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Chapter 14 The Latin West, 1200 - 1500

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Title: Chapter 14 The Latin West, 1200 - 1500


1
Chapter 14The Latin West,1200 - 1500
AP World History
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http//www.youtube.com/watch?vPxURL_MX-60
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I. Rural Growth and Crisis
  • A. Peasants and Population
  • Most people of the Latin West were peasants bound
    by serfdom that used inefficient agricultural
    practices.
  • Women labored in fields and were subordinate to
    men.
  • Europes population doubled between 1000 and
    1445.
  • Population growth was spurred by new agricultural
    technologies in northern Europe, including the
    three-field system and the cultivation of oats
    for horses.
  • As new land was opened up for cultivation much of
    it had poor soil and poor growing conditions.

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Hierarchy of responsibilities in the Latin West.
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Peasant cultivators labored long hours and more
than half of the fruits of their labor went to
the landowners, which led to a lack of motivation
to improve farming techniques.
8
Rural poverty was not simple the product of
inefficient farming methods and social
inequality. It also resulted from the rapid
growth population it doubled from 1100 to 1345.
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  • B. The Black Death and Social Change
  • The Black Death was brought from Kaffa to Italy
    and southern France in 1346.
  • Ravaged Europe for two years and returned
    periodically in the late 1300s and 1400s.
  • As a result of plague, labor became more
    expensive in Western Europe and led to peasant
    uprisings and the end of serfdom.
  • After the plague, rural living standards
    improved, the period of apprenticeship for
    artisans was reduced, and per capita income rose.

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The Black Death resolved the problem of
overpopulation by killing off a third of western
Europeans.
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The Black Death was maybe a combination of two
diseases Anthrax (from cattle and sheep)
Bubonic plague (from the fleas of rats)
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Black Death victims developed boils the size of
eggs in their groins and armpits, black blotches
on their skin, foul body odors, and severe pain.
13
The south to north dispersion of the Black Death
in the Latin West. By 1400 Europes population
regained the size it had had in 1200.
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  • C. Mines and Mills
  • Between 1200 - 1500 Europeans invented and used a
    variety of mechanical devices including water
    wheels and windmills.
  • Industrial enterprises, including mining,
    ironworking, stone quarrying, and tanning, grew
    during this time.
  • The results included both greater productivity
    and environmental damage including water
    pollution and deforestation.

15
Wind mills were powered by water or wind and were
used to grind grain into flour, saw logs into
lumber, crush olives, tan leather, make paper,
mold iron into tools, horseshoes, etc.
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II. Urban Revival
  • A. Trading Cities
  • Cities grew due to the increase in trade and
    manufacturing.
  • The rise of Venice was the result of the capture
    of Constantinople, the opening of the Central
    Asian caravan trade under the Mongol Empire, and
    the post Mongol development of the Mediterranean
    galley trade with Constantinople, Beirut, and
    Alexandria.

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  • This increase in sea trade also brought profits
    to Genoa and to the cities of the Hanseatic
    League in the Baltic and the North Sea.
  • Flanders prospered from its woolen textile
    industries, while the towns of Champagne
    benefited from their position on the major land
    route through France.
  • Trade industries also began to develop in England
    and Florence and the use of windmills and water
    wheels helped develop the textile, paper, and
    other industries.

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Routes and systems of trade in medieval Europe.
Illustrates the major overland and port trading
cities.
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Venice was the major trading power in the
Mediterranean. It was the first European city to
open up trading relationships with the Islamic
world.
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Marco Polo was the first European to open up
trade with China and spent years as an ambassador
and governor of a Chinese province for Khubilai
Khan. He was gone from Venice for 24 years and
few believed his stories about Asias wealth.
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Flanders specialized in the European cloth and
wool trade which was smoother than the coarse
homemade textiles from village looms.
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  • B. Civic Life
  • European cities that were city-states were better
    able to respond to the changing market conditions
    than Chinese or Islamic cities and European
    cities offered their citizens more freedom and
    social mobility.
  • Europe's Jews lived in the cities and they were
    the subject of persecution and they were blamed
    for disasters like the Black Death and were
    expelled from Spain due to the Inquisition.
  • Guilds regulated the practice of and access to
    trades, but women were rarely allowed to join.
  • The growth of commerce gave rise to bankers like
    the Medicis of Florence and the Fuggers of
    Augsburg who handled financial transactions for
    merchants, the church, and the kings and princes
    of Europe.
  • Many bankers were Jews because the Church
    prohibited usury.

23
Cosimo the Elder was the head of the Medici
family in Florence. They were largest banking
family in Italy and were important patrons of
the arts.
24
Jacob the Rich Fugger started out as a cloth
merchant but turned his familys wealth into the
largest banking family in Europe. (x10 greater
lending capital than the Medicis)
25
Jewish persecution peaked in times of crisis such
as the Black Death and the Spanish inquisition
when they were blamed for others misfortune.
26
  • C. Gothic Cathedrals
  • Gothic Cathedrals are the masterpieces of late
    medieval architecture and craftsmanship.
  • Features include the pointed Gothic arch, flying
    buttresses, high towers and spires, and large
    interiors lit by huge windows.
  • The men who designed and built the Gothic
    cathedrals had no formal training in design and
    engineering they learned through their mistakes.

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The men who designed and built the Gothic
cathedrals had no formal training in design and
engineering they learned through their mistakes.
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The hallmark of Gothic architecture is the Gothic
arch which replaced the older round Roman arch.
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Gothic Cathedrals had large interiors lit by huge
windows supported by the exterior (flying)
buttresses.
30
Why do some inventions change the world and
others fail?
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III. Learning, Literature, and the Renaissance
  • A. Universities and Learning
  • After 1100, Western Europeans got access to Greek
    and Arabic works on science, philosophy, and
    medicine.
  • These manuscripts were translated and explicated
    by Jewish scholars and studied at Christian
    monasteries, which remained the primary centers
    of learning.
  • After 1200 colleges and universities emerged as
    new centers of learning.

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  • Universities generally specialized in a
    particular branch of learning.
  • University of Prague is the oldest university in
    Europe.
  • Bologna was famous for its law faculty, others
    for medicine or theology.
  • Theology was the most prominent discipline at the
    time because theologians sought to synthesize the
    rational philosophy of the time with the
    Christian faith of the Latin West in an
    intellectual movement known as scholasticism.

33
University of Prague (1347) is the oldest
university, a degree granting corporation which
specialized in multi-disciplinary research, in
central Europe in continuous operation.
34
University of Bologna (1088) is the oldest
continually operating university in the world.
The word universitas was first used by this
institution. It is historically notable for its
teaching of canon and civil law.
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A medieval Italian classroom.
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  • B. Humanists and Printers
  • Dante Alighieri (Divine Comedy) tells the story
    of the authors journey through the nine circles
    of Hell and seven terraces of Purgatory, followed
    by his entry into Paradise.
  • Geoffrey Chaucer (Canterbury Tales) is a rich
    portrayal of the lives of everyday people in late
    medieval England.
  • Dante influenced the intellectual movement of the
    humanists such as Petrarch and Boccaccio who were
    interested in the humanities and the classical
    literature of Greece and Rome.

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  • Humanists wrote in the vernacular and Latin and
    worked to restore the original texts and Bible
    through exhaustive comparative analysis of the
    many various versions that had been produced over
    the centuries.
  • Pope Nicholas V established the Vatican Library
    and the Dutch humanist Erasmus produced a
    critical edition of the New Testament.
  • In 1454 Johann Gutenberg perfected printing with
    his Gutenberg Bible which was the first book in
    the West printed from movable type.
  • By 1500 more than 10 million works had been
    printed.

38
Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy was the first to
combine Christian and Greco-Roman themes
together, which foreshadowed the literary
fashions of the later Italian Renaissance.
39
Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales is a rich
portrayal of the actions and attitudes of
everyday people in late medieval England.
40
Francesco Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio were
two of the early humanist writers who led the
rebirth of Greco-Roman traditions that had been
lost during the Middle Ages.
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Johannes Gutenberg invented mechanical movable
type printing and started the printing revolution
that played a key role in the development of the
Renaissance. It laid the material basis for the
modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of
learning to the masses.
42
The printing press was a mechanical device that
pressed inked type onto sheets of paper.
43
The Gutenberg Bible was the first to be printed
from movable type.
44
  • C. Renaissance Artists
  • Style of art built on the more natural paintings
    of Giotto and concentrated on the depiction of
    Greek and Roman gods and of scenes from daily
    life.
  • Jan van Eyck developed oil paints.
  • Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo were two of
    the famous artists.
  • Wealthy merchant and clerical patrons liked the
    Medici's of Florence and the church contributed
    to the development of Renaissance art.

45
Giotto painted natural paintings of religious
scenes in which the characters displayed emotions
of either grief or love that the viewer could
identify. (not the stiff emotionless Byzantine
style)
46
Jan van Eyck was the first painter to use oil to
create very life-like scenes. The portrait of
the left is a self-portrait.
47
Leonardo da Vinci was a master of many media
designer, artist, and sculptor.
48
Two of Leonardo da Vincis works of art Mona
Lisa and the Vitruvian Man.
49
Michalangelos David is a masterpiece completed
in 1504 and the painting of the Sistine Chapel
ceiling is considered his crowing achievement
completed in 1512.
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IV. Political and Military Transformations
  • A. Monarchs, Nobles, and the Clergy
  • 13th century European states were ruled by weak
    monarchs whose power was limited.
  • The armor piercing crossbow and firearms led to
    the demise of knights.
  • Philip the Fair of France reduced the power of
    the church when he arrested the pope and had a
    new French one installed in Avignon.
  • The Magna Carta limited the power of the English
    King.
  • Monarchs and nobles often entered into marriage
    alliances and these led to wars and the
    establishment of territorial boundaries.

51
Philip the Fair of France reduced the power of
the church when he arrested the pope and had a
new French pope installed in Avignon, France.
52
With an iron tipped arrow, the crossbow could
pierce armor. In 1139 it was outlawed because it
was considered too deadly to be used against
Christians.
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Magna Carta (Great Charter) affirmed that
monarchs were subject to established law. It is
one of the foundations of modern-day democracy.
54
Depiction of King John signing the Magna Carta
under duress.
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  • B. Hundred Years War, 1337-1453
  • Pitted England against France when Edward III
    claimed the French throne in 1337.
  • War was fought with new military technology.
    (pikes, cannon, crossbows, longbows, and
    firearms)
  • The French superior cannon destroyed the castles
    of the English and their allies and left the
    French monarchy in a stronger position than
    before.

56
Land that was disputed during the Hundred Years
War. It grew out of the marriage alliance of
Edward II of England and Isabella of France.
57
King Henry V at the battle of Agincourt. The
longbow allowed the outnumbered English to crush
the French knights.
58
Joan of Arc, the heroine of France, rallied the
French to defeat the English to end the Hundred
Years War in 1429. Burned at the stake in 1431
for being a witch.
59
English longbow could outshoot the crossbow.
Changed armor technology which made knights
unable to maneuver once they had been un-horsed.
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  • C. New Monarchies in France and England
  • New monarchies that emerged out of the hundreds
    years war had stronger central governments, more
    stable national boundaries, and stronger
    representative institutions.
  • The castle and knight had become outdated.
  • Monarchs began to tax land, merchants, and the
    church.
  • By the end of 15th century power had shifted from
    the church and nobility toward the monarchs, but
    monarchs in England were still hemmed in by
    Parliament and in France the Estates General.

61
Parliament was a permanent fixture in the English
government by 1500.
62
The French Estates General which was less
effective than the English Parliament.
63
  • D. Iberian Unification
  • The reconquest of Spain by Christians over
    Muslims took several centuries.
  • Portugal was established in 1249, but by 1415
    they had captured the Moroccan port of Ceuta,
    which gave them access to the trans-Saharan
    trade.
  • Castile and Aragon were united in 1469 and by
    1492 they drove the Muslims out of their last
    Iberian stronghold (Granada).
  • Spain and Portugal then expelled all Jews and
    Muslims from their territory.

64
Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the
Moors.
65
Depiction of el Cid, one of the famous Spanish
knight that led the reconquest.
66
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella completed the
conquest of Spain in 1492. They also sponsored
the voyages of Columbus.
67
Muslim palace in Granada which was the last
Muslim stronghold to fall into Spanish hands
during the reconquest.
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V. Comparative Perspectives
  • A. Growth Comparisons
  • The empires of Islamic Africa and Asia developed
    through distant trade networks in the Indian
    Ocean.
  • The city-states and nations of Europe arose from
    trade throughout the Mediterranean and North Seas.

69
  • B. Cultural and Technological Comparisons
  • From 1200-1500, long distance trade fostered
    learning and cultural exchanges as well as trade
    in goods.
  • The medieval Latin West had depended upon the
    East for its commercial well-being, then made use
    of the technology borrowed form the East to
    expand its own influences into new frontiers.
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