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Title: Chapter%201%20-%20Impact%20of%20WWI


1
Chapter 1 - Impact of WWI
  • Focuses
  • What caused World War One to happen?
  • What were the effects of World War One?

2
Did World War I change the world?
What was the world like before World War I?
What was the world like after World War I?
  1. The world before 1914.
  2. What caused the war.
  1. Effects of the war on the world.

3
In a Nutshell
World War I
When did it happen? 19141918
Where did it happen? Europe, Africa and the Middle East
Who fought in the war? 1) Allied Powers (Leading member Britain) 2) Central Powers (Leading member Germany)
Who won? The Allied Powers
How many died? Soldiers 8 million Civilians or people who were not soldiers 6 million
4
  • Allied Powers
  • Britain
  • France
  • Serbia
  • Russia
  • Italy (joined after May 1915)
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Turkey

vs
5
Significant Individuals 1.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Built up German army and navy
  • Aggressive foreign policy
  • Determined to make Germany a top nation.
  • Distrusted by other powers

Germany must have its place in the sun The
world belongs to the strong.
6
Significant Individuals 2
  • Count Berchtold
  • Austrian Prime Minister.
  • During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough
    ultimatum for Serbia

Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this
would not be to my liking
7
Significant Individuals 3
  • Bethmann Hollweg
  • German Prime Minister
  • Gave very strong support to Austria during the
    July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht

The Austrian demands are moderate. Any
interference by Britain, France and Russia would
be followed by incalculable consequences
8
Powerful countries
Alliances among the great powers
What was the world like before World War I?
Competition for colonies
Strong feelings of nationalism
Arms and naval race
Assassination of Archduke of Austria-Hungary
9
Powerful countries
  • Britain ? Largest colonial empire in the world.
  • ? Most powerful navy.
  • France ? Defeated by Germans in 1871
    Franco- Prussian War.
  • ? Lost resource-rich Alsace-Lorraine.
  • ? Looked for ways to recover it.
  • Russia ? Largest empire in Europe.
  • ? Largest army.

10
Powerful countries
  • Austria- ? Large, unstable and divided empire.
  • Hungary ? Different ethnic groups often
    attempted to break away to form own
    nation-states.
  • Germany ? Economy grew rapidly after 1871
    reunification.
  • ? Army best-trained and equipped in Europe.
  • ? Kaiser Wilhelm IIs ambition.
  • Ottoman ? Empire stretched from Europe to the
  • Turkey Middle East and Asia.
  • ? Central government too weak to control all
    parts of its empire.

11
  • Germany
  • Rapid growth in economy and power after 1871
    reunification.
  • Best-trained and equipped army in Europe.
  • Huge territorial ambition.
  • Britain
  • Largest colonial empire in the world.
  • Most powerful navy.
  • Russia
  • Largest empire in Europe.
  • Largest army.
  • Less advanced industrialisation.
  • The Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Turkey)
  • Empire stretched from Europe
  • to the Middle East and Asia.
  • Central government too weak to control all parts
    of its empire.
  • France
  • Resource-rich Alsace-Lorraine was annexed by
    Germany in the 1871 Franco-Prussian War.
  • Looked for ways
  • to recover it.
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Large, unstable and divided empire.
  • Different ethnic groups often attempted to break
    away to
  • form their own nation-states.

Back
12
Competition for colonies
  • Acquire colonies to
  • further national security.
  • enhance national prestige.
  • obtain raw materials.
  • gain access to markets for manufactured goods.

13
Competition for colonies
  • Britain and France already in control of most of
    Africa and Asia.
  • Very little left for Germany.
  • Competition for colonies.

tension
Back
14
Arms and naval race
  • Germanys ambition to expand army and navy to
    rival its enemies.
  • Powerful military as bargaining voice, bragging
    rights and fulcrum to expansionist policy?

Kaiser Wilhelm II in an interview published in
the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph in
November 1908 Germany is a young and growing
empire. She takes part in trade that is rapidly
expanding. Germany must have a powerful fleet to
protect that trade. She must be able to fight for
her interests in any part of the world. Only
those powers that have great navies will be
listened to with respect.
15
Arms and naval race
  • Britain, France and Russia felt the threat posed
    by an ambitious Germany.
  • Also increased army and navy to maintain balance
    of military power.

The race is on!
16
Arms and naval race
17
Arms and naval race
Back
18
Alliances among the great powers
1907 (Triple Entente Agreement) Britain,
France and Russia allied to become the Allied
Powers.
1882 (Triple Alliance Agreement) Austria-Hungary
, Germany and Italy allied to form the Central
Powers.
The Balance of Power The great powers thought
that forming alliances could deter countries from
starting a war. This was because such a war would
not be easy to win as it would quickly escalate
as more countries joined the fight via the
alliances.
19
Alliances among the great powers
  • Instead, these alliances meant that a war between
    two countries would soon involve their allies and
    become a bigger conflict.
  • Played an important part in causing World War I.

20
Alliances among the great powers
  • Because of the Triple Entente, Germany hatched
    the Schlieffen Plan.
  • Plan would prevent Germany from having to fight
    the Allied Powers on two fronts in the event of
    war
  • France and Britain in the west.
  • Russia to the east.
  • Pivotal action of the Plan was to defeat France
    with lightning attack through neutral Belgium and
    take out the Western front.

21
Germany risked having to fight the Allied Powers
on both the Eastern front and the Western front.
The Schlieffen Plan called for surprise
occupation of neutral Belgium and lightning
attack and defeat of France through Belgium.
Back
22
Strong feelings of nationalism
  • Many Slavs lived in the Balkans, in nation-states
    like Bosnia and Serbia.
  • Serbian nationalism inspired plans for creation
    of larger Serbian state (Serbia and Bosnia).
  • Austria-Hungary threatened by prospect of larger
    Serbian state south of its border.

23
Serbian nationalism to the south of
Austria-Hungarys border created a threat for
Austria-Hungary.
24
Strong feelings of nationalism
  • 1908 ? Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia.
  • Many Slavs decided to set up secret societies ?
    goal was to force Austria-Hungary out of Bosnia.
  • Russians were also Slavs ? protective towards
    fellow Slavs in the Balkans.
  • Opposed to Austria-Hungarys attempts to prevent
    spread of Serbian nationalism.

Back
25
Assassination of Archduke of Austria-Hungary
  • 28 June 1914 ? Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir
    apparent to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was
    shot in Bosnia.
  • Killer was member of Black Hand, a secret
    society based in Serbia.
  • The perfect excuse for Austria-Hungary to remove
    Serbian threat once and for all.
  • ? accused Serbia of planning the murder.

Back
26
Events which led to start of World War I
28 June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot
in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
23 July 1914 Germany offered to back
Austria-Hungary against Serbia. Austria-Hungary
demanded that Serbia hand over leaders of the
Black Hand by 25 July.
26 July 1914 Russia joined the fray by
supporting Serbia.
28 July 1914 Leaders of Black Hand not handed
over. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
31 July 1914 Russia mobilised its army in
support of Serbia. Germany feared an imminent
Russian invasion.
1 August 1914 Germany declared war on Russia
France mobilised its troops to support Russia.
3 August 1914 Germany declared war on France.
Schlieffen Plan set in motion, Germans entered
neutral Belgium.
3 August 1914 As Belgium was under British
protection, Britain sent ultimatum to Germany to
withdraw from Belgium.
27
Events which led to start of World War I
4 August 1914 Britain declared war on Germany
as German troops had not withdrawn.
World War I began!
28
What really caused World War I?
Critical Thinking
Powerful countries?
Alliances among the great powers?
Competition for colonies?
Strong feelings of nationalism?
Assassination of Archduke of Austria-Hungary?
Arms and naval race?
29
What really caused World War I?
Which view do you agree with?
30
What really caused World War I?
Which view do you agree with?
31
What really caused World War I?
Which view do you agree with?
32
The Course of the War
  • Schlieffen Plan did not materialise as planned
    for the Germans.

It was very difficult to penetrate the formidable
defence formed by a line of trenches. Hundreds of
thousands of deaths were suffered in bloody
trench warfare.
  • By the end of 1914, both sides stuck in a
    stalemate of bloody trench warfare.
  • Little land gained but heavy casualties.

33
The Germans intended lightning attack of France
did not succeed. Instead their advances were
slowed drastically by stiff Allied resistance.
Long lines of trenches dug from Belgium to the
Swiss border ensured both sides got stuck in a
fruitless yet bloody trench warfare a
stalemate.
In 1914, the Germans failed to even reach Paris.
The Schlieffen Plan had collapsed. They were
drawn into a two-front war.
34
The Course of the War
November 1914 The Ottoman Empire entered the war
on Germanys side.
March 1918 Russia signed the Treaty of
Brest-Litovsk with Germany and exited the war
because it had suffered very heavy casualties on
the Eastern front. Ceded land and resources to
Germany. End of war on the Eastern front.
April 1917 The USA declared war against Germany
due to outrage over loss of innocent American
lives when German submarines sank the Lusitania.
May 1915 Italy joined the war on the side of the
Allied Powers. In return, Italy was promised
territory which it hoped to gain from
Austria-Hungary.
35
The Course of the War
March 1918 With the end of the war on the
Eastern front, Germany redeployed its troops
there to the Western front and launched a massive
offensive there.
July 1918 Germany could not sustain its
offensive on the Western front as its resources
were depleted due to the two-front war between
1914 and 1918.
October 1918 The Germans were forced to
retreat. Turkey and Austria-Hungary pulled out
of the war, leaving Germany as the lone Central
Power in the war. Germany was fighting a losing
battle.
June 1918 Large numbers of fresh USA troops
started arriving on the war front.
August 1918 Allied forces counter-attacked.
36
The Course of the War
  • November 1918 The Kaiser was overthrown in a
    revolt.
  • Germany became a republic.
  • Its new leaders asked for an armistice and was
    granted that on 11 November 1918.
  • World War I was over.

37
Millions of dead, wounded or homeless people
Changes to society
What was the world like after World War I?
Four empires broke up
World economy damaged
Self-determination became popular
New nation-states were set up
New boundaries created problems
38
Millions of dead, wounded or homeless people
  • Nearly 8 million soldiers killed.
  • Millions of young men wounded and permanently
    disabled by gas or exploding shells.
  • Many others suffered from post-war trauma.

39
Millions of dead, wounded or homeless people
40
Millions of dead, wounded or homeless people
  • Millions of displaced refugees who had lost
    almost everything.
  • Poor living conditions, lack of food and spread
    of disease.
  • Many more killed due to diseases.

Back
41
Four empires broke up
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and
    Russia broke up into smaller countries.
  • Many ethnic groups set up their own nations.
  • Former colonies of German and Ottoman Empires
    administered by Allied Powers until they were
    ready for self-government.

Back
42
Self-determination became popular
  • Self-determination and self-government championed
    as a principle of peace.

Czechoslovakia
Hungary
Self-determination
Self-determination
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Back
43
New nation-states were set up
Back
Many new countries were set up because of
nationalism.
Lithuania
Latvia
Yugoslavia
Estonia
Nationalism
Poland
Hungary
44
New boundaries created problems
  • Although new nation-states were formed, ethnic
    groups did not get to form nations of ethnic
    uniformity.
  • Many ethnic minorities lived within the borders
    of newly-created states.
  • These new borders caused ethnic tension.

Back
45
World economy damaged
  • World trade disrupted.
  • Resources of great powers depleted.
  • Farms, factories and industrial areas destroyed ?
    no production.
  • Infrastructure destroyed ? lengthy restoration.
  • Massive unemployment.
  • Countries cash-strapped, saddled with huge debts.

Back
46
Changes to society
  • Divisions in society were heightened.

The war brought to the fore differences between
two opposing camps of society pacifists and
militarists.
The horrors of war tilted some groups more
towards pacifism.
But other groups became even more fiercely
inclined towards militarism. They felt this was
the best way to protect their country against
invasion and annexation.
47
Changes to society
  • Disillusionment with existing system.
  • Segments of society lost faith in the existing
    system of government.
  • Looked for alternative social ideologies.
  • Communism emerged.

48
Changes to society
  • Changes to the position of women.
  • Many males in the families were killed in the
    war.
  • Womens responsibilities increased.
  • Womens expectations about their role in society
    also changed ? equal rights, equal opportunities.

49
Changes to society
  • Changes to the position of workers.
  • Working class given right to vote in recognition
    of its contributions to the war ? expansion of
    electorate.
  • Increasing support for government welfare
    programmes such as state-provided healthcare and
    education.
  • Greater expectation for equality with middle
    class and upper class.

Back
50
Millions of dead, wounded or homeless people
Changes to society
What was the world like after World War I?
Four empires broke up
World economy damaged
Self-determination became popular
New nation-states were set up
New boundaries created problems
51
What does this picture tell you about the impact
of World War I?
Homeless people There were numerous displaced
refugees who had lost almost everything.
52
Destroyed infrastructure A lengthy restoration
was required and the economy was damaged.
53
Changes to position of women in society They
expected equal rights, equal opportunities.
54
Unemployment Many jobs were displaced by the
war.
55
Summary
World War I
Major countries involved
Impact
Causes
Political
Central Powers
  • Powerful countries.
  • Competition for colonies.
  • Arms and naval race.
  • Alliance system.
  • Strong nationalism.
  • Assassination of Archduke of Austria-Hungary.

Economic
Allied Powers
Social
56
Summary
Major countries involved
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Turkey

Central Powers
  • Britain
  • France
  • Serbia
  • Russia (until 1917)
  • Italy (from May 1915)
  • USA (fought as an Associated Power from 1917)

Allied Powers
Back to main summary
57
Summary
  • Old empires broke up.
  • Creation of new nations and nation-states.
  • Ethnic tension due to new borders.
  • Self-determination by countries formerly ruled by
    empires.

Impact
Political
  • Farmland and industrial areas destroyed ? no more
    production.
  • Infrastructure destroyed.
  • World trade disrupted.
  • Massive unemployment.
  • Countries saddled with huge debts.

Economic
Social
  • Divisions in society heightened.
  • Emergence of Communism.
  • Changes to the position of women and workers.

Back to main summary
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