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Ancient Israel

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The Israelites practiced monotheism, the belief in only one god, which was a new ... Jews celebrate this victory today as Chanukah. The Teachings of Jesus ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Israel


1
Ancient Israel
  • Prepared by Anita Billeter
  • Palmdale School District
  • with funding from
  • Jordan Fundamentals Grant
  • Keeping History Alive Grant

2
The Belief of the Israelites
  • The Israelites practiced monotheism, the belief
    in only one god, which was a new idea in the
    ancient world.
  • The Torah contains the basic laws of the religion
    of the Jewish people, called Judaism.

3
The Origin of the Israelites
  • According to Genesis, God told a shepherd named
    Abraham to move from Mesopotamia to Canaan to
    establish a new nation.
  • Many different people lived together in Canaan,
    and gradually came together and were called
    Hebrews.

4
  • Some Hebrews became slaves to the Egyptians, and
    were led out of captivity by Moses.
  • After the Egyptian ruler set the Hebrews free,
    they took a long and difficult journey-called the
    Exodus-back to their homeland.

5
An Agreement with God
  • According to the Torah, Moses received a message
    from God establishing a covenant, or special
    agreement, that bound the Israelites to God.
  • The Torah explains that first of Gods laws for
    the Israelites were written on stone tablets that
    are also known as the Ten Commandments.

6
  • The idea of a covenant became the basis for both
    Judaism and Christianity, and the Ten
    Commandments form much of the Western worlds
    ideas about law and justice.

7
The Monarchy
  • The second king of the Israelites, David, united
    the tribes of Israel, and established a dynasty
    that lasted over 400 years.
  • Under Davids leadership, the Israelite empire
    extended from the Sinai Peninsula to Damascus,
    with Jerusalem as its capital.

8
  • Davids son, Solomon, made treaties with
    neighboring nations, increased trade with others,
    and began a royal building program.
  • Solomons main temple in Jerusalem became the
    center for the Israelites religious life and a
    symbol of their faith.
  • After Solomons death, Israel split into two
    kingdoms, Israel and Judah.

9
The Message of the Prophets
  • In 587 B.C. the Babylonians conquered Judah,
    destroyed the city of Jerusalem and the temple,
    and took 15,000 prisoners to Babylonia.
  • Jewish prophets, who interpreted the will of God,
    said the Jewish people were being punished for
    breaking their covenant with God.

10
  • The prophets preached that if the Jews obeyed the
    laws of God, they would someday be able to return
    to their homeland.

11
A People Governed by Priests
  • The Babylonians allowed the Jews to return to
    Judah, but Jerusalem and the surrounding
    territory remained a province of Persia.
  • Without a king, leadership of the Jews fell to
    the priests, who oversaw the rebuilding of the
    temple, the celebration of religious holidays,
    and the following of laws.

12
  • In the 400s B.C., Ezra, a priest and scribe,
    collected the holy writings that became the
    Torah.
  • Some Jews came to believe that a messiah would
    someday free the people and restore Israels
    independence.

13
The Revolt of the Maccabees
  • New rulers from Syria brought Greek culture to
    Israel.
  • A Jewish priest and his son, Judah Maccabee
    fought a two year rebellion against the Syrians.

14
  • In 164 B.C., the Maccabees drove the Syrians out
    of the area around Jerusalem and restored
    independence to Judah.
  • Jews celebrate this victory today as Chanukah.

15
The Teachings of Jesus
  • Jesus taught that people should obey the Ten
    Commandments and the teachings of the prophets
    he stressed the importance of love and
    forgiveness.
  • As Jesus gained followers and was called the
    messiah, opposition from religious leaders grew.

16
  • About A.D. 33 Jesus was arrested, charged with
    treason against Rome, and put to death.
  • A new religion, Christianity, rose as Jesus
    followers spread his teachings.

17
Judaism in the First Century
  • In A.D. 66 the Zealots rebelled against Roman
    rule, and during that war, the Romans destroyed
    Jerusalem and burned down the temple.
  • The Jews revolted once again in A.D. 132, but
    were crushed after three years.

18
The Jewish Legacy
  • After battles with the Romans left the Jews
    without a homeland or temple, the Torah became
    their portable temple.
  • As Jews settled in other lands, rabbis, or
    teachers, helped them to continue to practice
    Jewish traditions.
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