Leptospirosis : Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Leptospirosis : Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment

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Leptospirosis is an infectious disease which is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira and it affects both humans as well as other animals. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leptospirosis : Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment


1
Leptospirosis
2
Leptospirosis
  • Leptospirosis is an infectious disease which is
    caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira and it
    affects both humans as well as other
    animals.Leptospirosis is one of the world's
    most widespread diseases that can be easily
    transmitted by animals to humans.Generally, the
    infection is transmitted to humans by water that
    has been contaminated by animal urine which comes
    in contact with unhealed breaks in the skin, the
    eyes, or with the mucous membranes.In most of
    the cases, leptospirosis only causes mild
    flu-like symptoms like headache, chills and
    muscle pain. Although in some of the cases, the
    infection is more severe and can further cause
    life-threatening problems that includes organ
    failure and internal bleeding. Severe form of
    leptospirosis is known as Weil's disease.

3
Causes of Leptospirosis
  • Rodents, Cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep, goat,
    pigs and dogs are known to be common reservoirs
    of the bacteria that cause leptospirosis.
    Generally, the incubation period of leptospirosis
    is 515 days, with a range of 230
    days.Outbreaks of leptospirosis can occur, due
    to close contact with infected freshwater
    sources, such as some water sports. It is also
    possible for people to become infected after a
    natural disaster, such as a flood.

4
Diagnosis of Leptospirosis
  • Blood test is done to detect antibodies for the
    bacteria.Other tests include
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • MAT (microscopic agglutination test) which is a
    serological test is considered the gold standard
    in diagnosing leptospirosis.

5
Symptoms of Leptospirosis
  • Mild symptoms, includes
  • High temperature (fever) that is usually between
    38 and 40C
  • Sudden headache and chills
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscular pain especially in the muscles of calves
    and lower back
  • Irritation and redness of the eyes
    (Conjunctivitis)
  • Cough
  • Short-lived rash

6
Symptoms of Leptospirosis
Continue
  • More severe manifestations include
  • Meningitis
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Hearing loss
  • Respiratory distress
  • Azotemia
  • Renal interstitial tubular necrosis, which
    results in renal failure and occasionally liver
    failure, is the severe form of this disease known
    as Weil's disease, though it is sometimes named
    Weil Syndrome.

7
Treatment
  • How to manage LeptospirosisLeptospirosis can
    be treated with medicines like
  • Ampicillin
  • Azithromycin
  • Ceftriaxone
  • Doxycycline
  • Penicillin

8
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