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Title: Women


1
Womens Roles
  • Amanda Zhao
  • 1-10-13
  • Period 5

2
Timeline Acts By and Affecting Women
1803 Parliament passes the first British
abortion law, prohibiting abortion after
quickening. 1804 The Napoleonic Code of France
considers womenlike criminals, children, and the
insaneto be legal minors. A woman's husband
controls her property and, in the case of
divorce, gets the children. 1813 In England,
Elizabeth Fry advocates reform of Newgate Prison,
in which 300 women and children are housed under
appalling conditions. 1821 Colombian women
gain the right to attend university. 1834 In
Lowell, Massachusetts, women mill workers stage a
successful strike to reverse a 25 percent cut in
their pay. 1837 Victoria ascends the throne of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
3
Timeline Continued
1840 Female delegates are refused admittance to
the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London.
This event leads Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady
Stanton to call the first women's rights
convention. 1844 The English Factory Act
establishes the 12-hour workday for female
factory workers. 1845 Swedish women win equal
rights of inheritance. 1848 The Seneca Falls
Convention is held and launches the woman
suffrage movement in the United States. The
document produced is the Declaration of
Sentiments, patterned after the Declaration of
Independence. 1854 Florence Nightingale begins
nursing casualties during the Crimean War and
effectively establishes nursing as a profession
for women. Her efforts help reduce the death rate
from combat injuries from 42 percent to 2.2
percent.
Britannica. "Timeline Through the Centuries."
Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia
Britannica, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2013.
lthttp//www.britannica.com/women/timeline?tocId94
04138gt.
4
Attitudes Toward Women (Before)
  • Before (pre-1800s)
  • Agrarian family view makes basis of womens role
  • Womens duties in domestic home duties (ex.
    cleaning, cooking), raising children
  • Major role giving birth to children (breeders)
  • Women belonged to the home men in outside, harsh
    world
  • Womens mind tender, supportive, simple, and
    virtuous

Womenare something like children the more they
show their need of support, the more engaging
they are. - Mrs. John Sandford, The Other
Oppressed
5
Attitudes Towards Women (Later)
  • Later (Early to mid-1800s)
  • Greater industrialization during the Industrial
    Revolution -gt greater urbanization -gt women begin
    working outside household more in factories/mills
  • Women working for pay gradually lessens attitudes
    of social subordination towards women
  • More wealthy women become centers of cultivated
    circles, BUT
  • Still excluded from politics and business
  • Still responsible for domestic duties (unless
    hire servants)
  • Still viewed as delicate, virtuous, idle

6
Women in the Family
  • Women play important roles a wife and a mother
  • As a wife
  • Complement her husband, and be supportive of his
    interests (ex. comfort for troubles, enforce his
    principles)
  • Do domestic duties serve food, cleaning, washing
    and mending clothes make household comfortable
    for husband
  • Be pious, humble, submissive, supportive
  • As a mother
  • Proper raising of child education, care,
    character (especially in middle class)
  • Womens importance in domestics cause
    difficulties for greater female education
  • Opponents believe education detract from
    practical knowledge needed for housewives
  • Ex. Motherhood stressed in womens magazines and
    other writings
  • Parisian Journal des Femmes, Ladys Home Journal,
    Godeys Ladybook, The Ladies Pocket Book
    of Etiquette (published in 1840)

7
The Underclass
  • Greatly impoverished women made up the lowest of
    the social ladder
  • Lacked education and acceptable jobs
  • Depended mostly on relief organizations and
    charity
  • Ex. Englands Society for the Diffusion of Useful
    Knowledge (founded 1826)
  • The Society of St. Vincent de Paul (founded
    1835)
  • Some resort to prostitution for income
  • Unrespectable profession dirty lifestyle
  • Great increase in prostitutes in cities in 19th
    century
  • London 9,000 to 80,000 registered prostitutes

8
The Working Class
  • Low social standing
  • Professions included factory workers, domestic
    service, agricultural laborers (employment
    necessary for family survival)
  • Laborious work hours with modest/little income
    and inheritance
  • Women factory workers
  • Some begin working at ages of 8-12
  • Lifestyle of long work days, poor health, poor
    sanitation
  • Excluded from higher paying jobs (ex.
    mule-spinning reserved for males in textile
    factories)
  • Mainly worked in the textile industry (cotton,
    flax, silk) made up most of the workers
  • Ex. Textile factories in Manchester and Leeds
  • Also employed in factories for manufacturing
    pottery and paper

9
Britain Factory Workers in 1833 Females as a
Percent of the Workforce
Industry Ages 12 and under Ages 13-20 Ages 21 All Ages
Cotton 51.8 65.0 52.2 58.0
Wool 38.6 46.2 37.7 40.9
Flax 54.8 77.3 59.5 67.4
Silk 74.3 84.3 71.3 78.1
Lace 38.7 57.4 16.6 36.5
Potteries 38.1 46.9 27.1 29.4
Dyehouse 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Glass 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Paper - 100.0 39.2 53.6
Whole Sample 52.8 66.4 48.0 56.8
Click here for more women workers statistics!
Burnette, Joyce. "Women Workers in the British
Industrial Revolution." Economic History
Services. EH.Net, 5 Feb. 2010. Web. 13 Jan.
2013. lthttp//eh.net/encyclopedia/article/burnette
.women.workers.britaingt.
10
The Middle Class
  • More women work for pay in 19th century
  • Ex. Lower-Middle Class often operate small
    shops, are governesses, or are ladies companions
  • Also writing (ex. Elizabeth Gaskell, Bronte)
  • Domestic role becomes major part of life
  • In addition to being wife and mother, assumes
    virtuous values, piousness, and elegant dress in
    household
  • Most important in maintaining calm in household
  • Charities (ex. Sisters of Mercy, Franciscan
    Sisters of the Poor)
  • Participated greatly in charity and good works
  • Campaigned for sanitation, piousness, temperance
  • Provided soup and bread, supported impoverished
  • Participated in running nurseries, schools, and
    hostels

11
The Upper Class
  • Mainly assumed domestic roles
  • Was virtuous, elegant, fashionable, idle
  • Often had domestic servants to provide
    housekeeping
  • Centers of cultivated, social circles
  • Participated in charities, social works as a
    reasonable pastime
  • Marriage important part of upbringing
  • Marry for acquisition of property and social
    alliances

12
Women and Marriage
  • Marriage considered important obligation of women
  • Especially middle class
  • Singles considered spinsters pitied and held in
    contempt
  • However, single women more legally independent
    than married
  • Ex. In England could own property, pay taxes,
    can vote in local parish
  • Vs. married woman rights to property and
    inheritance go to husband
  • Middle and upper class often marry for social
    mobility, merging of estates, money
  • Women play critical role
  • Lower classes often do not marry with such
    motives
  • Marriage laws made divorce for women difficult
  • Men just needed to prove wifes adultery
  • Women must prove adultery and other marital
    issues (ex. incest, rape, abuse)
  • Only until later reforms increased divorce rate
  • Ex. Matrimonial Causes Act in England of 1857
    established secular divorce courts

13
The effect of the restrictions on womens divorce
can be seen in this graph. Not until later
reforms did the rate of female divorces increased.
Office for National Statistics. Rate of Marriages
and Divorces in England and Wales, 1862-2008.
Digital image. Significance. Blackwell
Publishing, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2013.
lthttp//www.significancemagazine.org/details/webe
xclusive/1345767/Getting-hitched--marriage- and-di
vorce-in-the-21st-century.htmlgt.
14
Women in Romanticism
  • Romantic movement provided opportunity for women
    for expression in writing and the arts
  • Romantics also wanted couples to be led by warm
    emotions, not rigid rituals formed by Bourgeois
  • Women included
  • Madame de Staël works on German thinkers, such
    as Concerning Germany (1810) introduced
    Romanticism to France
  • Ann Radcliffe English author who wrote romantic,
    gothic works wrote The Romance of the Forest
    (1791)
  • Charlotte Smith Poet and novelist wrote
    compilation of sonnets in Elegiac Poems (1784)
  • Anne Seymour Damer English sculptor of the early
    Romanticism movement

15
Women in Romanticism
Anne Seymour Damer
Ann Radcliffe
Madame de Staël
Charlotte Smith
16
Women Rulers and Political Figures
  • Queen Victoria
  • Queen of England that ascended throne 1837
  • Reign brought glory and power to England monarch
    during the Crimean War
  • Duchess of Berry
  • Son was legitimists claim (supported Bourbons)
    to throne during the July Monarchy (1830s) in
    France
  • 1832 attempted to start an uprising against
    monarchy
  • Isabella
  • Daughter and planned successor of King Ferdinand
    VII of Spain
  • Rule opposed by Don Carlos and Carlists
    supported autocracy and Spanish Catholicisms
    claims
  • Eventually became Queen Isabella II of Spain in
    1843

17
Women Feminists
  • 19th century experienced numerous feminist works
    supporting the emancipation of women
  • Harriet Taylor (18071858 )
  • Advocate for education and rights for women
  • Influence more often seen in works of friend and
    second husband, John Stuart Mill
  • Mill had advocated for emancipation of women
  • Influenced work The Enfranchisement of Women
    (1851)
  • Anna Wheeler (1785-1848)
  • With friend William Thompson, wrote feminist
    treatise
  • Appeal of One Half the Human Race, WOMEN, Against
    the Pretensions of the Other Half, MEN, to Retain
    Them in Political, and Thence in Civil and
    Domestic Slavery in reply to a paragraph of Mrs.
    Mills Celebrated "Article on Government" (1825)
  • Catherine Barmby
  • Wrote "Demand for the Emancipation of Woman,
    Politically and Socially" (1843)
  • Led way of feminist writings in the 1840s (more
    on feminism)

Were I but capable of interpreting to the world
one half the great thoughts and noble feelings
which are buried in her Harriet Taylor grave, I
should be the medium of a greater benefit to it,
than is ever likely to arise from anything that I
can write, unprompted and unassisted by her all
but unrivalled wisdom. J. S. Mill
18
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