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Intro to Romanticism

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1830- Revolutions begin in France, Belgium, and Poland. 1831- Victor Hugo writes The Hunchback of Notre Dame. 1837- Queen Victoria crowned in England ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Intro to Romanticism


1
Intro to Romanticism
  • (1820 to 1900)

2
Time line of the Romantic Period
  • 1823- The Monroe Doctrine
  • 1830- Revolutions begin in France, Belgium, and
    Poland
  • 1831- Victor Hugo writes The Hunchback of Notre
    Dame
  • 1837- Queen Victoria crowned in England
  • 1837- Dickens publishes Oliver Twist
  • 1842- The New York Philharmonic is founded
  • 1844- Dumas writes The Three Musketeers

3
Time line of the Romantic Period
  • 1845- Poe publishes The Raven
  • 1846- The planet Neptune is discovered
  • 1848- Karl Marx publishes The Communist Manifesto
  • 1859- Darwin publishes The Origin of Species
  • 1861-1865- American Civil War
  • 1870- Franco-Prussian War

4
Time line of the Romantic Period (1820-1900)
  • 1876- Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone
  • 1884- Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of
    Huckleberry Finn
  • 1889- Van Gogh paints The Starry Night
  • 1893- Edvard Munch paints The Scream
  • 1898- Spanish American War

5
Romantic Music
  • Has a few similarities with classical music
  • Uses all classical forms
  • Generally homophonic
  • Some composers remained rooted in the classical
    tradition, others were more revolutionary
  • Schubert, Brahms, Mendolssohn were more
    traditional
  • Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner were less so

6
Romantic Music
  • Individual styles
  • Romantic music is much more focused on
    self-expression and individuality
  • It is much easier to tell composers apart
  • Reflects their own personality
  • Expression
  • Explored a wider range of emotions and delved
    deeper into those emotions
  • Romantic love is glorified in opera and songs
  • Fascination of the diabolical and the fantastical
  • Most composers influenced by nature

7
Romantic Music
  • Nationalism and Exoticism
  • Nationalism is a piece created with a national
    identity-uses folk tunes, dances, legends from a
    composers homeland
  • Exoticism is the use of music evoking foreign
    lands- Used rhythms, melodies, and instruments
    from foreign lands
  • Program Music
  • Program music is instrumental music that is
    associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene
  • Music became closely associated with literature

8
Structure of Romantic Music
  • Timbre
  • Orchestra was larger (up to 100 people)
  • Brass, woodwind, and percussion expanded to allow
    for new sounds
  • Harmony
  • Use of chromatic harmony became prevalent
  • Dissonance was used much more freely
  • Uses a wider variety of keys and modulations
  • Tonic key is less clear than in previous eras

9
Structure of Romantic Music
  • Dynamics, Pitch, Tempo
  • Wider range of dynamics, including ffff and pppp
  • More frequent use of crescendos and decrescendos,
    as well as sudden changes
  • Use of rubuto to intensify expression
  • Expanded pitch range

10
Expansion, and miniaturization, of Forms
  • Shortening
  • Shorter works are only a few minutes.
  • Meant to be heard in an intimate surrounding
  • Often create intense mood through a melody and a
    few chords
  • Expansion
  • Symphonies may last 45 minutes to an hour
  • Thematic Transformation became a common tool in
    extending works
  • Larger operas and orchestral works could last
    hours

11
Music and the Public
  • Composers were inspired by Beethoven to be
    freelance composers
  • Composers wanted to write to fulfill some inner
    need, to be judged favorably be their
    contemporaries and by history
  • Various wars in Europe caused hardship for the
    aristocrats, who could no longer afford to hire
    composers and orchestras
  • As borders changed, positions for composers
    disappeared

12
Music and the Public
  • Composers wrote for the expanding middle class,
    and subscription concerts became commonplace
  • Major US conservatories founded in 1860s
  • Women could study as well
  • The piano became a fixture in the home, so
    orchestra and opera works were transcribed to
    piano music

13
Music and the Public
  • Few composers could support themselves only
    composing
  • Franz Liszt and Niccolo Paganini were in demand
    as virtuoso performers
  • Frederic Chopin charged high fees for piano
    lessons
  • Hector Berlioz and Robert Schumann were critics
    for music publications
  • Felix Mendelssohn and Gustav Mahler were
    excellent conductors
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