alliance between U.S., Canada, and
    western Europe with a formal command structure.
  • Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (Brussels,
    Belgium)
  • U.S. Commander in Chief, European Command
  • Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (Norfolk,
    Virginia)
  • U.S. Commander in Chief, Atlantic Command
  • Warsaw Pact established by the Soviet Union to
    counter NATO in 1955 - includes eastern European
    communist states.

12
Unified Commands
13
National Security Act of 1947
  • National Military Establishment
  • Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
  • Secretary of Defense on Presidents Cabinet.
  • Unified Commanders established in geographic
    areas.
  • Central Intelligence Agency and National Security
    Agency.
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff direct military operations.
  • Effects on Navy and Marine Corps
  • Preserves naval aviation and the Marine Corps.
  • Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal becomes
    Secretary of Defense.
  • Defense Reorganization Act - 1949 Department of
    Defense
  • Strengthens Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson
    replaces Forrestal.
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