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Unit 8: Lecture 4 Anti-War Movements


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Title: Unit 8: Lecture 4 Anti-War Movements

Unit 8 Lecture 4Anti-War Movements Other
Civil Rights Movements
  • Feminist Movement
  • Chicano Movement
  • LGBT Movement

Chapter 161960s Counterculture the Anti-War
The Anti-War Movement
  • When the war in Vietnam began, many Americans
    believed that defending South Vietnam from
    communist aggression was in the national
    interest. Communism was threatening free
    governments across the globe. Any sign of
    non-intervention from the United States might
    encourage revolutions elsewhere.
  • As the war dragged on, more and more Americans
    grew weary of mounting casualties and escalating
    costs. The small antiwar movement grew into an
    unstoppable force, pressuring American leaders to
    reconsider its commitment
  • The Cold War turned hot in Vietnam, and it along
    with a conservative U.S. government represented
    something that Americas youth was ready to let
    go of. Combined with the changing counterculture
    Americas values were shifting into something

What was the Counterculture
  • The 1960s were a period when long-held values and
    norms of behavior seemed to break down,
    particularly among the young. Many college-age
    men and women became political activists and were
    the driving force behind the civil rights and
    antiwar movements. Other young people simply
    dropped out and separated themselves from
    mainstream culture through their appearance and
    lifestyle. Attitudes toward sexuality appeared to
    loosen, and women began to openly protest the
    traditional roles of housewife and mother that
    society had assigned to them.
  • How did it start?
  • The post WWII Baby Boomers filled College
    Campuses and questioned the traditional ideas
    about American culture from fashion to politics
    to relationships.
  • Inspired by the beat movement emphasizing freedom
    from materialism, the Civil Rights Movement
    pushed idea of social political protest, the
    Vietnam Anti-War movement united a generation of
    young Americans

Who were the hippies and what did they want?
  • The term hippy comes from being hip You were
    either hip and broke traditional ways of living
    in American or you were a square conservative
    American, or a pigpolice.
  • A generation of Americans who rejected
    established institutions, criticized middle class
    values, opposed nuclear weapons and the Vietnam
    War, embraced aspects of Eastern philosophy,
    championed sexual liberation, were often
    vegetarian and eco-friendly, promoted the use of
    psychedelic drugs which they believed expanded
    one's mind.
  • Hippies wanted to distance themselves from
    mainstream ways of life.
  • They discarded possessions and often lived in
    parks or campsites in the woods.
  • Living like this made them feel free
  • Nudity was another form of freedom

What did people experience if they were apart of
the counterculture?
  • Communes
  • Shared responsibility
  • Rural living
  • Free Love Birth Control Pill
  • No STDs

What were the negative or dangerous aspects of
  • Drugs like marijuana and LSD were a big part of
    the hippy/counterculture movement.
  • Using drugs made hippies feel like the were
    rebelling from mainstream society.
  • People thought drugs were a way to expand the
    potential of the human mind to see the world in a
    new way.
  • Americans did not know that drugs were physically
    damaging, literally frying their brains.

What were the negative or dangerous aspects of
  • LSD Acid was created by a Swiss scientist, to
    be used as a blood stimulant, it was found to
    produce intense hallucinations. Psychiatrists
    thought the drug could be used to treat people
    with anxiety or depression.
  • Timothy Leary (a Harvard professor of psychology)
    was an advocate of LSD.
  • turn on to our way of living, tune in to what
    were saying and drop out of what society says
    you should be doing.
  • The CIA also experimented with the drug to test
    its use as a weapon before it became illegal.

The Place to be the Thing to do
  • Hippies distanced themselves from mainstream
    culture by their dress.
  • Colorful, flowing clothing, beads, headbands
    bellbottoms, and tie-dye were popular.
  • Men wore their hair and beards long or in afros.
  • Hippies were often called longhairs
  • San Francisco was the birthplace of the
    counterculture/hippy movement.
  • By 1965 hippies had taken over the Haight
    Ashbury district.
  • Haight Ashbury district contains Golden Gate
    Park home of the Trips Festival and be-ins.

Hippie Music
  • The most popular music of the time was
    psychedelic rock
  • Bands like Jefferson Airplane, Quicksilver
    Messenger Service, the Jimi Hendrix Experience
    and the Grateful Dead played free concerts at
    Golden Gate Park.
  • Concerts and be-ins were places for hippies to
    protest, socialize, dance, or take drugs.
  • At Woodstock over 250,000 hippies showed up to
    hear artists like Janis Joplin, The Who, Canned
    Heat, The Allman Brothers, and County Joe and the
  • Woodstock was not just a music concert. For
    thousands who couldnt even hear the music it
    was a profound religious experience.
  • Meager resources were shared with everyone.
  • Many people at Woodstock used illegal drugs

How did the counterculture become political?
  • Youth International Party Yippies
  • encouraged young people to get involved and
    influence politics, not just complain about it.
  • Founded by Abbie Hoffman Jerry Rubin
  • A Yippie flag was designed and was frequently
    seen at anti-war demonstrations
  • Not taken seriously
  • Most ignored the Yippies for their street theater
    press conferences and politically themes pranks
    designed solely to gather publicity.

Legacy of the counterculture
  • How did the counter culture impact Americans in
    the 1960s?
  • It was a failed cultural experiment, which left
    an entire generation proud of the social changes
    they accomplish scarred by effects of drugs
  • Why did the Counter Culture fall apart?
  • The self destructive excesses of the counter
    culture and its lack of focus on a common vision
    led to its disintegration

Who led the Anti-War Movement?
  • Peace Movement mainly attracted middle-class
    college students.
  • However, people were against the war for a
    variety of reasons.
  • Chemicals used in Saturation bombing was harmful
    to the Environment
  • Some believe the U.S. was being hypocritical not
    letting a Communist leader Ho Chi Minh be elected
    by the people of Vietnam.
  • Some disagreed with the government spending money
    to support a War instead of further Great
    Society programs that could have helped
  • PEACE MOVEMENT leaders opposed the war on moral
    and economic grounds. The North Vietnamese, they
    argued, were fighting a patriotic war to rid
    themselves of foreign aggressors. Innocent
    Vietnamese peasants were being killed in the
    crossfire. American planes wrought environmental
    damage by dropping their defoliating chemicals.

How did the War become such a bitter issue that
divided the nation?
  • The Draft another major source of resentment
    among college students. The age of the average
    American soldier serving in Vietnam was 19, seven
    years younger than its World War II counterpart.
    Students observed that young Americans were
    legally old enough to fight and die, but were not
    permitted to vote or drink alcohol. Such
    criticism led to the 26TH AMENDMENT, which
    granted suffrage to 18-year-olds.
  • Because DRAFT DEFERMENTS were granted to college
    students, meaning you would not be drafted if you
    could afford to go to college.
  • About 80 percent of American ground troops in
    Vietnam came from the lower classes. Latino and
    African American males were assigned to combat
    more regularly than drafted white Americans.

Protest for Peace
  • Antiwar demonstrations were few at first,
  • As the Johnson Administration escalated the
    commitment, the peace movement grew.
  • Television changed many minds. Millions of
    Americans watched body bags leave the Asian rice
    paddies every night in their living rooms.
  • The late 1960s became increasingly radical as the
    activists felt their demands were ignored.
    Peaceful demonstrations turned violent. When the
    police arrived to arrest protesters, the crowds
    often retaliated. Students occupied buildings
    across college campuses forcing many schools to
    cancel classes. Roads were blocked and ROTC
    buildings were burned.

Give Peace a Chance
  • At KENT STATE UNIVERSITY, students rioted in
    protest. The burned down the ROTC building
    located on campus, and destroyed local property.
    The governor of Ohio sent the National Guard to
    maintain order. A state of high tension and
    confusion hung between the Guard and the
    students. Several soldiers fired their rifles,
    leading to deaths of four students and the
    wounding of several others. This became known as
    the Kent State massacre.
  • Despite the growing antiwar movement, a silent
    majority of Americans still supported the Vietnam
    effort. Many admitted that involvement was a
    mistake, but military defeat was unthinkable.

Chicano Movement
Mexican American Movement
  • Issues
  • Cultural Identity
  • United Farm Workers César Chávez
  • Fighting Discrimination in Schools
  • What is a Chicano?
  • Chicano Someone who seeks to give Mexican
    Americans/latinos a fresh identity combining the
    elements of the ethnic/cultural identity with
    their status as American citizens.

What was the focus of Chicano movement?
  • Preserving and celebrating Cultural Identity
  • Who did it effect?
  • Latinos Peoples family origins are in
    Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries.
  • These peoples are from various countries, but
    share the same language, and some elements of
  • Activists encouraged the rejection of cultural
  • (Trying to fit in with White American culture)
  • Speaking only English
  • Not learning traditions or history of your ethnic

What organizations emerged to fight for change?
  • There was no Mexican American organization
    equivalent of the National Association for the
    Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) or the
    National Urban League no Mexican American
    colleges and virtually no financial or other
    help from outside the community itself.
  • Individual figures and communities organized and
    protested for change on specific issues that most
    greatly impacted them locally as opposed to
  • Nations Counsel La Raza traces its origins to
    the civil rights movement of the 1960s, as well
    as to previous efforts that preceded World War
    II, such as those related to early school and
    housing desegregation.
  • Although Hispanics participated in both
    movements, they did not gain widespread media
    coverage or national visibility for their

United Farm Workers
  • César Chávez and Dolores Huerta attempted to
    unite migrant farm workers to fight against
    discrimination by forming a UnionThe United Farm
  • Migrant Farm Workers-people who go from farm to
    farm doing back breaking work for low pay, with
    their children not having access to education.
  • The United Farm Workers fought for
  • Better Working Conditions
  • Better PAY
  • Recognition of the Union.
  • Non-violent tactic was to get consumers to
    boycott buying crops like grapes from non-union
  • It worked!

California Students rally for change in public
  • Students were inspired by the charismatic Chicano
    educator Sal Castro, a teacher at Theodore
    Roosevelt High School.
  • After attending youth leadership conferences
    where they learned about the differences between
    Eastside and Westside schools, members of the
    Brown Berets and other student groups from
    Roosevelt, Wilson, Lincoln, Garfield, and Belmont
    high schools began organizing for change.

  • In March of 1968, students from all five public
    high schools in East L.A. walked out of their
  • While initially their protest was tolerated, the
    patience of the authorities wore thin, and the
    police were unleashed on the peaceful
    demonstrators. and students were brutally beaten.
  • Thirteen people --Castro and twelve college
    students-- were arrested on conspiracy charges.
  • Eventually, all charges against them were
  • Students were demanding
  • bilingual education
  • Mexican American history courses
  • More Mexican American teachers
  • Overall the school board changed very little as a
    result of these walk outs, it was only over time
    that change occurred.

Feminist Movement
Feminist Movement
  • Existed since 1860s
  • Grew out of Abolitionist Movement
  • Became the Suffragist Movement
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Suzanne B. Anthony
  • 1920 the 19th Amendment gave women the right to
  • Alice Paul
  • Lucy Burns

Feminist Movement
  • Definition Belief in the social, political, and
    economic equality between men and women.
  • Problem is Sexism is discrimination against
    people based on their sex rather than their
    individual merits.
  • Sexism holds that individuals can be understood
    and often judged based on the characteristics of
    being either a man or woman
  • Sexism can mean someone believes
  • That one gender is superior to the other.
  • Or a misogynyist, someone has a simple hatred of

Position of Women Pre-WW2
  • Before WW2, American women had a traditional role
    as wives and mothers. There were few career
    opportunities except in typically female
    professions such as teaching, nursing or
    secretarial work.
  • The 1920s had seen progress for women as women
    began to wear more daring clothes, some smoked
    and drunk with men and even kissed in public!
  • In 1921, women over 20 were given the vote.
  • When the Great Depression hit, it was difficult
    for women to find work, and women who did work
    were viewed as a threat to men and unnecessary

The Effect of the War 1941-1945
  • In 1941, women made a huge contribution to the
    war effort working in typically male jobs.
  • Women in employment rose from 12 million in 1940
    to 18.5 million in 1945.
  • 300,000 served in the armed forces.
  • 1940 Women make up 19 of workforce
  • 1950 Women make up 28.8 of workforce

Lack of Progress after the War
  • However there was still a lack of progress
  • Majority of women willingly gave up their jobs
    after the war and returned to traditional roles.
  • Women were excluded from the top well-paid jobs.
  • Women, on average, earned 50-60 per cent of the
    wage that men earned.
  • Women could be dismissed from their job when they

Position of Women post-WW2
  • After the war, the media encouraged women to
    return to their traditional family roles.
  • Women who went out to work instead of getting
    married were treated with great suspicion by the
    rest of society.
  • One book, Modern Women the lost Sex, even blamed
    the social problems of the 1950s on career women!

In the Late 1950s Betty Freidan wrote The
Feminine Mystic
  • For the first time women began to express a
    desire to be on equal footing with men in life
  • The book broke down the Stereotype of Women as
    happy Housewives.
  • It sparked a great debate in society about the
    lives of suburban women

Women begin to organize
  • NOW was created in 1966 by Betty Friedan with the
    aim of achieving full equality between the sexes.
  • However the Womens Liberation Movement was the
    name given to those who had far more radical aims
    than NOW. They were also known as feminists.
  • Gloria Steinem became to face of the younger and
    more extreme activists.
  • Extreme feminists wanted wanted signs of male
    supremacy to be removed, including male control
    of employment, politics and the media.

Examples of Protest
  • Some extreme feminists believed that not wearing
    make-up was an act of protest against male
    supremacy. Some even burned their bras, as they
    were a symbol of male domination.
  • Mainstream feminists held consciousness raising
    meetings to discuss womens issue that most women
    experienced but that no one talked about openly,
    which left most women feeling isolated.
  • Marital status, spousal abuse, miscarriage,
    abortion, rape
  • They felt that the media degraded the position of
    women using them as sex objects or slaves to
    housework with no intellect or identity.

What were the Issues that shaped the Feminist
  • These are the areas that Feminist groups worked
    to change were
  • Equal PAY for Equal WORK
  • Expand the ROLES of women in society.
  • Educate women about their health and bodies.
  • Eliminate Discrimination of Women in the
  • Work place
  • Higher Education
  • Politics

Roe vs. Wade
  • Highly Controversial Supreme Court Case that
    decided on a Federal Level that states could NOT
    outlaw abortion, based on the right to personal
  • HOWEVER, states could restrict access to have
    abortion if it was requested after the first 3
    months of pregnancy.
  • This case was considered a victory for the
    womens movement because it gave women the right
    to make decisions about their own body.

What was the Equal Rights Amendment?
  • An Amendment to the constitution that would
    eliminate discrimination against a person based
    upon a persons sex.
  • Schlafly became an outspoken opponent of
    the Equal Rights Amendment during the 1970s as
    the organizer of the "STOP ERA" campaign. STOP is
    an acronym for "Stop Taking Our Privileges."
  • Schlafly argued that the ERA would take away
    gender specific privileges currently enjoyed by
    women, including "dependent wife" benefits under
    Social Security and the exemption from Selective
    Service registration
  • ERA had to be ratified by 38 states, by 1977
    35 had done so, but the deadline came in 1982,
    and by that point opposition had increased.
  • The ERA was never added to the constitution.

The end of the Feminist Movement
  • Ultimately the movement became divided into too
    many splinter groups all concerned with their own
  • Groups like N.O.W. split over issues such as
    sexual preference, economic status, race.
  • Women as a whole could not agree.
  • Women who were happy with their lives as wives
    and mothers felt attacked and ridiculed by
    feminist organizations.
  • Some women felt that traditional roles protected
    women and established a model of respectable

GLBT Movement
  • 1951-1st Gay Rights Orgs. -1969 Stonewall
    Riots-2013 Gays in the Military-2015 Gay Marriage

Why were gay and lesbian Americans apart of an
invisible Culture?
  • Sex in general was not an open topic for
    conversation in America since the beginning.
  • Homosexuality was considered an extremely taboo
  • Being gay was dangerous. You could be disowned by
    your family, put in a mental institution or jail
    so most people lived double lives and kept their
    sexual preference a secret.

History of LBGT
  • 1st Organizations
  • Mattachine Society
  • November 11, 1950
  • In Los Angeles, gay rights activist Harry Hay
    founds Americas first national gay rights
    organization. In an attempt to change public
    perception of homosexuality, the Mattachine
    Society aims to "eliminate discrimination,
    derision, prejudice and bigotry," to assimilate
    homosexuals into mainstream society, and to
    cultivate the notion of an "ethical homosexual
  • Daughters of Bilitis

  • Movement grows from increasing tensions and
    oppression of citizens constitutional rights.
  • The movements goal is to educate people as to
    the injustice GLBT citizens undergo and fight to
    become seen and treated equally in the eyes of
    the law and American Society.
  • People with negative attitudes towards lesbians
    and gays are more likely to be
  • Religious,
  • Less educated,
  • Politically conservative
  • Have little close personal contact with out gay
    men and lesbians,
  • Support traditional gender roles.
  • They may have a deep personal, moral or religious
    objection to homosexuality.

Before Stonewall
  • Until 1973 Homosexuality was a diagnosable mental
    disorder, in which an individual could have been
    committed to a psychiatric (mental) institution,
    w/ or w/o their consent, to undergo conversion or
    re-pair therapy.
  • At the time, the police used any number of
    reasons they could think of to justify an arrest
    on indecency charges including kissing, holding
    hands, wearing clothing traditionally of the
    opposite gender, or even being in the bar during
    the raid.

Why were the Stone Wall Riots a turning point in
the GLBT movement?
  • June 28, 1969
  • Patrons of the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village
    riot when police officers attempt to raid the
    popular gay bar around 1am. Since its
    establishment in 1967, the bar had been
    frequently raided by police officers trying to
    clean up the neighborhood of "sexual deviants."
  • Angry gay youth clash with aggressive police
    officers in the streets, leading to a three-day
    riot during which thousands of protestors receive
    only minimal local news coverage. Nonetheless,
    the event will be credited with reigniting the
    fire behind America's modern LGBT rights
  • "Stonewall," as the raids are often referred to,
    is generally considered a turning point for the
    modern gay rights movement worldwide, as it is
    one of the first times in modern history a
    significant body of gay people resisted arrest.

How did the Stonewall Riots inspire the GLBT
community to organize?
  • Solid gay rights organizations begin to form and
    take political action
  • June 28, 1970
  • Christopher St. Liberation Day commemorates the
    one-year anniversary of the Stonewall riots.
  • Following the event, thousands of members of the
    LGBT community march through New York into
    Central Park, in what will be considered
    America's first gay pride parade.
  • In the coming decades, the annual gay pride
    parade will spread to dozens of countries around
    the world.

Protest for change
  • October 14, 1979
  • An estimated 75,000 people participate in the
    National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay
    Rights. LGBT people and straight allies demand
    equal civil rights and urge for the passage of
    protective civil rights legislature.

 Who was Harvey Milk and how did he become a
martyr for the GLBT cause?
  • November 8, 1977
  • Harvey Milk wins a seat on the San Francisco
    Board of Supervisors
  • The first openly gay man elected to public
  • is responsible for introducing a gay rights
    ordinance protecting gays and lesbians from being
    fired from their jobs.
  • Milk also leads a successful campaign against
    Proposition 6, an initiative forbidding
    homosexual teachers.
  • A year later, on November 27, 1978, former city
    supervisor Dan White assassinates Milk. White's
    actions are motivated by jealousy and depression,
    rather than homophobia
  • He is remembered as being the first public
    servant to use the legislature to secure rights
    for the GLBT community.

  • GRID
  • ACT UP
  • AIDS Quilt
  • May - June, 1988
  • The CDC mails a brochure, Understanding AIDS, to
    every household in the U.S. Approximately 107
    million brochures are mailed

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On October 11, 1987, the Quilt was displayed for
the first time on the National Mall in
Washington, D.C., during the National March on
Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. It covered
a space larger than a football field and included
1,920 panels. Half a million people visited the
Quilt that weekend.
To date all of the more than 48,000 panels
memorializing 94,000
What were/are the main goals of the GLBT
  • Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Trans-gendered
  • Most under-represented group of Americans to
    present date.
  • Issues
  • Equal Protection under the law
  • Dispel myths of being socially deviant or being
    Mentally ill.
  • Equal Access to Government Institutions
  • Military Service v
  • Civil Service Jobs
  • Government Services healthcare, civil marriage,
    access to adopt children.

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Goals Achieved
  • US Military 2011
  • Gay Marriage
  • Obergefell v. Hodges 2015

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