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The Civil War (1861-1865)


The Civil War (1861-1865) Chapter 2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil War (1861-1865)

  • The Civil War (1861-1865)
  • Chapter 2

I. Background Info.
  • Civil War war between the northern states
    (Union) and the southern states (Confederacy)
  • Northern States United States, Union, Yankees,
  • Southern States Confederate States of America,
    Confederacy, Rebels, Secess, Gray

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I. Background Info.
  • 1850s North and South moving in opposite
    directions Why?
  • Contrasting Economies North relied on industry
    (urban) South relied on agriculture (rural
    slave labor)

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I. Background Info.
  • Slavery and Western Expansion divided the
    nation northerners did not want slavery in the
    West, southerners did
  • Remember Missouri Compromise and Compromise of

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • First Battle of Bull Run
  • -July 1861
  • -Bull Run is a stream north of Manassas, VA
  • -1st major battle of the war
  • -Gen. Irwin McDowell led the poorly trained Union
    troops towards Richmond, VA
  • -took McDowell 4 days to march 28 miles

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • -gave Conf. time to call in more troops
  • -Union began to push Conf. lines back
  • -some Conf. soldiers, led by Gen. Thomas
    Stonewall Jackson refused to give up
  • -Union advance was stopped and forced to retreat
    back to Wash. D.C.

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • -Conf. won the battle
  • -casualties (killed, wounded, missing)
  • Union 2,900
  • Conf. 1,900
  • -after the battle, Lincoln replaced McDowell with
    Gen. George McClellan
  • -the battle convinced both sides the war would
    not end quickly

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Union Advantages
  • Greater Population 21.5 million to 9 million
  • Controlled most of the railroads move troops
    and supplies
  • More factories produced more/better war
  • More money
  • Better political leadership esp. Lincoln

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Confederate Advantages
  • Did not have to win the war, only had to keep
    from being beaten
  • Defending their own land most of the war fought
    in the South
  • Fighting for a cause to protect way of life
  • Better military leadership esp. Lee

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Union War Strategies
  • Blockade southern coast to cut off trade with
  • Take control of Miss. River to split Conf. into
    two sections
  • Capture Richmond (capital of Conf.)

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Conf. War Strategies
  • Withhold cotton from the world wanted to force
    England and France to help them backfired
  • Hoped northerners would get tired of fighting and
    give up

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Tactics and Technology
  • -both sides fought by the book problem every
    book on battle tactics in 1860 were out of date
    but no one knew it
  • -early war manuals were written for the
    smooth-bore musket used a round ball very
    inaccurate and took too long to load

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • -basic battlefield alignment (draw diagram)
  • -offense always had the better position
  • -new weapon introduced during the war rifle
    musket- fired a bullet shaped mini-ball out of a
    spiraled gun barrel more accurate (up to 400
    yards) and quicker to load
  • -made the cavalry less important
  • -rifle musket allowed the defense to now have the
    better position

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Artillery the Napoleon Gun fired a 12lb
    smooth-bore ball fired 3 types of projectiles
  • Explosive shells
  • Solid shot/ball (rolling)
  • Case shot 2 types
  • a. Grape shot (golf-ball sized)
  • b. Canister shot (metal, nails, sawdust, etc.

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • The Civil War was fought on 2 fronts
  • Eastern Front east of Appalachian Mts.
  • Western Front west of Appalachian Mts.
  • 22 major battles in the war (at least 600,000
  • Many battles had 2 names
  • -North used physical features (rivers,
    mountains, etc.)
  • -South used closest town

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • War in the West
  • -where the Civil War was won and lost fought
    for control of the Miss. River
  • -Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant took control of Fort
    Henry and Fort Donelson in TN in Feb. 1862

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Battle of Shiloh
  • -April 1862
  • -TN / Miss. border
  • -largest battle in the West
  • -Conf. led by Gen. Albert Sidney Johnson
    stationed at Corinth, MS Grant at Pittsburg
    Landing, TN
  • -Conf. launched a surprise attack on April 6
    Grant away from camp

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • -Conf. decided to wait until the next day to
    finish off Union
  • -Grant attacked the next morning and retook the
    positions he had lost
  • -Union victory (held the ground at the end of the
  • -casualties
  • Union- 13,000
  • Conf.-11,000

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Naval War in 1862
  • -the South made one major attempt to break the
    Union blockade rebuilt the U.S.S. Merrimac and
    renamed it the C.S.S. Virginia
  • -ironclad wooden ship covered with iron plate

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • -March 9, 1862 Virginia sunk 2 ships in
    Chesapeake Bay worse day in the history of U.S.
    Navy until 1941
  • -Virginia came back the next morning and saw the
    U.S.S. Monitor, the Unions ironclad
  • -March 10, 1862 1st battle between ironclads
  • -problem with the Virginia had to maneuver

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • -Virginia was damaged the worst hit 98xs
  • -battle was a draw never met again
  • -changed the future of naval warfare wooden
    ships became obsolete
  • April 1862 major Union victory at New Orleans
    by Adm. David Farragut helped take control of
    Miss. River

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Peninsular Campaign
  • -March-June 1862
  • -peninsula SE of Richmond
  • -Unions 2nd attempt to take Richmond
  • -Union led by McClellan great organizer of
    troops but very cautious
  • -Union won minor battle at Yorktown
  • -McClellan waited a month before moving on to

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • -gave Conf. time to retreat to Richmond
  • -Gen. Robert E. Lee took command of Conf. troops
  • -Conf. victory
  • -Richmond saved again
  • -beginning of Lees rise to fame
  • -McClellan lost command

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Second Battle of Bull Run
  • -Aug. 1862
  • -McClellans troops placed under command of John
  • -Lee divided his army by sending Jackson to
    attack behind Popes army
  • -Pope turned to attack Jackson and Lee attacked
    from the other side
  • -Conf. victory Richmond saved again

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • Battle of Antietam
  • -Sept. 1862
  • -in Maryland
  • -Lee wanted a victory on northern soil to
    hopefully get support from Europe
  • -early Sept. Lee slipped into Maryland
  • -McClellan had no idea where Lee was until

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II. Early Stages of the War
  • a Union soldier found Lees battle plans rolled
    up into 3 cigars
  • -McClellan waited 16 hrs. before attacking Lee
  • -gave Lee time to plan a defense
  • -armies met near Antietam Creek bloodiest
    single day of war (the creek ran red)
  • -Union victory
  • -casualties Union-12,000
  • Conf.- 14,000

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • After Antietam, McClellan replaced by Gen.
    Ambrose Burnside
  • Battle of Fredericksburg
  • -Dec. 1862 - in VA
  • -Burnside marched with 122,000 towards Richmond
  • -Lee stationed at Fredericksburg great
    defensive position

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • -Burnside attacked major mistake
  • -Conf. victory
  • -casualties Union- 13,000
  • Conf.- 5,000
  • -Burnside resigned and was replaced by Gen.
    Joseph Hooker

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • Battle of Chancellorsville
  • -May 1863 in VA
  • -Hooker moved around Fred. and attacked from
  • -Lee sent Jackson behind Hooker and he attacked
  • -Hooker forced to retreat
  • -Conf. victory
  • -Stonewall Jackson killed (major loss for South)

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • -some northerners called for peace
  • -Hooker resigned and was replaced by Gen. George
  • -Lee moved into PA to look for supplies

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • Battle of Gettysburg
  • -July 1-3, 1863 in PA
  • -turning point in the war
  • -largest battle ever fought in N.A. Union had
    88,000 - Conf. had 75,000
  • -July 1 Conf. soldiers looking for shoes met
    Union soldiers in Gettysburg both sides took
    positions outside of town

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • -July 2 day of movement and positioning Lee
    ordered Gen. James Longstreet to attack the
    southern Union line
  • -Conf. tried to take Little Round Top hill
    (great position for artillery) but failed
  • -July 3 Lee decided to attack the Union center
    Longstreet opposed after 2 hrs. of artillery
    fire the South attacked

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • -Conf. Gen. George Pickett organized 15,000
    troops to march across the one mile long wide
    open field towards Cemetery Ridge (Picketts
    Charge) - complete disaster for Conf. only ½
  • -Union victory
  • -Casualties Union 23,000
  • Conf. 28,000
  • -bloodiest battle of the war Lee blamed himself
    and retreated back to VA lost 1/3 of his army

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • Gettysburg Address (Nov. 19, 1863) 15,000 met
    at the cemetery to honor the Union dead Edward
    Everette gave a 2 hr. speech Lincoln then gave
    a 2 min. speech

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III. The Tide of the War Turns
  • Siege at Vicksburg
  • -May-June 1863 in Miss.
  • -Grant began the siege in late May siege
    (tactic where the enemy is surrounded and starved
    in order to make them surrender)
  • -Union victory
  • -30,000 Conf. forced to surrender
  • -Union finally gains control of the Miss. River
    and Grant was moved to the east to fight Lee

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IV. A New Birth of Freedom
  • March 1864 Grant given command of Union troops
    in Wash. Gen. William Sherman replaced Grant in
    the west
  • After Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Lee knew the
    South was in trouble
  • Grant decided to move towards Richmond in early
    May 1864 with 120,000 men Lee had only 65,000
    Grant forced Lee to protect Richmond and 3
    battles occurred

IV. A New Birth of Freedom
  • 1) Battle of the Wilderness (May 5-6, 1864)
    armies met near Chancellorsville in dense forest
    the forest caught on fire during the fighting
    Grant took heavy losses battle was a draw (but
    favored the Union)

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IV. A New Birth of Freedom
  • 2) Battle of Spotsylvania (May 8-19, 1864)
    Conf. attacked two week battle heavy Union
    casualties again Grant kept moving towards

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IV. A New Birth of Freedom
  • 3) Battle of Cold Harbor (June 3, 1864) only 8
    miles from Richmond heavy Union casualties
    (7,000 in one hr.) Conf. victory

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IV. A New Birth of Freedom
  • Unable to take Richmond, Grant moved around the
    city and attacked Petersburg, a railroad center
    south of Richmond wanted to cut off shipments
    of food to Richmond the attack failed
  • Siege at Petersburg (June 18, 1864 Apr. 2,
    1865) cut off supplies to the city and pounded
    it with artillery trying to starve them out

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IV. A New Birth of Freedom
  • Lee built up defenses around Richmond and waited
    for the northern election in Nov. 1864 wanted
    Lincoln to lose and the North to give up he
    knew it was their last chance
  • Shermans March to the Sea
  • -moved southward from Chattanooga, TN towards
    Atlanta, GA captured Atlanta on Sept. 2, 1864
  • -Nov. 1864 burned Atlanta and marched towards
    Savannah, GA (on the coast) destroyed
    everything on their way

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IV. A New Birth of Freedom
  • Election of 1864
  • -Lincoln thought he would lose so, he chose a
    democrat, Andrew Johnson, as the V.P. candidate
  • -the democrats nominated McClellan
  • -Shermans capture of Atlanta led to Lincolns
  • 13th Amendment (Feb. 1865) abolished slavery

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IV. A New Birth of Freedom
  • The End of the War
  • -Sherman began to move northward through SC and
    NC burning everything
  • -Lee arrived at the small VA town of Appomattox
    Court House on Apr. 9, 1865 met with Grant and
    surrendered because the Conf. were down to 35,000
    starving men
  • -Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on
    Apr. 14, 1865 at Fords Theater in Wash.

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V. Reconstruction
  • the South was the main battleground of the Civil
    War and its largest casualty hardly a farm or
    family remained undamaged by the end of the war
  • the federal governments controversial effort to
    repair the damage to the South and to restore
    southern states to the Union is known as
    Reconstruction (carried out from 1865-1877 and
    involved 4 Presidents)

V. Reconstruction
  • Wars Aftermath
  • -Physical Toll destroyed 2/3rds of southern
    shipping and 9,000 miles of railroads also
    devoured farmland, farm buildings, and farm
    machinery work animals and 1/3 of all livestock
    bridges, canals, and levees and thousands of
    miles of roads factories, ports, cities burned
    the value of southern property dropped 70

V. Reconstruction
  • -Human Toll destroyed a generation of young
    men, fathers, brothers, and husbands North lost
    364,000 soldiers the South lost 290,000
    soldiers, 1/5 of its adult white men one out of
    every three southern men were killed or wounded
    the Norths decision to destroy southern homes
    and property resulted in countless civilian lives
    children were made orphans and brides became

V. Reconstruction
  • -Southerners Hardships the postwar South was
    made up of three major groups of people each
    group faced its own hardships and fears
  • 1) Black Southerners some 4 million freed
    people were starting their new lives in a poor
    region with slow economic activity as slaves,
    they had received food and shelter now found
    themselves homeless, jobless, and hungry

V. Reconstruction
  • 2) Plantation Owners planters lost slave labor
    worth about 3 billion the federal government
    seized 100 million in southern plantations and
    cotton with worthless Confederate money, some
    farmers couldnt afford to hire workers and
    others had to sell their property to cover debts

V. Reconstruction
  • 3) Poor White Southerners many white laborers
    could not find work any more because of the new
    job competition from freedmen poor white
    families began migrating to frontier lands such
    as Mississippi and Texas to find new opportunities

V. Reconstruction
  • Three Reconstruction Plans
  • most southerners accepted the wars outcome and
    focused on rebuilding their lives however, the
    fall of the Confederacy and the end of slavery
    raised some tough questions

V. Reconstruction
  • 1) How and when should southern states be
    allowed to resume their role in the Union?
  • 2) Should the South be punished for its actions,
    or be forgiven and allowed to recover quickly?
  • 3) Now that black southerners were free, would
    the races have equal rights?
  • 4) If so, how might those rights be protected?
  • 5) What branch of government would be
    responsible for Reconstruction? (executive,
    judicial, or legislative)

V. Reconstruction
  • the Constitution didnt answer these questions
  • Lincolns Plan
  • Lincolns plan did not require the new
    constitutions to give voting rights to African
    Americans nor did it readmit southern states
    to the Union, since in Lincolns view, their
    secession had not been constitutional

V. Reconstruction
  • Much of Lincolns opposition came from a group of
    congressmen from his own party the group, known
    as Radical Republicans, believed that the Civil
    War had been fought over the moral issue of
  • the Radicals viewed Lincolns plan as too lenient
    (easy) on the South they presented their own
    plan which Lincoln then vetoed

V. Reconstruction
  • Before a compromise could be reached between
    Lincoln and the Radicals, he was assassinated
    Now what?

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V. Reconstruction
  • Johnsons Plan
  • when Johnson took office in April 1865, Congress
    was in recess until December during those 8
    months, Johnson pursued his own plan for the
    South his plan, known as Presidential
    Reconstruction, was even more generous to the

V. Reconstruction
  • Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction
  • defeat in the war had not changed the fact that
    white people still dominated southern society
  • one by one, southern states met Johnsons
    Reconstruction demands and were restored to the
    Union the first order of business in these new,
    white-run governments was to enact black codes,
    or laws that restricted freedmens rights the
    black codes established virtual (near) slavery
    with provisions such as these

V. Reconstruction
  • -curfews generally, African-Americans could not
    gather after sunset
  • -vagrancy laws freedmen convicted of vagrancy
    (not working) could be fined, whipped, or sold
    for a years labor
  • -labor contracts freedmen had to sign
    agreements in January for a year of work (those
    that quit in the middle of the year lost all the
    wages they had earned)

V. Reconstruction
  • -limits on womens rights mothers who wanted to
    stay home and care for their families were forced
    instead to do farm labor
  • -land restrictions freed people could rent land
    or homes only in rural areas forced them to
    live on plantations

V. Reconstruction
  • in early 1866 Congress passed a Civil Rights Act
    that outlawed the black codes Johnson vetoed it
    Congress overrode the veto
  • 14th Amendment guaranteed all citizens equal
    protection of the laws ultimately granted
    African Americans citizenship rights

V. Reconstruction
  • Radicals in Congress passed the Reconstruction
    Act of 1867 these are the key provisions This
    is the plan actually used during Reconstruction
    for every southern state except TN (readmitted
    under Johnsons plan)

V. Reconstruction
  • It put the South under military rule, dividing it
    into 5 districts, each governed by a northern
  • 2) It ordered southern states to hold new
    elections for delegates to create a new state
  • 3) It required states to allow all qualified
    male voters, including African Americans, to vote
    in elections

V. Reconstruction
  • It temporarily barred southerners who had
    supported the Confederacy from voting
  • It required southern states to guarantee equal
    rights to all citizens
  • It required the states to ratify the 14th

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V. Reconstruction
  • on Feb. 24, 1868 House members voted to impeach
    Johnson (to accuse him with wrongdoing in office)
    Johnson became the first President to be
  • If 2/3 of the Senate were to vote for conviction,
    Johnson would become the first and only President
    ever removed from office Johnson was able to
    escape conviction by 1 vote

V. Reconstruction
  • 15th Amendment guaranteed African American
    males the right to vote (suffrage)
  • northern Republicans who moved to the postwar
    South became known as carpetbaggers southerners
    gave them this nickname, which referred to a type
    of cheap suitcase made from carpet scraps they
    were depicted as greedy men seeking to grab power
    or make some fast cash

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V. Reconstruction
  • in the postwar South, to be white and a
    southerner and a Republican was to be seen as a
    traitor - southerners had a nickname for those
    people as well, scalawag (Scottish word meaning
    scrawny cattle) many had opposed secession
    most were poor small farmers who hated the rich

V. Reconstruction
  • in March 1870 the last southern states were
    restored to the Union however, the U.S. was far
    from united - from 1868 through 1871, groups of
    white southerners launched a violent
    counterattack against Radical Reconstruction

V. Reconstruction
  • Ku Klux Klan (KKK) started in 1866 as a social
    club in Pulaski, TN - quickly evolved into a
    terrorist organization membership consisted
    largely of ex-Confederate officers and plantation
    owners - most professions were eventually
    represented in the Klan

V. Reconstruction
  • during Reconstruction, the Klan sought to
    eliminate the Republican Party in the South by
    intimidating Republican voters, both white and
    black the Klans long-term goal was to keep
    African Americans in the role of submissive