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Title: Absolutism vs. Democracy: Age of Absolutism, Causes of Revolution, The English Civil War


1
Absolutism vs. DemocracyAge of Absolutism,
Causes of Revolution, The English Civil War The
Glorious Revolution, The Enlightenment The
Birth of the American Republic
  • Mrs. McKenna
  • World History

2
  • Standard WHII.6 The student will demonstrate
    knowledge of scientific, political, economic
    religious changes during the sixteenth,
    seventeenth eighteenth centuries by
  • describing the Age of Absolutism, including the
    monarchies of Louis XIV Peter the Great
  • assessing the impacts of the English Civil War
    the Glorious Revolution on democracy
  • explaining the political social ideas of the
    Enlightenment the ways in which they influenced
    the founders of the United States.
  • Essential Questions Who were the absolute
    monarchs? What effect did the absolute monarchs
    have on their countries? Who were some
    Enlightenment thinkers what were their ideas?
    How did the British Parliament assert its rights
    against royal claims to absolute power in the
    1600s? How did the English Civil War the
    Glorious Revolution promote the development of
    the rights of Englishmen? How did philosophers of
    the Enlightenment influence thinking on political
    issues? How did the Enlightenment promote
    revolution in the American colonies?
  • Essential Understanding
  • a) The Age of Absolutism takes its name from a
    series of European monarchs who increased the
    power of their central govts ruled by divine
    right
  • b) Enlightenment thinkers believed that human
    progress was possible through the application of
    scientific knowledge reason to issues of law
    govt Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders
    of the American Revolution the writing of the
    Declaration of Independence

3
Age of Absolutism
4
Key Terms
  • Monarch A king or queen who rules a territory,
    usually for life by hereditary right
  • Absolutism A system in which the ruler, usually
    a monarch, holds absolute power (complete
    authority) over the govt the lives of the
    people. This type of government is the opposite
    of a constitutional govt or democracy, such as
    that found in the United States.
  • Divine Right The political idea that a monarch
    receives his power directly from God. This
    allowed monarchs to go unchallenged by their
    subjects.
  • Balance of Power Each nation helps to keep peace
    and order by maintaining power that is equal to
    rival nations.
  • The Age of Absolutism takes its name from a
    series of European monarchs who increased the
    power of their central govt. ruled by divine
    right

5
Power of a Monarch
  • In the 17th Century, people looked to the monarch
    for political stability
  • Absolute monarchs had tremendous power
  • Make laws
  • Levy taxes
  • Administer justice
  • Control the states officials
  • Determine foreign policy
  • Control aspects of daily life
  • ALL OF THIS W/ NO CHECKS ON POWER
  • No written Constitution or Bill of Rights most
    people had no rights at all

6
Examples of Absolute Power
  • Louis XIV of France Peter I the Great of
    Russia
  • BOTH CENTRALIZED ROYAL POWER RULED BY DIVINE
    RIGHT
  • -Nicknamed himself the Sun King
    -Wanted to westernize/modernize Russia
  • b/c he was the center of France just
    (adopted western ideas, technology
  • as the sun was the center of the universe
    culture)
  • -Built the Palace of Versailles as a
    -Created a strong military
  • symbol of his wealth and power
    -Fought wars to expand Russias borders
  • -Created a strong military
    (attempted to gain a warm-water port for
    trade)
  • -No meeting of the legislative assembly
    -Forced men to shave their beards all
  • for approximately 175 years (no checks
    people to adopt western-style clothing
  • on royal power)
    -Executed people who challenged his
    authority
  • -Perfected the levee an elaborate
    -Built a new capital city at St. Petersburg to
  • ceremony that emphasized his importance serve
    as a Window on the West
  • distracted nobles who were a threat to
  • royal power

7
Independent Practice
  • Section Summary Chapter 4.2
  • France Under Louis XIV
  • Section Summary Chapter 4.5
  • Absolute Monarchy in Russia

8
Causes of Revolution
9
Causes of Revolution (NOTES)
Revolution Great change over a short period of
time a forcible overthrow of a govt. or social
order for a new system
  • 1. Unpopular Method of Rule People dont like
    the leader and/or the type of government (ex.
    absolutism, dictatorship, govt that is too
    oppressive and/or too weak)
  • 2. Nationalism Pride in your people or nation
    wanting your country to be the best (patriotism,
    superiority over other countries) (ex. Nazi
    Germany, Communist Soviet Union)
  • 3. Social Injustice A group of people are
    treated unfairly (ex. peasants cant own land,
    blacks women cant vote, Holocaust in Europe,
    slavery)
  • 4. Economic Distress Money problems (ex.
    depression, recession, war debt, excessive
    spending)
  • 5. Enlightenment Ideas New better ways of
    doing things better forms of govt. (ex. rights
    of individuals, right to rule comes from the
    consent of the governed, democracy)
  • 6. Religious Intolerance A religious group is
    outlawed or treated unfairly (ex. Puritans in
    England, Jews in Palestine, Muslims in America
    after 9/11)

10
Independent Practice
  • Case Study
  • England Early 1600s

11
The English Civil War The Glorious Revolution
12
The English Civil War The Glorious Revolution
13
Main Ideas
  • Monarchy vs. Parliament (power struggle)
  • Charles I Absolute monarch dismissed
    Parliament
  • English Civil War Charles I (Cavaliers) vs.
    Parliament (Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell)
  • Result of Civil War Charles I defeated,
    captured executed (first time a ruling monarch
    was tried executed by his own people)
  • Cromwell the Commonwealth abolished monarchy
    ruled as a virtual military dictator support by
    military
  • Restoration of the Monarchy Charles II called
    home to be king b/c Parliament knew they could
    work w/ him
  • James II dismissed Parliament returned to
    absolute monarchy
  • Glorious Revolution Parliament invited William
    Mary to rule but they had to sign the English
    Bill of Rights
  • English Bill of Rights Established a
    Constitutional Monarchy, which limited the power
    of the monarchy ensured the superiority of
    Parliament over the monarch

14
Independent Practice
  • Section Summary Chapter 4.3
  • Parliament Triumphs in England

15
The Enlightenment
16
Scientific Law vs. Natural Law
  • Scientific Law rules discoverable by
  • observation experimentation
  • (scientific discoveries the functioning of the
    universe)
  • Natural Law rules discoverable by reason
  • (human nature the need for government)

17
Scientific Law or Natural Law?
  • What goes up must come down

18
  • Scientific

19
Scientific Law or Natural Law?
  • People are by nature greedy and selfish and need
    to be controlled

20
  • Natural

21
Scientific Law or Natural Law?
  • The best governments are ones that listen to the
    people

22
  • Natural

23
Scientific Law or Natural Law?
  • The Earth revolves around the sun

24
  • Scientific

25
Scientific Law or Natural Law?
  • Blood circulates throughout the body

26
  • Scientific

27
Scientific Law or Natural Law?
  • People are happiest when they are free

28
  • Natural

29
What was the Enlightenment?
  • The Enlightenment was an 18th Century
    philosophical movement a revolution/change in
    thinking
  • The Enlightenment philosophers hoped to reform
    society by applying reason to social, political,
    and economic problems

30
Roots of the Enlightenment
  • The Scientific Revolution
  • Scientific successes created great confidence in
    the power of reason if people could use reason
    to find laws that governed the physical world
    (physical sciences), why not use reason to
    discover laws that govern human nature?
  • The Renaissance and Reformation
  • The humanists of the Renaissance questioned
    accepted beliefs and celebrated the worth of the
    individual
  • During the Reformation, Protestants rebelled
    against the Catholic Church
  • Classical Influences
  • Many Enlightenment thinkers were inspired by
    classical culture, going all the way back to the
    ancient Greeks (some pointed to the democracies
    of ancient Athens and Rome)

31
Philosophers
  • Thinkers called philosophe(r)s championed
    Enlightenment ideas
  • Philosophers often gathered in informal meetings
    called salons, held in the elegant homes of the
    wealthy
  • During the salons, they exchanged and
    debated ideas, which helped to shape and
    spread the ideas of the Enlightenment

32
Madame Geoffrins Salon
One of the most respected salons. Mozart
played for her guests.
33
New Ideas vs. Old Beliefs
  • Enlightenment thinkers questioned accepted
    beliefs
  • Reason was more important than authority
    (challenged the Catholic Church)
  • Examples of things that were questioned
  • Christian faith, which was based largely on trust
    in the Bible as Gods word
  • Divine right of kings to rule

34
Guided Practice
  • As we go through the notes, we will complete the
  • Enlightenment Philosophers Comparative Chart

35
Thomas Hobbes (15881679)
  • People are by nature selfish greedy
  • To avoid chaos, people must enter into a social
    contract giving up their freedom to a government
    that will ensure order (represents what is best
    for society as a whole)
  • Believed absolute power was needed to preserve
    order in society absolute monarch must be strong
    and able to suppress rebellion

Leviathan 1651 People are naturally cruel,
greedy, and selfish. Life in a state of nature
would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and
short
36
The Social Contract
  • Social Contract Human beings have made an
    agreement with their government, whereby the
    government and the people have distinct roles and
    responsibilities
  • The theory is based on the idea that humans
    abandoned a natural (free and ungoverned)
    condition in favor of a society that provides
    them with order, structure, and most importantly,
    protection

37
John Locke (16321704)
  • People are by nature reasonable moral
  • Natural rights (rights that belonged to all
    humans from birth) Life Liberty Property
  • Wrote Two Treatises of Government
  • People formed governments to protect their
    natural rights
  • Government existed to protect rights, and if it
    didnt, it should be overthrown (Social Contract)
  • Supported democracy (limited power and accepted
    by all citizens) opposed absolute
    monarchy

Men beingby nature all free, equal
independent, no one can be put out of this estate
subjected to the political power of another
w/out his own consent.
38
What are Natural Rights?
  • Freedom of religion, speech, press,
  • assembly, property, the pursuit of
  • happiness
  • These rights are referred to in the American
    Declaration of Independence
  • Question How did these ideas
  • challenge Europes traditional order
  • of divine-right monarchies?
  • God gave certain rights solely to monarchs, not
    to the general population

39
Independent Practice
  • Venn Diagram
  • Comparing Hobbes Locke

40
Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)
  • The best way to protect liberty was to divide
    power between three branches the legislative,
    executive, and judicial (separation of powers)
  • Each branch has the power to check the other two
    (checks balances) in order to prevent any one
    person or group from gaining too much power

Spirit of the Laws 1748 In order to
have liberty, it is necessary that government
be set up so that one man need not be afraid of
another.
41
Voltaire (1694 1778)
  • Strong supporter of Freedom of Speech, Thought,
    Religion
  • Battled corruption, injustice, and inequality
  • Believed in the separation of church and state
  • Used wit as a weapon to expose the abuses of his
    day (the French Monarchy, the nobility, and the
    Catholic Church)
  • Wrote Candide as a way to bypass censorship
  • Imprisoned and forced into exile

I do not agree with what you have to say, but
I'll defend to the death your right to say
it. (Freedom of Speech!)
42
Independent Practice
  • Biography Voltaire

43
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (17121778)
  • People are naturally good, but society corrupts
    them b/c of this, some controls are necessary,
    but should only be imposed by govts that had been
    freely elected
  • Champion of democracy for his idea that
    political authority lies with the people
  • Opposed strong government (oppression)

Social Contract 1762 Man is born free, but
everywhere he is in chains Only the general
will can direct the energies of the state in a
manner appropriate to the end for which it was
founded --- i.e., the common good.
44
Cesare Beccaria (17381794)
  • For centuries, punishments for crimes had often
    been quite cruel one reason was that extreme
    punishment was necessary to deter crime in a time
    when the police force was too weak to ensure that
    criminals would be captured
  • In 1764, Cesare Beccaria, argued in his essay On
    Crimes and Punishments that punishments should
    not be exercises in brutality (no cruel or
    unusual punishment)
  • He also argued against capital punishment,
    finding it absurd that the
    government commits murder to
    punish a murderer

45
Censorship
  • Censorship restricting
  • access to ideas info
  • Govt church officials
  • banned burned books
  • imprisoned writers
  • However, ideas spread
  • regardless
  • Question How do you think
  • philosophers and writers avoided
  • censorship?

46
Answer
  • -Exchanged ideas at salons
  • -Disguised ideas in works of fiction
  • Example The hero of Voltaires novel, Candide
    (1759), travels across Europe, the Americas, and
    the Middle East in search of the best of all
    possible worlds. He slyly uses the tale to
    expose the corruption and hypocrisy of European
    society.

47
Think, Pair, Share Who Said It?
  • Now we will look at several quotes some of
    which are actual quotes some of which could
    have been quotes
  • YOUR JOB Figure out which Enlightenment
    philosopher said it or could have said it
  • Directions
  • -Independently read over each quote on the
    handout identify who said it (or could have
    said it)
  • -Discuss your answers with your partner
  • -Be prepared to share

http//www.polleverywhere.com/my/polls
48
Independent Practice
  • Section Summary Chapter 5.1
  • Philosophy in the Age of Reason

49
  • Enlightenment Main Ideas
  • Applied reason to the human world (human nature,
    govt)
  • Stimulated religious tolerance
  • Fueled democratic revolutions around the world
  • Influenced the framers of the United States
    Constitution
  • Results of the Enlightenment
  • Ideas about freedom and representative government
    inspired leaders in the American colonies to
    revolt and establish an independent republic
    (United States of America), which in turn
    influenced the French Revolution and the Latin
    American Revolutions
  • The United States Declaration of Independence,
    Constitution, and Bill of Rights incorporated
    Enlightenment ideas
  • Can you identify some of the ideas?

50
  • Birth of the
  • American Republic

51
Influencing Revolution
  • Lockes idea that the people could overthrow a
    government that isnt protecting their natural
    rights influenced leaders of the American
    Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Latin
    American Revolutions

52
Causes of Revolution
  1. Enlightenment Ideas Why would this make people
    want change?
  2. Unpopular Method of Rule If people listened to
    Locke, what form of government would become
    popular?
  3. Economic Distress What are some kinds of money
    problems that would make people want change?
  4. Social Injustice Can you think of some real-life
    examples of this?
  5. Religious Intolerance What group left England
    because they wanted religious freedom?
  6. Nationalism How could nationalism influence
    revolution?

53
Independent Practice
  • Case Study
  • American Revolution 1775-1781

54
Birth of the American Republic
  • Quick Overview
  • People left England in search of 1) religious
    freedom and 2) new sources of wealth
  • England controlled the American colonies even
    though the colonists didnt have people
    representing their interests in Parliament No
    taxation without representation!
  • After the Seven Years War, the British
    government needed money to pay off their debts,
    so they began taxing the colonists (e.g., Stamp
    Act, Sugar Act)
  • Merchants didnt want the British government to
    run their affairs
  • The American colonies and Great Britain had
    numerous crises throughout the 1770s (e.g., the
    Boston Tea Party, the Boston Massacre)
  • The First Continental Congress convened in 1774
    to decide what action to take (e.g., create a
    list of grievances, demand independence, etc.)
  • Fighting between Britain and the colonists
    erupted at Lexington and Concord in 1775
  • Declaration of Independence written and signed in
    1776 (formally declared the colonies intent to
    be independent)
  • American Revolution was fought from 1775-1781
  • The U.S. Constitution was written in 1787
  • Social Contract (agreement between the government
    and the people)
  • Elected executive and legislature (instead of a
    hereditary monarchy)
  • Federal republic (power divided between the
    federal government and the states)
  • Separation of Powers (three branches)
  • Checks and Balances (to prevent any one branch
    from having too much power)
  • Rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights (the
    first 10 Amendments to the Constitution)

55
Discovery Education Video
  • American History
  • Foundations of American Government (5512)
  • 900-1043, 3626-end

56
Independent Practice
  • Section Summary Chapter 5.3
  • Birth of the American Republic

57
America Influenced by the EnlightenmentThink,
Pair, Share Who Influenced Each Idea?
  • As we look at passages from the United States
  • Declaration of Independence,
  • Constitution,
  • Bill of Rights
  • Think about which Enlightenment philosopher
  • influenced each passage

58
The Constitution of the United States of
America Article 1 All legislative Powers herein
granted Section 1 shall be vested in (given to) a
Congress of the United States, which shall
consist of a Senate and House of
Representatives. Article II The executive
Power shall be vested in a Section 1 President of
the United States of America. Article III The
judicial Power of the United States Section
1 shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in
such inferior (lower) Courts as the Congress
may from time to time ordain and establish.
59
The Bill of Rights Amendment 1 Congress shall
make no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise
thereof or abridging (limiting) the freedom of
speech or of the press. Amendment 5 No person
shallbe subject for the same offense to be twice
put in jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be
compelled (forced) in any criminal case to be a
witness against himself nor be deprived of life,
liberty, or property, without due process of
law. Amendment 8 Excessive bail shall not be
required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
and unusual punishments inflicted.
60
The Constitution of the United States of
America Article 1 All legislative Powers herein
granted Section 1 shall be vested in (given to) a
Congress of the United States, which shall
consist of a Senate and House of
Representatives. Article II The executive Power
shall be vested in a Section 1 President of the
United States of America. Article III The
judicial Power of the United States Section
1 shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in
such inferior (lower) Courts as the Congress
may from time to time ordain and
establish. ANSWER Montesquieu Three Branches of
Government
61
The Bill of Rights Amendment 1 Congress shall
make no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise
thereof or abridging (limiting) the freedom of
speech or of the press. ANSWER
Voltaire Amendment 5 No person shallbe subject
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy
of life or limb nor shall be compelled (forced)
in any criminal case to be a witness against
himself nor be deprived of life, liberty, or
property, without due process of law. ANSWER
Locke Amendment 8 Excessive bail shall not be
required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
and unusual punishments inflicted. ANSWER
Beccaria
62
  • Declaration of Independence
  • The government has an obligation to protect the
    peoples natural rights to life, liberty, and
    property (Locke)
  • The people have a right to alter or abolish
    unjust governments (a right to revolt/overthrow
    the govt) (Locke)
  • The principle of popular sovereignty, which
    states that all power comes from the people, is
    another important point in the Declaration
  • Constitution
  • A social contract into which the people would
    enter (Hobbes, Rousseau)
  • Elected legislature and an elected president,
    instead of a hereditary monarch (Locke,
    Montesquieu)
  • Separation of powers among the legislative,
    executive, and judicial branches (Montesquieu)
  • Checks and balances (Montesquieu)
  • Bill of Rights (important to the passage of the
    Constitution)
  • People had basic rights that the government must
    protect, such as freedom of religion, speech, and
    the press (Voltaire)

63
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64
Debate Absolutism vs. Democracy
  • Purpose By studying different political systems,
    we can better understand how government affects
    the way we live.
  • Assignment Students will be assigned into teams
    one team will argue the benefits of an absolute
    form of government (absolutism) while the other
    team argues the benefits of a democratic form of
    government (democracy).
  • This is a debate so you must be knowledgeable
    about the pros and cons of both forms of
    government. You must be prepared to defend your
    form of government and challenge the other teams
    assertions that their form of government is best.
  • Actions
  • 1) With your team, conduct internet research to
    identify pros cons of each form of government
    to collect evidence to support your arguments
  • 2) While researching, use the attached table to
    list pros cons
  • 3) Be sure to provide evidence to support each
    pro/con (you must have at least one example/piece
    of evidence for each pro/con) evidence could be
    in the form of
  • a) A quote from an Enlightenment philosopher
  • b) Details from the class notes and/or textbook
  • c) Internet resources
  • d) Examples from real-life governments (absolute
    monarchies, democracies)
  • 4) Work with your team to prepare for your
    debate each team member must have equal speaking
    time so be sure to distribute information evenly
  • Index cards are a great way to record your
    arguments so that you can access information
    easily on the day of the debate

65
Coming up
  • 1789 Influenced by the American Revolution,
  • the French Revolution toppled the monarchy in the
    name of liberty and equality
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