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Chapter 2 First Civilizations: Africa

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Chapter 2 First Civilizations: Africa & Asia 3200 B.C.-500 B.C. Section 1: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile Section 2: Egyptian Civilization Section 3: City-States of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 First Civilizations: Africa


1
Chapter 2 First Civilizations Africa
Asia3200 B.C.-500 B.C.
  • Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • Section 5 The Roots of Judaism

2
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • Summary
  • Historians split ancient Egyptian history into 3
    periods
  • 1.) The Old Kingdom
  • 2.) The______Kingdom
  • 3.) The New Kingdom

3
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • One of the earliest civilizations arose in Egypt
    about 5,000 years ago
  • Since most of Egypt is desert, people settled
    along the _______River

4
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • The fertile soil of the Nile Valley produced good
    crops
  • Yearly floods soaked the land and deposited rich
    soil (________)
  • The river also served as a highway for travel by
    boat

5
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • The Egyptian ruler was called a ___________
  • After the death of a ____________, power usually
    passed to another member of his family
  • These ruling families were called ____________

6
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • The 3 periods of Egyptian history are the
  • 1.) Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.-2200 B.C.)
  • 2.) Middle Kingdom (2050 B.C.-1800 B.C.)
  • 3.) New Kingdom (1550 B.C.-1100 B.C.)

7
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • During the Old Kingdom, the Pharaohs created a
    strong government
  • They also built giant __________
  • _________ are massive burial tombs that took many
    years and millions of stone blocks to build

8
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • The Middle Kingdom was a troubled period
  • The Nile did not ________ regularly, so in many
    years crops did not grow
  • Although, Egypt conquered many lands, rebellion
    was common

9
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • Then invaders called the __________, defeated
    the Pharaohs army and gained control of Egypt

10
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • The New Kingdom began over a hundred years later
    when the Egyptians drove out the Hyksos
  • Powerful Pharaohs created a large empire that
    reached the ________________ river

11
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • Egypt traded with Asia and Africa
  • Trade and warfare spread Egyptian culture to
    other countries
  • In return, those places gave Egyptians new ideas

12
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.-2200 B.C.)
? Pharaohs organize strong government
? Egyptians believe Pharaoh is a god
? Old Kingdom is known as Pyramid Age
? Egyptians build giant pyramids at _______
13
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
Middle Kingdom (2050 B.C.-1800 B.C.)
? Egyptians suffer food shortages
? People rebel
? Hyksos conquer Egypt
14
Section 1 Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
New Kingdom (1550 B.C.-1100 B.C.)
? Powerful Pharaohs build large empire
? ________Hatshepsut becomes Pharaoh Encourages trade
? Ramese II conquers Palestine Syria
? Egyptian power begins to decline
15
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • Summary
  • Ancient Egypt was an advanced society where
    people were divided into classes

16
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • Religion was an important part of everyday life
    in Egypt
  • Egyptians believed and many gods and goddesses
    (____________)
  • They also believed in life after death

17
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • They prepared their dead for the afterlife
    through a preservation process called
    _______________
  • The mummies of some Pharaohs were buried in
    pyramids

18
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • Egyptian society had its own class system
  • Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh was both
    _______and a king
  • He had the highest position in society

19
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • Next where the priests, who served the gods and
    the goddesses
  • Near the bottom was the biggest group, the
    peasant farmers
  • Beneath the peasants were the slaves

20
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • Women in ancient Egyptian society had more
    freedom than in any other ancient civilization
  • For example, at different times Egypt was ruled
    by women
  • 1.) Hatshepsut
  • 2.) Cleopatra

21
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • The Egyptians made many advances in learning and
    art
  • In medicine, they learned to cure many illnesses
    and to perform surgery
  • Egyptians developed a calendar very similar to
    the one we use today
  • They also created picture writing called
    ______________

22
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
  • Egyptian temples and monuments have survived
    thousands of years
  • Egyptian statues and paintings show daily life,
    ceremonies, and military victories

23
Section 2 Egyptian Civilization
24
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • Summary
  • The fertile land between the _________ and
    Euphrates Rivers supported the development of
    Sumerian civilization

25
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • Geography helps explain the rise of civilization
    in the Middle East
  • Like the _____River in Egypt, the
    _______and________Rivers made the land around
    them fertile

26
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
Tigris Euphrates
27
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • This region was called the ______________because
    of the good farmland curved in the shape of a
    crescent
  • The land between the rivers was called
    _____________

28
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • By 5,000 years ago, villages along the Tigris and
    Euphrates had grown into busy cities
  • These ___________made up the civilization of Sumer

29
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • Different ___________ fought each other for land
    and water
  • During the fighting, people turned to powerful
    war leaders to protect them
  • Over time, leadership passed down within the war
    leaders families, and social classes developed

30
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • Like Egyptians, the Sumerians made important
    contributions to the world
  • They built the first ________ vehicles
  • Systems of ditches and canals provided flood
    protection and water for crops

31
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • The Sumerians were the first people to write
  • They used wedge-shaped writing called ___________
    to record information as early as 3200 B.C.

32
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • Sumerians developed algebra and __________
  • By studying the sun and the moon, the Sumerians
    invented an accurate __________

33
Section 3 City-States of Ancient Sumer
  • Later on, invaders conquered the Sumerians
  • The conquerors adopted many of the Sumerian ideas
    and passed them on to later civilizations

34
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • Summary
  • Strong rulers united the lands of the
    _____________into well-organized empires

35
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • Many groups invaded and conquered the
    civilizations of the _______________
  • Some invaders destroyed the ____________
  • Others stayed to rule

36
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • Some of these rulers created large,
    well-organized ___________
  • _______________are a group of territories under
    the control of one ruler or government

37
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • One powerful ruler was ________ ____________ ___
    ___________
  • Around 1790 B.C., ____________ put together a set
    of laws, called the _______________
  • The _________________was the first major
    collection of laws in history

38
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • Another important ruler was __________ of
    __________
  • In 522 B.C., _________controlled an empire that
    stretched from ________to _________

39
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
Empire of Darius of Persia
40
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • Darius divided his empire into ________, or
    locally controlled regions
  • Later rulers used his ideas about government

41
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • Different groups of people met in the crossroads
    of the Fertile Crescent
  • Many groups made advances in technology and ideas
  • For example, ___________developed the first real
    ___________to record their trades

42
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
  • Through warfare and trade, ideas and technology
    spread
  • As time passed, the contributions of people who
    lived in the Fertile Crescent reached all the way
    to India and Europe

43
Section 4 Invaders, traders, Empire Builders
Civilization Dates Achievements
Babylonians 1790 B.C. Code of Hammurabi
Hittites 1400 B.C. Forged iron tools and weapons
Assyrians 1100 B.C. First libraries
Persians 539 B.C. -Conquered large empire -Improved trade by using coins standard measures
Phoenicians 600 B.C. Created first alphabet
44
Section 5 The Roots of Judaism
  • Summary
  • The Jewish religion was unique in the ancient
    world because it was ______________(belief in 1
    God)

45
Section 5 The Roots of Judaism
  • The ___________were one of the groups that lived
    in the ______________
  • The ______recorded their history in a sacred book
    called the _______

46
Section 5 The Roots of Judaism
  • According to the Torah, God made a covenant, or
    binding agreement, with Abraham to be the God of
    the Hebrews

47
Section 5 The Roots of Judaism
  • Later the Egyptian Pharaoh made slaves of the
    Hebrews
  • Moses helped the Hebrews escape
  • For forty years they wandered in the desert
  • Finally they set up the kingdom of Israel, with
    Jerusalem as its capital
  • The Hebrews believed that God had promised them
    this land
  • Later the kingdom split apart, and both sections
    were conquered

48
Section 5 The Roots of Judaism
  • In time, Hebrew beliefs evolved into the religion
    we know today as ___________
  • __________ was different from the other ancient
    religions
  • Other religions believed in many gods
  • ___________ was_____________, teaching a belief
    in one God

49
Section 5 The Roots of Judaism
  • The ___________ also believed that God had chosen
    them as His people
  • The laws of Judaism are called the________________
    _____
  • They describe how people should behave toward God
    and toward each other

50
Section 5 The Roots of Judaism
  • Often in Jewish history, there were ___________,
    or spiritual leaders, who explained Gods will
  • The ___________ taught about moral standards and
    justice
  • For example, powerful people should protect the
    weak
  • ___________ also taught that all people were
    equal before God

51
Section 5 The Roots of Judaism
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