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Chapter 11 The Civil War


How did each side's resources and strategies affect the early battles of the war? ... December 15 Army of the Potomac retreated back to Washington in disgrace ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 11 The Civil War

Chapter 11The Civil War
  • 1861-1865

The Civil War
  • Section 1
  • Resources, Strategies, and
  • Early Battles
  • How did each sides resources and strategies
    affect the early battles of the war?

Union and Confederate Resources
  • Advantages of the Union
  • Population
  • _______________________________________
  • _______________________________________
  • Industry
  • Coal iron
  • Factories to produce weapons, ammunition,
    uniforms, medical supplies, railroad cars

Union and Confederate Resources
  • Union had a navy
  • By late 1861 Union had launched over 250 warships
    with more under construction
  • Navy used to ____________ southern ports
    prevented merchants ships from entering or
    leaving southern ports

Union and Confederate Resources
  • Advantages of the Confederacy
  • Psychological many northerners willing to let
    the South and slavery go preserving the Union
    not worth dying for
  • __________________________________________________
  • _________________________________________

Union and Confederate Resources
  • Advantages of the Confederacy
  • ____________________________________
  • ____________________________________
  • ____________________________________

Confederate and Union Strategies
  • Confederacy sought foreign support
  • Militarily preserve armies to wear down Union
  • Politically win diplomatic recognition from
    Britain and France
  • South needed manufactured goods from Europe
  • Europe needed southern cotton
  • England France might give military help to the

Confederate and Union Strategies
  • Union Anaconda Plan
  • Devised by Winfield Scott
  • ______________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • South would be squeezed like by a snake

Confederate and Union Strategies
  • Lincoln Avoided Slavery Issue
  • Border States slave states that did not secede
  • _________________________________________
  • If they seceded Union could lose
  • __________________________________________________
  • I believe I have no lawful right to free the
    slaves, and I have no inclination to do so.
  • Border states remained in the Union

Early Battles
  • 1st Bull Run Manassas
  • General Irvin McDowell was sent with 35,000 Union
    troops to oppose 32,000 Confederate troops under
    Joseph Johnston July 21, 1861
  • Union had initial advantage attacking the
    Confederate left flank
  • Virginia brigade under Colonel Thomas J. Jackson
    stopped Union advance
  • Jacksons Virginians then led an attack on Union
  • Union forces were routed, ran back to Washington

Early Battles
  • General Barnard Bee to Colonel Jackson The
    Enemy are driving us!
  • Jackson Then sir, we will give them the
  • Bee There is Jackson standing like a stone
    wall. Let us determine to die here and we will
    conquer. Follow me.

1st Bull Run (Manassas)
  • Belligerents
  • United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy)
  • Commanders
  • Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T
    . Beauregard
  • Strength
  • 35,000 32,500
  • Casualties and losses
  • 2,896 1,982
  • (460 killed, 1,124 wounded (387 killed
    1,312captured/missing) 1,582 wounded 13

Fighting in Tennessee
  • After Bull Run, Lincoln fired McDowell and made
    General _________________________commander
  • McClellan organized the Army of the Potomac
  • In the West, _________________________started a
    campaign to capture the Mississippi River valley

Fighting in Tennessee
  • February 1862 Grant captured Fort Henry on the
    Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the
    Cumberland River drove Confederate forces from
    western Kentucky and Tennessee

Fighting in Tennessee
  • Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862
  • Confederate forces attacked Grants army on the
    Tennessee River in southwest Tennessee
  • On first day of the battle Confederates drove
    back Union forces to the river but suffered 8,500
    casualties, expected to finish Yankees off the
    next day.
  • 2nd day Grant attacked and defeated the Rebel
    forces bloodiest battle in U.S. history fought
    to that point nearly 24,000 killed, wounded,
    missing in two days

  • Belligerents
  • United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy)
  • Commanders
  • Ulysses S. Grant Albert Sidney Johnston
  • Don Carlos Buell   P.G.T. Beauregard
  • Strength
  • Army of the Tennessee (48,894) Army of
    Mississippi (44,699)
  • Army of the Ohio (17,918)
  • Casualties and losses
  • 13,047 10,699
  • (1,754 killed, 8,408 wounded (1,728 killed, 8,012
  • 2,885 captured/missing)  959 captured/missing)

  • Northern critics including newspapers demanded
    Lincoln fire Grant
  • ________________________________________
  • _________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________

Stalemate in the East
  • McClellan planned to attack south and capture
  • __________________________________________________
  • Lincoln wanted action

Stalemate in the East
  • McClellan commanded the Army of the Potomac to
    attack toward Richmond The Peninsula Campaign
    June-July 1862
  • Lee commanded the Army of Northern Virginia
    defeated Union forces inflicting almost 16,000
    casualties Lee lost 20,000 casualties

Stalemate in the East
  • __________________________________________________
  • Pope lost 2nd Battle of Bull Run, August 28-30,
    to Lee, 10,000 Union casualties
  • __________________________________________________
  • Lee continued north into Maryland to find
    supplies and gain recruits from the border state

The Civil War
  • Section 2
  • African Americans and the War
  • How did the Emancipation Proclamation and
    Lincolns political situation affect the course of
    the war?

Push for Emancipation
  • Abolitionists were impatient with Lincoln about
    his lack of action on slavery
  • Winning the war would not be enough for the North
    if the issue of slavery was not settled.
  • Lincoln disliked slavery
  • _________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________

Push for Emancipation
  • On battlefields runaway slaves crossing the lines
    to Union forces
  • Union General Benjamin Butler gathered former
    slaves and put them to work doing manual labor as
    contraband captured war supplies

Push for Emancipation
  • After Union failures on the battlefields of
    Virginia Lincoln knew he needed a victory or a
    declaration of emancipation would look like a
    desperation move
  • __________________________________________________

Battle of Antietam Creek (Sharpsburg)
  • On September 3, 1862 Lees 45,000 man Army of
    Northern Virginia entered Maryland
  • McClellan moved northwest from Washington with
    the 87,000 man Army of the Potomac
  • Citizens of Maryland did not rally to Lee as he
  • __________________________________________________

Antietam Creek
  • Union forces met the Confederate forces along
    Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg early on the
    morning September 17 th
  • __________________________________________________

Antietam Creek (Sharpsburg)
  • Belligerents
  • United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy)
  • Commanders
  • George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee
  • Strength
  • 87,000 45,000
  • Casualties and losses
  • 12,401 10,316
  • (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded (1,546 killed, 7,752
    wounded 753 captured/missing) 1,018

Antietam Creek
  • By the end of the day nearly 23,000 soldiers on
    both sides were dead, wounded, or missing
  • __________________________________________________
  • ___________________________________________
  • More Americans died on September 17, 1862 than on
    any other day in American military history more
    than World War IIs D-day or Sept. 11, 2001

  • After Antietam Lincoln decided he had the
    military victory he needed to proceed on the
    question of emancipating the slaves

  • September 22, 1862 Lincoln issued the
    Emancipation Proclamation as a military decree
  • Proclamation took effect January 1, 1863
  • __________________________________________________

  • Lincoln hoped some southern states might
    surrender before the deadline
  • Proclamation said nothing about slaves in slave
    states that were not in rebellion Delaware,
    Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri
  • Before the Proclamation, Congress passed the
    Militia Act allowing free blacks to join the

  • Many in the North responded to the EP with great
  • __________________________________________________
  • EP may have been a reason why Democrats made
    gains in the fall Congressional elections

Results of the Emancipation Proclamation
  • Redefined the purpose of the war the war was
    now about abolishing slavery
  • South was furious ______________________________

The Civil War
  • Section 3
  • Life During the War
  • How did the Civil War bring temporary and lasting
    changes to American society?

The Home Front in the North
  • War and the Northern economy
  • Paying to supply the Union military a major
    economic challenge
  • Union introduced a tax based on an individuals
    earnings an income tax
  • First tax was 3 on all income over 800
  • As War continued the tax was raised
  • Union also raised tariffs raised revenue and
    helped northern manufacturers

War and the Northern Economy
  • Biggest source of revenue was the sale of
    government bonds return of purchase price plus
    interest guaranteed by
  • the government
  • Union, and Confederacy sold
  • billions of dollars worth of
  • bonds to banks and
  • individuals
  • Purchasing bonds was seen as a sign of patriotism

The Home Front in the North
  • Foreign affairs during the War
  • At the outbreak of the war Britain attempted to
    maintain a strict neutrality between the Union
    and the Confederacy
  • At the time British textile mills had plenty of
    cotton from Egypt and India
  • Britain needed wheat and corn from Northern farms
  • The Confederacy needed help from Britain

The Trent Affair
  • In October 1861 two Confederate diplomats slipped
    through the Union blockade at Charleston to sail
    south to Cuba to meet a British ship to sail to
  • The diplomats were going to England and France to
    negotiate formal recognition of the Confederate
    States of America

The Trent Affair
  • November 8 USS San
  • Jacinto intercepted the
  • British ship RMS Trent
  • and captured the two
  • Confederate diplomats
  • Britain is outraged at the
  • action accuses U.S. of
  • violating British neutrality
  • Britain moved troops to Canada and war ships to
    the Western Atlantic

The Trent Affair
  • Americans upset after Bull Run celebrated the
    capture as a victory
  • Neither side wanted hostilities but Britain
    demanded an apology and release of the diplomats
    an affront to their honor
  • Lincoln realized he did not want to risk war with
    Britain, apologized and freed the diplomats

Conscription North South
  • Needing men to fight, both Union and Confederacy
    instituted conscription a draft to bring
    soldiers into the army
  • Confederate draft
  • Started in 1862
  • All able bodied white men aged 18 to 35
  • Those with money could escape the draft
  • Substitutes could be hired
  • Planters who owned 20 or more slaves were exempted

Conscription North South
  • Confederate draft (cont.)
  • Poor Confederates complained that it was a rich
    mans war but a poor mans fight.
  • 90 of eligible southern men served in the army

Conscription North South
  • Union Draft
  • Started in 1863
  • White men aged 20 to 45
  • Substitutes could be hired
  • Commutation (pay 300 to avoid conscription)
  • Only 46,000 draftees actually went into army
  • 92 of the army were volunteers
  • 180,000 African-Americans joined the army

Conscription North South
  • New York Draft Riots
  • Wages 2 per day, draft fell on recent Irish
    immigrants with low paying jobs
  • Working men resented rich being able to pay to
    avoid the draft
  • Angry at having to fight to free slaves

Conscription North South
  • New York Draft Riots
  • Working men also worried about losing their jobs
    to African-Americans who were not subject to the
  • July 1863 four days of riots in New York
  • Attacked rich looking men, African-Americans
  • Union troops called in
  • More than 100 dead

Lincoln Deals with Dissent
  • One week after Fort Sumter, Lincoln sent troops
    to Baltimore when crowds attacked moving army
  • Suspended habeas corpus protection from being
    jailed without a charge in Maryland
  • Arrested public officials who dissented with war
  • 1862 Lincoln suspended habeas corpus nationally
  • Jailed over 13,000 suspected Confederate
  • Seized telegraph offices, ignored Supreme Court
    rulings against his actions

Lincoln Deals with Dissent
  • Those arrested included Copperheads Northern
    Democrats who advocated peace with the South
  • Wore lady liberty part of copper pennies as
    pins to signify their opposition to the war
  • Jefferson Davis at first denounced Lincolns
    actions but suspended habeas corpus soon after

Women and the War
  • When men left for war women took over family
    businesses, farms
  • With men away so long, women made advances in
    jobs previously dominated by men teaching
  • Women in nursing developed during the war
  • Clara Barton traveled with Union Army giving
    care to sick and wounded of both sides

War in the East
  • Late 1862, Lincoln replaced McClellan with
    General Ambrose Burnside because McClellan did
    not pursue Lee after Antietam
  • Well liked bad choice
  • Hesitated to take the command
  • Like McClellan, he tended to hesitate rather than

Battle of Fredericksburg
  • Burnsides plan A late fall offensive
  • Move the Army of the Potomac south and cross the
    Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg, Va.
  • Attack Richmond down the Fredericksburg-Richmond

Battle of Fredericksburg
  • Army of the Potomac marched south on November 15
    and arrived on the river opposite Fredericksburg
    two days later
  • Army needed pontoons to make bridges to cross the
  • Pontoons did not arrive until December 11

Battle of Fredericksburg
  • Lees army was not at Fredericksburg when the
    Union army arrived
  • While Burnside waited for pontoons Lee assembled
    his army and dug in on Maryess Heights,
    overlooking the town
  • Lees artillery able to prepare for the assault
    up the heights

Battle of Fredericksburg
  • Main battle started at 100 AM, December 13 with
    Union forces beginning to attack up Maryes
  • 6 Divisions of Union troops tried 16 charges all
    of which failed
  • 6,000 8,000 Union casualties
  • Sleet storm in the evening with dead and wounded
    still on the hill

Battle of Fredericksburg
  • Aftermath
  • Armies waited in position on December 14
  • Burnside considered personally leading one more
    attack was convinced not to
  • December 15 Army of the Potomac retreated back to
    Washington in disgrace

Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
  • Professor of rhetoric and classical languages at
    Bowdoin College, Maine
  • Graduate of Bangor Theological Seminary
  • Joined the army at the beginning of the war
  • Commander of 20th Maine Infantry Regiment at

The Civil War
  • Section 4
  • Turning Points of the War
  • How did the battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg
    change the course of the Civil War?

Vicksburg March-July 1863
  • Anaconda plan depended on control of the
    Mississippi river and cutting the South in half
  • Vicksburg, Mississippi was the key to controlling
    the Mississippi River
  • Vicksburg fortress high above the river lots
    of artillery to fire at ships on the water or
    armies trying to capture the city.

  • Admiral David Farragut tried to assault the city
    from the River but the attack was defeated
  • General Grant tried digging a canal so that Union
    ships could bypass the Confederate Batteries

  • Spring 1863 Grant marched his troops through
    Louisiana to the south of Vicksburg
  • Had his cavalry attack rail lines in Mississippi
    to draw Confederate attention away from Vicksburg
  • April 20 Grant sent 20,000 men northeast to
    capture the state capital of Jackson, Mississippi
  • Then the army turned west towards Vicksburg with
    the city completely cut off

  • Grant tried two direct attacks on Vicksburg
    failed to break the defenses
  • On May 22 Grant
  • placed Vicksburg
  • under siege army
  • surrounds, bombards,
  • and cuts off all
  • supplies to an enemy
  • position to force a surrender

  • Union artillery
  • bombarded the city
  • for over a month
  • Citizens dug caves
  • in the hills of the city and lived there
  • On July 4th Confederate commander, General
    Pemberton, surrendered the city to General Grant
  • Union now controlled the entire Mississippi

  • Belligerents
  • United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy)
  • Commanders
  • Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton 
  • Strength
  • 77,000 33,000
  • Casualties and losses
  • 4,835 32,697
  • (29,495 surrendered)

Turning Point in the East
  • Chancellorsville
  • After Fredericksburg, Lincoln replaced Burnside
    with Fighting Joe Hooker
  • Lee moved his army to meet Hooker at
    Chancellorsville overwhelming victory for Lee
  • Stonewall Jackson accidentally shot by rebel
    troops, died of pneumonia a few days later

  • Lee wanted to draw troops away from Vicksburg,
    sensed an opportunity to invade the North, attack
    Harrisburg and Philadelphia, gain foreign
    support, win the war
  • General George Meade new commander of Army of
    the Potomac pursued Lee north into Pennsylvania

  • On July 1, 1863 some of Lees army, looking for
    shoes ran into Union cavalry west of Gettysburg,
  • Confederate forces were reinforced, pushed the
    Union forces back to the south of the town onto
    higher ground.
  • Lee ordered his commander to continue to push the
    Union forces
  • back but General
  • Ewell did not
  • attack

  • July 2, Lee ordered Longstreet to move to the
    south and attack the Union left and capture two
    hills Big and Little Round Top
  • Union at first left the Round Tops undefended
    then rushed troops including 20th Maine Infantry
    and Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain to defend
  • 20th Maine was left end of the Union Line,
    endured multiple attacks by 15th Alabama infantry

  • After 3-4 hours of fighting 20th Maine ran out of
    ammunition, lost 30 of their men
  • Chamberlain ordered a bayonet charge as the
    Confederates charged,
  • took rebels by surprise
  • Chamberlain wounded, awarded the Congressional
    Medal of Honor

  • July 3 Lee believed he could still defeat the
  • He had attacked to his left, he had attacked the
    right now he believed he could attack the center
  • At 100 PM Confederate artillery started a 2 hour
    bombardment with 170 cannons largest artillery
    barrage of the war

  • At 300 Longstreets I Corps 12,500 men
    including General
  • George Picketts
  • division started
  • across 1 mile wheat
  • field and up
  • Cemetery Ridge
  • The attack, called
  • Picketts Charge,
  • was driven back with over 50 casualties

  • Army of Northern Virginia suffered a crushing
  • Lee withdrew back to Virginia
  • Meade does not pursue
  • Southern armies never again invade the North

  • Belligerents
  • United States (Union) CSA(Confederacy)
  • Commanders
  • George G. Meade Robert E. Lee
  • Strength
  • 93,921 71,699
  • Casualties and losses
  • 23,055 23,231
  • (3,155 killed (4,708 killed
  • 14,531 wounded 12,693 wounded
  • 5,369 captured/missing) 5,830 captured/missing)

  • Largest battle ever fought in the Western
  • About 165,000 soldiers took part in the battle
  • Over 46,000 casualties on both sides
  • From July 3, 1863 to the end of the war in April
    1865 the Confederacy would fight a losing
    defensive war

Lincoln Honors the Dead
  • November 1863 Lincoln came to Gettysburg to
    dedicate a new cemetery
  • Not the featured speaker Edward Everett spoke
    for nearly 2 hours
  • Lincolns Gettysburg Address lasted less than
    two minutes
  • Has come to be recognized as one of the most
    enduring statements of American values
  • Four score and seven years ago

The Union Presses the Advantage
  • After Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Lincoln fired Meade
  • Grant called east to take command of the army
  • Grant took the Army of the Potomac and drove
    south against Lee towards Richmond
  • Grant continued to attack Lee horrifying losses
    but Lees army weakened faster

The Union Presses the Advantage
  • Shermans March
  • Started from Chattanooga with 60,000 men in May
  • Drove south through Atlanta to Savannah
  • When Atlanta was evacuated Sherman ordered it
  • Sherman and Grant fought total war striking
    civilian as well as military targets

The Union Presses the Advantage
  • Goals of total war
  • Strike military and civilian targets
  • Destroy materials and crops that enemy forces
    might be able to use
  • Destroy railroads
  • and factories to
  • damage local economy
  • Break the peoples will
  • to continue fighting

Election of 1864
  • Difficult campaign for Lincoln
  • Military winning battles but the cost was high
  • Republicans said Lincoln grabbing too much
  • Democrats wanted to stop the fighting
  • Democrats nominated General George McClellan
  • Lincoln won the election with 55 of the popular
    vote, 212 out of 233 electoral votes

The Civil War
  • Section 5
  • The Wars End and Impact
  • What was the final outcome and impact of the
    American Civil War?

Wars Final Days
  • Grant continued to engage Lee with the goal of
    wearing down the southern army and capturing
  • __________________________________________________
  • In the siege Union forces lost 50,000 casualties
    and the Confederates lost 28,000 but the
    Confederates had no replacements

Wars Final Days
  • In February 1865 a party led by the Confederate
    Vice President met with President Lincoln to try
    to negotiate an end to the war
  • Congress had recently proposed the Thirteenth
    Amendment to the Constitution which would outlaw
  • Confederate peace delegation was unwilling to
    accept being part of the Union if the Thirteenth
    amendment passed

Wars Final Days
  • By 1865 Lincoln was confident of Union victory
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________

Wars Final Days
  • On March 4, 1865 Lincoln stated his aims in his
    second inaugural address which concluded
  • With malice toward none, with charity for all,
    with firmness in the right as God gives us to see
    the right, let us strive on to finish the work we
    are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care
    for him who shall have borne the battle and for
    his widow and his orphan, to do all which may
    achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace
    among ourselves and with all nations.

Wars Final Days
  • On March 25 Lees army tried to break out of the
    siege and join other Rebel forces in North
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________

Lees Surrender
  • By April 8 Lees Army of Northern Virginia was
    suffering from lack of food, exhausted from
    constant attacks by Union forces
  • Confederates were trapped at Appomattox

Lees Surrender
  • On April 9 Lee sent word to Grant that he was
    prepared to surrender his army
  • __________________________________________________

Lees Surrender
  • General Grant selected Major General Joshua
    Lawrence Chamberlain to accept the formal
    surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia
  • Chamberlain ordered his men to stand at attention
    and pay respect to the surrendering Confederates

Lincoln is Assassinated
  • On the evening of April 14 Lincoln and his wife
    attended a play at Fords Theater
  • John Wilkes Booth an actor and Confederate
    sympathizer snuck into the presidential box and
    shot Lincoln in the back of the head
  • Jumped onto the stage and shouted Sic semper
    tyrannis! (Thus ever to tyrants.)

Lincoln is Assassinated
  • Lincoln was carried out of the Theater and across
    the street to a boarding house where he died the
    next morning at 722

Lincoln is Assassinated
  • Booth became the target of a massive manhunt
  • It was discovered that Booth led a conspiracy to
    murder not only Lincoln but the Vice President
    and the Secretary of State
  • April 26 Booth was trapped in a barn and shot by
    federal soldiers

Lincoln is Assassinated
  • The assassination plotters hoped to cause panic
    in the North giving the South a chance to regroup
    and keep fighting
  • Four conspirators were tried and hanged

Why the North Won
  • South began the war with confidence, better
    military leadership and determination to defend
    their land
  • North able to concentrate greater technology,
    larger population, more abundant resources
  • North also found military expertise in Grant and
  • North also had steady leadership of Lincoln who
    managed to keep the Union together and focused on
    its purpose

Cost of the War
  • 10,455 Engagements
  • Nearly 1.1 million casualties
  • About 583,000 dead due to combat and disease
  • About 471,000 wounded
  • About 2.9 billion
  • By 1906 another 3.3 billion spent on Northern
    Army veterans pensions and benefits

Wars Lasting Impact
  • Civil War ushered in modern war
  • First time citizens saw the results of war
    through photos of journalists such as Mathew Brady

Wars Effect on Society
  • South was destroyed
  • Soldiers came home to total destruction
  • Defeat shook their beliefs to the core
  • African-Americans were disoriented but had a
    sense of hope
  • But during Reconstruction many blacks found that
    the promise was not to be fulfilled easily

Wars Effect on Society
  • Sectional differences remained but never again
    threatened the Union
  • Debate over states rights did not end but the
    war cemented federal authority
  • Federal government came to play a larger role in
    citizens lives
  • Citizens began to see themselves less as the
    citizen of a state and more as a citizen of the
    United States
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