Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment


Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a cluster of diseases that can be found when the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment

Myelodysplastic Syndromes
What are myelodysplastic syndromes?
  • Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of
    diseases that is characterized when the bone
    marrow does not produce enough healthy blood
    cells.Although children and young adults
    sometimes have myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)
    but most of the people with myelodysplastic
    syndromes (MDS) are over 60 years old.

What is the cause of Myelodysplastic syndromes
  • Healthy bone marrow makes stem cells, which
    develop into 3 types of blood cells red blood
    cells, white blood cells, and platelets.Myelodys
    plastic syndromes (MDS) can happen when the stem
    cells do not develop properly into mature blood
    cells. Instead the bone marrow makes too many
    immature blood cells called blasts. The blasts do
    not mature and cannot work properly as blood
    cells. They also collect in the bone marrow and
    leave less room for healthy blood cells.The
    cause of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is still
    not known. It can be caused by exposure to
    pesticides, herbicides, and the chemical benzene,
    which is found in unleaded gasoline.

How is myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)
  • Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and
    medical history to examine you. As other problems
    can too cause some of the same symptoms,
    diagnosis can be made only after careful tests of
    the blood and bone marrow. Tests may include
  • Blood tests to count the different types of blood
  • Tests of a sample of bone marrow taken from your
    breastbone or hipbone. First you will be given a
    local anesthetic to numb the area. A needle is
    then passed through your skin into the bone
    marrow. Using a syringe, your doctor takes a tiny
    sample of fluid and tissue to examine under a
    microscope. This procedure is called a bone
    marrow biopsy.

How long do the effects last? 
  • People with mild forms of myelodysplastic
    syndromes (MDS) may live for several years with
    few problems. People with a more severe form of
    myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) may not live long
    after developing the disease.Sometimes,
    myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) can develop into
    a form of leukemia, most often acute myelogenous
    leukemia.Currently, only stem cell transplants
    can cure myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Other
    types of treatment may help you live longer and
    decrease the symptoms.

What are the symptoms of Myelodysplastic
syndromes (MDS)? 
  • The most common symptoms of myelodysplastic
    syndromes are
  • Tiredness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Paleness
  • Frequent infections
  • Easy bruising and bleeding

How are myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) treated? 
  • There are many ways to treat myelodysplasia
  • Blood transfusions to replace the cells which the
    bone marrow is not making
  • Chemotherapy (anticancer drugs) to stop the
    growth of immature blood cells
  • Transplant of healthy stem cells from a donor
    after you have chemotherapy
  • Treatment depends upon the severity of the
    disease, your age, and your overall health. Older
    adults who have other health problems may choose
    supportive care. Supportive care does not cure
    myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).Supportive care
    involves transfusions of red blood cells or
    platelets, and taking antibiotics, vitamins, and
    other medicines to ease the symptoms.

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