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The Kennedy and Johnson Years Chapter 28

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Title: The Kennedy and Johnson Years Chapter 28


1
The Kennedy and Johnson YearsChapter 28
  • How did the policies of Presidents Kennedy and
    Johnson affect the nation?

2
1960s
3
Standards
  • SSUSH20.c
  • Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs
    and the Cuban missile crisis.
  • SSUSH23
  • The student will describe and assess the impact
    of political developments between 1945-1970.
  • SSUSH23.a
  • Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of
    individual rights as seen in the Miranda
    decision.
  • SSUSH23.b
  • Describe the political impact of the
    assassination of President John F. Kennedy
    including the impact on Civil Rights legislation.
  • SSUSH23.c
  • Explain Lyndon Johnson's Great Society including
    the establishment of Medicare.
  • SSUSH23.d
  • Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968
    to include the assassinations of Martin Luther
    King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events
    surrounding the Democratic National Convention.

4
Kennedy and the Cold WarSection 1
  • How did Kennedy respond to the continuing
    challenges of the Cold War?
  • Vocabulary
  • -John F. Kennedy Bay of Pigs
  • -Richard M. Nixon Nikita Khrushchev
  • -Fidel Castro hot line
  • -Cuban missile crisis flexible
    response
  • -Alliance for Progress Peace Corps
  • -Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Berlin Wall

5
Sec 1 Kennedy and the Cold War
Kennedy and the Cold War
Kennedy Defeats Nixon in 1960   Main Idea
Televised debates played a large role in Kennedy
winning the 1960 presidential election. Kennedy
Launches New Cold War Strategies Main Idea To
fight the Cold War, Kennedy worked on building
the nations military and establishing programs
to help third world countries. Confronting
Communism in Cuba Main Idea A standoff between
the United States and the Soviet Union occurred
when the CIA discovered that the Soviet Union was
building nuclear missile sites in Cuba.
Ultimately, nuclear war was avoided. The Berlin
Crisis Main Idea Tension between Kennedy and
Soviet leader Khrushchev over the division of
Germany led to the construction of the Berlin
Wall separating East and West Berlin.
6
Election of 1960
  • John F. Kennedy Democrat
  • Richard Nixon Republican
  • TV debate Nixon looked tired Kennedy had
    make-up, looking tanned
  • Close margin Kennedy won, but no mandate
  • Debates are now very important part of campaign
  • Energetic administration buoyant, energetic,
    and full of optimism

7
Chart The Presidential Election of 1960
The Presidential Election of 1960
CHART
8
Cold War Strategies
  • Building the Nations Military flexible
    response conventional and special warfare
  • New Initiatives in the Third World
  • Developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin
    America not aligned with the U.S. or the Soviets

9
Kennedys Foreign Policy
  • Kennedys presidency was filled with ambitious
    international programs and dangerous cold war
    crises.

1961 Peace Corps est. Sends Volunteers around
the world to help developing nations
  • JFKs FOREIGN POLICY GOALS
  • Reduce risk of nuclear war
  • Encourage countries to ally themselves with the US

1961 Alliance for Progress Provides money for
economic development and social reform throughout
Latin America
1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty US and Soviet
Union agree to ban all above ground nuclear
testing
10
Kennedys Hopes
  • Alliance for Progress, 20 billion over ten years
    to be spent in Western Hemisphere
  • Peace Corps, send volunteers abroad as educators,
    health workers, and technicians

11
Kennedys Foreign Policy
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • Berlin Crisis
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

12
Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • CIA trained Cuban opponents of Castro
  • April 17, 1961, invasion was a disaster
  • U.S. exposed for trying to overthrow a government
  • Kennedy appeared to lack leadership

13
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
  • Soviets built missile bases in Cuba
  • Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine
  • Soviets promised to remove the missiles if the
    U.S. would stop the quarantine, remove missiles
    from Turkey and Italy, and stay out of Cuba
  • Khrushchev called the ships back and removed the
    missiles
  • Established a hot line between the leaders

14
Transparency Political Cartoons The Cuban
Missile Crisis
Political Cartoons The Cuban Missile Crisis
TRANSPARENCY
15
Quick Study Effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis
Effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis
QUICK STUDY
16
Berlin Crisis
  • Khrushchev demanded that the U.S. get out of West
    Berlin
  • Kennedy increased military spending
  • Soviets built the Berlin Wall in 1961 to stop
    East Germans from coming to the West
  • Kennedy sent 1500 soldiers to West Berlin

17
(No Transcript)
18
Peace Efforts
  • Hot line established between U.S. and Soviets
  • Limited Test Ban Treaty banned nuclear testing
    above ground to reduce radioactive fallout
    permitted underground testing

19
Note Taking Reading Skill Understand Effects
Reading Skill Understand Effects
NOTE TAKING
20
Comparing Viewpoints How Should the United
States Fight the Cold War?
COMPARING VIEWPOINTS
How Should the United States Fight the Cold War?
21
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 1
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
22
Kennedys New FrontierSection 2
  • What were the goals of Kennedys New Frontier?
  • Vocabulary
  • -New Frontier space race
  • -Equal Pay Act Warren Commission
  • -deficit spending

23
Sec 2 The Ford and Carter Years
Kennedys New Frontier
The Kennedy Style Main Idea John Kennedy had
charisma that appealed to the American people and
he promised to improve society when he was
elected President. Kennedys Domestic
Program Main Idea While in office, Kennedy
worked to stimulate the economy, improve civil
rights, and advance space exploration. The
President Is Assassinated Main Idea In November
of 1963, John Kennedy was assassinated while
campaigning for reelection.
24
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
25
Kennedys Domestic Programs
  • New Frontier Kennedys proposals to improve the
    economy, give aid to the poor, improve the space
    program
  • Economy Stock market dropped Kennedy called for
    tax reduction John Maynard Keynes, an economist,
    advocated deficit spending to stimulate economy
  • Poverty and inequality wanted to improve
    education and medical care for the aged plans
    failed in Congress raised minimum wage
  • Twenty-fourth Amendment passed by Congress
    ratified in 1966 no poll tax to vote Kennedy
    moved cautiously on civil rights
  • Space program space race - man on the moon by
    1970

26
The Space Program
  • 1959, seven pilots chosen for Mercury program
  • Yuri Gagarin of USSR orbited Earth
  • Alan Shepard, John Glenn
  • Goal was to put a man on the moon

27
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
28
Transparency The Kennedy Years
The Kennedy Years
TRANSPARENCY
29
Kennedys Assassination
  • Nov. 22, 1963, Dallas, Texas
  • Lee Harvey Oswald, accused of the murder
  • Lyndon Johnson sworn in as President on Air Force
    One
  • Oswald is killed on live TV by Jack Ruby, a
    nightclub owner Ruby dies in prison
  • Warren Commission investigates the assassination
    and concludes that Oswald committed the crime
    alone

30
Kennedys Assassination
31
Assassination of JFK
32
Assassination of JFK
33
JFKs Funeral
34
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 2
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
35
Kennedys Success?
  • Improve the Economy
  • Investigation of US Steel
  • Worried about inflation and price fixing
  • Big business remained angry with JFK
  • Give Aid to the Poor and Minorities
  • Michael Harringtons The Other Half
  • Increased minimum wage, passed the Housing Act of
    1961, passed the 24th Amendment
  • Space Program
  • Dedicated to the first man on the moon (1969)
  • Little Success with Congress-Why?

36
Johnsons Great SocietySection 3
  • How did Johnsons Great Society programs change
    life for most Americans?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Lyndon B. Johnson Medicare
  • -Civil Rights Act Medicaid
  • -War on Poverty Warren Court
  • -Great Society
  • -Economic Opportunity Act
  • -Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

37
Sec 3 Johnsons Great Society
Johnsons Great Society
Johnsons Rise to Leadership   Main Idea After
Johnson became President, he continued to promote
many of Kennedys ideas including declaring war
on poverty and getting the Civil Rights Act
passed. The Great Society Main Idea Johnson
had plans to better the lives of Americans, which
included legislation to improve healthcare and
education, plans to protect the environment and
the consumer, and policy changes that allowed
more immigrants to enter the country. The
Supreme Court and Reform Main Idea During the
1960s the Supreme Court acted liberally in its
rulings on many controversial social and
political issues, such as voting rights, the
constitutional rights of lawbreakers, and school
prayer. Continued
38
Lyndon Johnson
  • Senator from Texas
  • Kennedys Vice President in 1960
  • Oversees passage of Kennedys civil rights and
    tax-cut bills War on Poverty
  • Great Society
  • Election of 1964 Johnson won against Barry
    Goldwater

39
Lyndon Baines Johnson
  • Building a Great Society
  • Kennedys Tax-Cut Bill
  • War on Poverty
  • Economic Opportunity Act 1964
  • VISTA
  • Dept. HUD
  • Aid to Education
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965
  • Medicare and Medicaid
  • Immigration Reform
  • Eliminated strict quotas left from the 20s and 30s
  • Effects of the Great Society
  • Too many tax dollars being spent on the poor
  • Too much authority in the hands of the government
  • Poverty rate was cut in half

40
Johnsons Foreign Policy
  • Dominican Republic, 1965, 22,000 Marines sent to
    stop a revolt
  • Vietnam, 16,000 military advisers there In 1965,
    Johnson sent more troops and money to prop up the
    South Vietnamese government

41
Chart War on Poverty
War on Poverty
CHART
42
Election of 1964
  • Lyndon Johnson Democrat
  • Barry Goldwater Republican
  • Johnsons TV ad convinced Americans that
    Goldwater would start a nuclear war
  • Johnson won by a landslide

43
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
44
Effects of the Great Society
  • Raised expectations and led to disillusionment
  • Some felt too much money spent on poor
  • War in Vietnam drained country

45
Supreme Court Cases of the 1960s
  • Mapp v. Ohio (1961) evidence seized illegally
    can not be used in a trial
  • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) suspects in criminal
    cases who can not afford a lawyer have the right
    to free legal aid
  • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) accused individuals
    have to be given access to an attorney while
    being questioned
  • Miranda v. Arizona ( 1966) police must inform
    accused persons that they have the right to
    remain silent, that anything they say can be used
    against them in court, that they have a right to
    an attorney, and that if they cannot afford an
    attorney one will be appointed for them

46
Congressional Reapportionment
  • Apportionment the distribution of a legislative
    bodys seats among electoral districts
  • Baker v. Carr (1962) congressional districts
    had to be apportioned on the basis of one
    person, one vote.

47
Transparency The Warren Court
The Warren Court
TRANSPARENCY
48
Transparency Head Start
Head Start
TRANSPARENCY
49
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 3
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
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