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World History Chapter 24 The West Between the Wars 1919 - 1939

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World History Chapter 24 The West Between the Wars 1919 - 1939 Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability Objectives Explain why peace and prosperity were short-lived ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World History Chapter 24 The West Between the Wars 1919 - 1939


1
World HistoryChapter 24The West Between the
Wars1919 - 1939
2
Section 1 The Futile Search for Stability
  • Objectives
  • Explain why peace and prosperity were short-lived
    after World War I
  • Describe how a global economic depression
    weakened the Western democracies after 1929

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I. Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security
  • New Boundaries new states
  • Nations unhappy
  • Border disputes in Eastern Europe
  • Germans wanted to revise the terms of the Treaty
    of Versailles

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A. A Weak League of Nations
  • Not very effective in maintaining peace
  • Problem Failure of the U.S. to join the league
  • Automatically weakened the organizations
    effectiveness

7
B. French Demands
  • Desire for security
  • Reparations
  • 1921, German makes its first payment
  • Financial problems, unable to pay any more
  • France sends troops into the Ruhr Valley,
    Germanys chief industrial and mining center

8
C. Inflation in Germany
  • Germany prints more money
  • This only added to the inflation (rise in prices)
  • German mark soon became worthless
  • Workers used wheelbarrows to carry home their
    weekly pay

9
C. Inflation in Germany
  • 1924, The Dawes Plan reduced German reparations
    coordinated annual payments with its ability to
    pay
  • 200 million dollar loan to open the door to
    heavy American investment
  • Brief period of prosperity (1924 -1929)

10
D. The Treaty of Locarno
  • 1925, Treaty of Locarno guaranteed Germanys new
    western borders with France Belgium
  • New Era of European Peace
  • France Germany Ban War Forever
  • Peace at Last
  • Germany joined the League of Nations

11
D. The Treaty of Locarno
  • Treaty based on little real substance
  • Promises were worthless without enforcement
  • Nations did not reduce their military

12
II. The Great Depression
  • Economic collapse, known as the Great Depression
  • Depression, a period of low economic activity and
    rising unemployment

13
http//www.canadianheritage.org/images/regular/217
72.jpg
14
A. Causes of the Depression
  • 1. Series of downturns in the economies of
    individual nations in the second half of the
    1920s
  • Ex. Prices for farm products, esp. wheat, were
    falling rapidly because of overproduction
  • 2. international financial crises involving the
    U.S. stock market

15
A. Causes of the Depression
  • Oct. 1929, the U.S. stock market crashed, and the
    prices of stocks plunged
  • In a panic, U.S. investors withdrew even more
    money from Germany other European markets
  • Industrial production was declining
    unemployment was rising

16
B. Responses to the Depression
  • Britain 1 and 4 unemployed
  • 6 million Germanys or 40 of labor force were
    out of work
  • Governments did not know how to deal with the
    crisis
  • Cut costs by lowering wages raising tariffs to
    exclude foreign goods from home markets
  • This made the economic crisis worse

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B. Responses to the Depression
  • Increased government activity in the economy
  • Goes against Laissez faire tradition
  • Renewed interest in Marxist doctrines
  • Communism became more popular
  • Led masses to follow political leaders who
    offered simple solutions

19
III. Democratic States after the War
  • Women were rewarded for their contributions to
    the war effort by granting them voting rights
  • Return to normalcy was difficult

20
A. Germany
  • Germany is no longer an empire or ruled by
    William II, now known as the Weimar Republic.
  • Many problems with the Republic including no
    strong political leaders and economic problems.
  • The Great Depression also affects Germany.
  • Depression led to the fear and rise of extremist
    parties.

21
B. France
  • Also affected by the depression, but not as bad
    until 1932.
  • This led to political chaos, six different
    cabinets in 19 months.
  • The Popular Front government is formed and they
    start the French New Deal.

22
B. France
  • The French New Deal gave workers the right to
    Collective bargaining, the right of unions to
    negotiate a 40-hour workweek, 2 week paid
    vacation, min. wage.
  • Popular Fronts policies fail and there is little
    confidence in the political system.

23
C. Great Britain
  • Many of the markets are lost to US and Japan
    leading to unemployment.
  • John Maynard Keynes believed that the govt
    should interfere in solving the depression,
    unlike the old theory (Laissez faire)
  • Wrote General Theory of Employment, Interest, and
    Money.
  • He believed in Deficit spending, a belief that
    the govt should spend money to get out of a
    depression even if it means going into debt by
    putting people to work.

24
D. The United States
  • The US is hit the hardest by the depression, more
    than 12 million were unemployed in 1933.
  • President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) knew
    the capitalist system had to be reformed.
  • His New Deal (or active govt intervention)
    increased public works that employed about 3
    million people.
  • Bridges, roads, post offices, and airports are
    built because of the New Deal and its programs
    like the WPA.

25
FDR
http//teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/fi/0000015f
.jpg
26
http//faculty.washington.edu/gregoryj/cpproject/1
70.jpg
27
D. The United States
  • Social Security for the elderly and the
    unemployed.
  • The New Deal prevents social chaos unlike the
    European nations, but does not fix the
    depression.
  • In 1938, more than 10 million people are still
    unemployed.
  • Not until War World II and the growth of weapons
    industry does the US get out of the Depression.

28
people standing in a line
They are out of work and have no money to buy
food.
free food
29
Section 2 The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes
  • Objectives
  • Characterize the modern totalitarian state
    established by Mussolini
  • Report how Stalin, the leader of the Soviet
    Union, eliminated people who threatened his power

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I. The Rise of Dictators
  • Totalitarian state is a government that aims to
    control the political, economic, social,
    intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens.
  • Power of the Central State
  • Wanted passive obedience
  • Conquer the minds hearts of their subjects

32
I. The Rise of Dictators
  • Mass propaganda modern communication
  • Single leader a single party
  • Rejected limited government power individual
    freedoms
  • collective will of the masses
  • Determined by the leader
  • Active involvement of the massess

33
II. Fascism in Italy
  • Early 1920s, Benito Mussolini fascist ruler of
    Italy
  • Fascism, glories the state above the individual
    by emphasizing the need for a strong central
    government led by a dictatorial ruler.
  • People are controlled by the government any
    opposition is suppressed

34
Benito Mussolini
http//www.parida.com/img/benito.gif
35
A. Rise of Fascism
  • Economic problems
  • Inflation
  • Industrial agricultural workers strike
  • Fear of Communism Socialism
  • Black-shirts, armed Fascists attacked socialist
    offices newspapers
  • Used violence to break up strikes

36
A. Rise of Fascism
  • Industrialist large landowners supported
    Mussolinis Fascist movement
  • He demanded more land for Italy
  • Mussolini threatened to march on Rome, if not
    given more power
  • King makes Mussolini Prime Minister
  • Created new laws, suspended publications,
    increased police powers

37
A. Rise of Fascism
  • By 1926, the Fascists had outlawed all other
    political parties
  • Mussolini now known as Il Duce (eel DOOchay),
    The Leader

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39
B. The Fascist State
  • Created a secret police, OVRA to watch citizens,
    but not as savage as Hitlers
  • Control over most media to spread propaganda
  • Used simple slogans in the media
  • Mussolini is Always Right
  • Youth groups were used to promote ideals

40
B. The Fascist State
  • Although the Fascists tried to make Italian
    citizens disciplined, and war-loving, they still
    kept their traditional values
  • Ex. Women were the pillars of the state, but as
    homemakers and mothers.
  • Mussolini never achieved the status that Hitler
    did with his Germany.
  • Ex. Victor Emmanuel still kept his kingship.

41
III. A New Era in the Soviet Union
  • Lenin followed a policy of war communism
  • Peasants began to sabotage the communist program
  • Drought caused a great famine between 1920
    1922, 5 million lives were lost
  • Industrial output decreased to 1913 levels

42
A. Lenins New Economic Policy
  • Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of his
    New Economic Policy (NEP), a modified version of
    the old capitalist system.
  • Peasants allowed to sell their produce, retail
    stores small industries could be privately
    owned operated
  • Heavy industry, banking mines remained in the
    hands of the government

43
A. Lenins New Economic Policy
  • 1922, a new Communist state called the Union of
    Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR or Soviet Union
    was created.
  • NEP saved the Soviet Union from complete economic
    disaster, but threatened the goals of the
    communism

44
B. The Rise of Stalin
  • Lenin dies in 1924, a struggle for power began
  • Leon Trotsky vs. Joseph Stalin
  • Politburo, a committee that had become the
    leading policy-making body of the Communist Party
  • Stalin used his post as general secretary of the
    Politburo to gain complete control of the
    Communist Party

45
Joseph Stalin
http//library.usu.edu/Specol/digitalexhibits/masa
ryk/images/stalin.jpg
46
B. The Rise of Stalin
  • By 1929, Stalin had eliminated from the Politburo
    the Bolsheviks of the revolutionary era and had
    established a dictatorship.
  • Trotsky was expelled in 1927
  • Murdered in 1940, probably on Stalins orders

47
C. Five-Year Plans
  • 1928, Five-Year Plans, set of economic goals
    emphasized maximum production of capital goods
    (heavy machines) armaments
  • 1928 to 1937 double quadrupled production
  • Little provision for caring of labor force
  • Housing declined, pitiful living conditions, real
    wages declined, movement limited

48
C. Five-Year Plans
  • Collectivization, private farmers were
    eliminated, government owned all of the land
    while the peasants worked it.
  • Strong resistance to plan, peasants hoarded crops
    killed livestock
  • By 1934, 26 million farms had been collectivized

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D. Costs of Stalins Programs
  • 10 million died in the famines of 1932 1933
  • Those who resisted were sent into forced labor
    camps in Siberia
  • Purges or removals of the Old Bolsheviks
  • Put on trial and condemned to death

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D. Costs of Stalins Programs
  • Purged army officers, diplomats, union officials,
    party members, intellectuals, and numerous
    ordinary citizens
  • 8 million Russians were arrested
  • Millions sent to forced labor camps (Gulag) in
    Siberia, from which they never returned
  • Others were executed

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596
probably because records of the executions were
not kept, and numbers could not be released while
Stalin was alive
They did not have as much power as higher
officials.
55
D. Costs of Stalins Programs
  • Equal rights for women
  • Divorce process easier
  • Women encouraged to work outside the home
  • Family values, hard work, duty, discipline to
    their children
  • Divorced fathers who did not support their
    children were heavily fined

56
IV. Authoritarian States in the West
  • Western world were not totalitarian but were
    authoritarian
  • Use of police powers
  • Create a new kind of mass society, but to
    preserve the existing social order

57
A. Eastern Europe
  • New states of Eastern Europe
  • Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia,
    Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary
  • All adopted parliamentary systems, but soon
    replaced by authoritarian regimes

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A. Eastern Europe
  • Why did the Parliamentary systems failed in E.
    Europe?
  • Not used to it, a rural agrarian society,
    illiteracy, ethnic problems
  • Landowners, the church, some middle class turned
    to authoritarian govts to keep the old system.
  • Czechoslovakia only one to maintain political
    democracy.

60
B. Spain
  • Francisco Franco, led a revolt against the
    democratic govt in 1936 and the Spanish Civil
    War began.
  • Aided by Italy and German with arms, money, and
    men.
  • Hitler helped Franco so he could test his air
    force.

61
Francisco Franco
62
B. Spain
  • Spanish Republican party aided by the Soviet
    Union with trucks, volunteers, tanks, and
    military advisers.
  • Civil War came to an end with Franco capturing
    the city of Madrid in 1939 and set up a
    dictatorship.
  • Francos govt not a totalitarian, but an
    authoritarian because it still allowed
    traditional groups in peoples lives.

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