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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS

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Title: THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS


1
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • GOAL OF COURSE
  • ASSIST YOU IN DEVELOPING YOUR OWN THEORY OF
    PERSONALITY BASED UPON WHAT YOU LEARN AND HOW TO
    APPLY IT OR USE IT IN DIAGNOSIS AND COUNSELING.
  • PERSONALITY THEORIES
  • Reflect the Biographies of their authors.
  • Much about Personality remains unknown
  • Composite of all major Theories best explains
    personality.
  • YOU ARE THE FINAL JUDGE. (Hergenhahn, p 563)
  • DEFINITION OF PERSONALITY (Gordon
    Allport-1937-1961)
  • PERSONALITY IS THE DYNAMIC ORGANIZATION WITHIN
    THE INDIVIDUAL OF THOSE PSYCHOPHYSICAL SYSTEMS
    THAT DETERMINE HIS CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOR AND
    THOUGHTS.

2
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • MENTAL DISORDER
  • CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT BEHAVIORAL OR
    PSYCHOLOGICAL SYNDROM OR PATTERN THAT
  • OCCURS IN AN INDIVIDUAL AND THAT IS ASSOCIATED
    WITH PRESENT DISTRESS OR DISABILITY, OR WITH A
    SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED RISK OF SUFFERING DEATH,
    PAIN, DISABLITY, OR AN IMPORTANT LOSS OF FREEDOM
    (DSM-IV-TR, p xxxi).
  • THIS SYNDROME OR PATTERN MUST NOT BE MERELY AN
    EXPECTABLE AND CULTURALLY SANCTIONED RESPONSE TO
    A PARTICULAR EVENT. IT MUST BE CONSIDERED A
    MANIFESTATION OF A BEHAVIORAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, OR
    BIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN THE INDIVIDUAL.
  • MENTAL LLNESS
  • AN ILLNESS THAT AFFECTS OR IS MANIFESTED IN A
    PERSONS BRAIN. IT MAY IMPACT ON THE WAY A
    PERSON THINKS, BEHAVES, AND INTERACTS WITH OTHER
    PEOPLE (American Psychiatric Association)
  • MENTAL HEALTH ERAS IN THE U.S.
  • FIRST (up to early 1800s) Families, Private
    Charitable Organizations
  • SECOND (up to late 1960s) Hospitalization
    Institutionalism
  • THIRD (mid 60s to now) Deinstitutionalize
  • FOURTH (90s to now) Full Inclusion into Society

3
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • PERSONALITY
  • CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS PERSONALITY?
  • THREE CONCERNS OF PERSONALITY THEORY
  • Like every other human being-human nature
  • Like some other human beings-common culture
  • Like no other human being-individual differences
  • DETERMINENTS OF PERSONALITY
  • Genetics-heredity (NATURE/NURTURE CONTROVERSY)
  • Traits learned and inherited.
  • Sociocultural Determinants cultural
    variables-roles, socioeconomic, ethnic, religion,
    region.
  • Learning empiricist side-rewards-CAN CONTROL
    PERSONALITY
  • Existential-Humanistic FREE WILL-person gives
    meaning to experiences.
  • Unconscious Mechanism origins in childhood-dont
    know why they act as they do.
  • Cognitive Processes emphasize present experience
    future goals-not the past.

4
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • A. Questions/Personality Theorists
  • FOCUS ON ENTIRE PERSON
  • Importance of PAST, PRESENT FUTURE
  • Motivates Human Behavior-master motive Hedonism,
    Self-Actualization.
  • Importance of self-concept
  • Importance of Unconscious Mechanism
  • Human behavior freely chosen or determined-free
    will or determined.
  • Introspection
  • Uniqueness vs. Commonality
  • Control Internal/External
  • Mind/Body from no relationship to all
  • Human Nature experiences, thought, animals,
    inheritance, born good.
  • Consistent Human Behavior evidence sometimes
    yes and sometimes no.
  • B. Finding Answers Epistemology knowledge
    Science Scientific Theory-verification
  • C. Science some YES and others NO

5
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • PARADIGM viewpoint guides research
  • PSYCHOANALYTIC (Freud Jung) unconscious
    mechanisms
  • SOCIOCULTURAL (Adler) cultural
    determination-roles
  • TRAIT ( Caattell) learned genetically
    determined-constant
  • LEARNING (Skinner Bandura) reward
    punishment-control
  • SOCIOBIOLOGICAL (Wilson) inherited tendencies
  • EXISTENTIAL-HUMANISTIC (Rogers, Maslow
    Frankl) free choice responsibility-values,
    existence

6
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939)
  • INFLUENCES
  • Charcot French neurologistHYPNOTISM HYSTERIA
  • Bernheim Psthypnotic amnesia and Posthypnotic
    suggestion
  • Breuer Catharsis, Transference STUDIES ON
    HYSTERIA is considered the beginning of the
    PSYCHOANLYTIC MOVEMENT.
  • MAIN BELIEFS
  • Sexual conflicts were the cause of HYSTERIA
  • Human behavior was INSTINCTIVE driven by
    UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVATION.
  • ALL aspects of human personality are derived from
    BIOLOGICAL INSTINCTS.
  • LIFE INSTINCTS preservation of life (Eros)
  • DEATH INSTINCT return to organic state before
    life (Thantos)
  • Libbido psychic energy associated with life
    instincts.
  • The Interpretation of Dreams his own
    self-analysis of his dreams Psychoanalytic
    movement gains momentum.

7
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • DIVISIONS OF THE MIND
  • ID Given at birth pure instinctual energy, at
    the unconscious level pleasure principle
  • EGO Identifies or matches images of the ID with
    objects events in real world operates
    CONSCIOUSLY UNCONSCIOUSLY serves ID
    SUPEREGO.
  • SUPEREGO moral arm develops from REWARD
    PUNISHMENT in a child internalized Conscience
    results from child being punished Ego Ideal
    results from child being rewarded constantly
    strives for perfection.
  • PRINCIPAL OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY energy is
    rearranged-each person is born with same amount
    of PSYCHIC ENERGY.
  • ANXIETY warns of danger in THINKING OR BEHAVING
  • EGOS TASK IS TO AVOID OR REDUCE ANXIETY.

8
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • EGO-DEFENSE MECHANISMS
  • REPRESSSION must occur before any other defense
    mechanism corner-stone of psychoanalysis Ego
    prevents anxiety-provoking thoughts from entering
    conscious level.
  • DISPLACEMENT substitute one need satisfier for
    another.
  • IDENTIFICATION match objects in environment to
    wishes of the ID.
  • DENIAL OF REALITY deny facts in ones life
    experience.
  • RATIONALIZATION justify behavior
  • EVERYONE USES EGO-DEFENSE MECHANISMS moderation
    is normal extreme or extensive use is
    dysfunctional.
  • PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
  • ORAL STAGE 1st year pleasure comes from the
    mouth.
  • ANAL STAGE 2nd year feces expulsion-can caused
    perfectionism.
  • PHALLIC STAGE 3rd 5th year penis or clitoris
    (most complicated controversial stage of Freud)
  • PREGENTIAL (FIRST 3) ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT TO
    PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT.
  • LATENCY STAGE 6th 12th year sexual interests
    are repressed displaced by activities.
  • GENITAL STAGE puberty the pre-genital stages
    have already DETERMINED persons adult life.
  • PSYCHOANALYSIS IS THE MEANS OF DISCOVERING
    REPRESSED THOUGHTS AND REDUCING THEIR INFLUENCE
    ON LIFE.

9
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • FEMININE PSYCHOLOGY
  • Woman are more enigmatic than men.
  • Women are failed or inferior men.
  • UNCONSCIOUS MIND
  • Free Association is the fundamental rule and
    major therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis.
  • All conscious expressions have hints of
    unconscious.
  • The more resistance to expression, the greater
    the problem.
  • DREAM ANALYSIS
  • Dreams make unconscious more available.
  • All dreams contain some threatening material.
  • FREUDIAN SLIPS
  • Manifestation of repressed thoughts.
  • Unconscious become conscious
  • Repressed thoughts always strive for expression.

10
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • RELIGION
  • Ancestors created a God with same characteristics
    of real fathers.
  • Illusions of religion restrain masses.
  • Need to replace religion with rational,
    scientific principles.
  • HUMAN NATURE
  • Humans are biological organisms
  • Master motive is SATISFACTION of bodily needs.
  • Human are HEDONISTIC-same as animals pleasure
    pain.
  • PESSIMISTIC humans CANT do anything about their
    human nature they can be helped to live with it
    rationally.

11
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • EVALUATION
  • A. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH mixed results.
  • B. CRITICISMS
  • Overemphasis on sexual and unconscious
    motivation.
  • Too pessimistic about human nature.
  • Death instinct cant be demonstrated.
  • C. CONTRIBUTIONS
  • First to codify thoughts about personality-general
    framework to study personality.
  • Anxiety
  • Conflicts originating in childhood.
  • ALL THEORIES ARE A REACTION TO FREUD.

12
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CARL JUNG (1875-1961)
  • INFLUENCES
  • Interested in the OCCULT-existence of
    supernatural
  • FREUD drawn by Interpretation of Dreams-became
    friends
  • FREUD parted because of differences-symbolism of
    dreams libidinal energy primarily sexual.
  • Creative Illness 4 years of psychotic
    episodes.
  • LIBIDO PRINCIPLES
  • Libido driving force behind psyche
    (personality) value of something is determined
    by how much LIBINAL ENERGY is invested in it.
    PSYCHE TOTAL PERSONALITY
  • PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE finite amount of energy
    is available (conscious and unconscious)
  • PRINCIPLE OF ENTROPY constant tendency to
    equalize balance energy must be actively
    sought but seldom accomplished.
  • PRINCIPLE OF OPPOSITES every action has an equal
    opposite reaction (conscious/unconscious,
    animal/spiritual, masculine/feminine).
  • GOAL OF LIFE SEEK BALANCE BETWEEN POLAR
    OPPOSITES-constantly aspired but SELDOM attained.

13
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY
  • EGO everything of which we are CONSCIOUS
  • Responsible functions of every day life
  • Responsible sense of identity continuity in
    time
  • LIKE FREUD but not the PSYCHE
  • PSYCHE both conscious unconscious aspects of
    personality
  • PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS something that once was
    conscious.
  • COMPLEXES clusters of emotionally loaded
    thoughts theme occurs over over again has
    disproportionate influence on behavior.
  • WORD-ASSOCIATION TEST used to study complexes
  • IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEXES required a lot of
    psychic energy therefore inhibited balance of
    psychological growth.

14
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • COLLECTIVE UNCONCIOUS (ARCHTYPE)
  • Most controversial concept and the heart of
    Jungs
  • theory.
  • Collective experiences humans have had in the
    past deposit of ancestral experience over
    millions of years (human, pre-human, animal
    ancestry).
  • THIS IS THE SAME FOR ALL HUMANS-IN THE PSYCHE.
  • ARCHTYPE inherited TENDENCY OR PREDISPOSITION
    (not
  • the response) to respond to certain aspects of
    the world.
  • Most important influential part of the psyche.

15
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • ARCHTYPES
  • 1. PERSONA (mask) ones public self or role in
    society. How we are known by other people.
  • 2. ANIMA female component of male psyche
  • a. Results from mens experiences with women
    throughout the ages.
  • b. Causes men to have feminine
    traits-sentimental, tenderness.
  • c. Framework within which men interact with
    women.
  • 3. ANIMUS male component of female psyche.
  • a. Gives women masculine traits-aggression,
    independence.
  • b. Guides womans relationship with men
  • 4. SHADOW contains all of animal instincts.
  • a. Darkest deepest part of psyche.
  • b. Same for all persons.
  • 5. SELF attempts to HARMONIZE all of the
    components.
  • SELF-REALIZED when there is full integration.
  • SELF-REALIZATION lifes goal.

16
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • GOAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY
  • Introduce patient to components of psyche (Ego,
    Personal
  • Unconscious, Collective Unconscious - Archtype,
    Self)
  • Synthesize them into an interrelated
    configuration.
  • RESULT
  • A deeper, more creative person.

17
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
  • CHILDHOOD Birth to adolescence survival skills
    learned
  • YOUNG ADULTHOOD Adolescence to 40 community
    life.
  • MIDDLE AGE 40 wisdom lifes meaning most
    important
  • stage for Jung.
  • Religion becomes important in this stage.
  • Every person possesses a spiritual need that must
    be satisfied.
  • Religion systematic attempt to deal with God
    spirits.

18
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • SELF-REALIZATION harmonious blending of the many
  • components forces within the psyche.
  • Individuation lifelong process toward
    psychological maturity.
  • Self-Realization is a tendency inherent in ALL
    living organisms.
  • MANDALE (circle) self becomes new center of
    personality, center of the Circle, midway among
    the many polarities that make up the psyche.
  • SELF-REALIZATION MUST BE SOUGHT- NOT AUTOMATIC
  • CAUASALITY (like Freud) what a person will
    become is a function of what the person has been.
  • TELEOLOGY human behavior has a purpose behavior
    is drawn by the future and pushed by the past.
  • SYNCHRONICITY meaningful coincidence reams
    fantasies become real.

19
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • HUMAN NATURE FOR JUNG
  • Psyche is embedded in the past, present future.
  • Conscious unconscious elements
  • Masculine feminine traits
  • Rational irrational impulses
  • Spiritualistic animalistic desires
  • Human Destiny
  • JUNG OPTIMISTIC come to grips with unconscious
  • mind.
  • FREUD PESSIMISTIC man could do nothing about
  • unconscious mind.

20
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • EVALUATION
  • A. CRITICISMS
  • Empirical research is sparse
  • Friendly toward Occultism, Mysticism, and
    Religion
  • Self-realization is elitist.
  • Unscientific
  • B. CONTRIBUTIONS
  • First to discuss process of self-realization
  • First to emphasize importance of FUTURE in
  • determining behavior
  • OPTIMISITC about human destiny.

21
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • FRED ADLER (1870-1937)
  • INFLUENCES
  • Fear of death his inferior view of himself
  • MARXISM deep concern for people social context
    can influence personality.
  • Freud Interpretation of Dreams
  • INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY INDIVIDUALS ARE UNIQUE
  • INNER HARMONY STRIVING TO COOPERATE WITH
  • FELLOW HUMANS.
  • Freud Adler
  • F individuals in constant conflict with one
    another society
  • A humans seek companionship harmony
  • F Ignored lifes meaning effect of future
    aspiration on life
  • A lifes meaning aspiration are central part
    of his theory
  • F minds components in constant conflict
  • A mind was integrated whole works to attain
    future goals.

22
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • ADLERS THEORY
  • HUMANISM positive relationships among humans.
  • EXISTENTIALISM concerned with meaning of life
    humans are future oriented free to determine
    their own fate concerned with meaning of life.
  • Biological deficiencies inhibit person from
    functioning normally.
  • INFERIORITY all humans start life with feelings
    of inferiority-dependent on others motivational
    not bad, not abnormal or weak PRIMARY motivating
    force behind human accomplishments (Neurosis
    happens when person is overwhelmed by inferiority
    feelings-complex.
  • SEXUAL are humans are bisexual-psychological-atti
    tude towards oneself ALL HUMANS STRIVE FOR
    SUPERIORITY.
  • Master Motive change from striving for oneself
    to striving for society.

23
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • FICTIONAL GOALS LIFESTYLES
  • Figments of the imagination (fictions) are
    practical give meaning to life.
  • SUBJECTIVE REALITY MORE IMPORTANT THAN PHYSICAL.
  • Healthy Person seldom loses sight of reality
  • Neurotic Person fictional life plan becomes
    reality loses sight of reality.
  • STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF GIVING MEANING TO LIFE
  • Person invents a worldview
  • Derives a FINAL goal from that worldview.
  • Individual invents a LIFESYTLE as means of
    achieving that goal.

24
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • SOCIAL INTEREST THE INDEX OF NORMALITY
  • Innate need of all human live in harmony with
    others strive for perfect society.
  • Person inherits the potential for social
    interest.
  • Person must solve 3 major problems or achieve 3
    tasks in life
  • Occupational Tasks constructive work helps
    advance society.
  • Societal Tasks cooperation with fellow humans.
  • Love Marriage Tasks continuance of society.
  • MISTAKEN LIFESTYLES not aimed at socially useful
    goals
  • Ruling domination over people
  • Getting expect from other
  • Avoiding not concerned with or avoids problems
    in society.
  • Faulty lifestyles begin in childhood-unhealthy
    conditions
  • Physical Inferiority complex
  • Spoiling/Pampering creates Oedipus complex
  • Neglecting feel worthless
  • CHILDS PERCEPTIONS DETERMINE HIS PERSONALITY

25
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CREATIVE SELF (Adlers crowning achievement)
  • Humans are not PASSIVE recipients of environment
    or genetic influences.
  • Person is FREE to act on influences in life
  • Persons attitude toward life determines his
    RELATIONSHIP with the outside world. MATTER OF
    CHOICE.
  • PERSONALITY IS ESSENTIALLY SELF-CREATED
  • (existential viewpoint)
  • NEUROTICS
  • All are self-centered lack social interest.
  • Use safeguarding strategies excuses aggression
    accusations.
  • Escape life by distancing themselves from
    problems
  • Anxiety amplifies distancing strategies-exclusion
    tendency to avoid problems.

26
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • GOALS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY
  • Analyze birth order, first memories, dreams
    mannerisms.
  • Trace development manifestation of mistaken
    lifestyle.
  • Patient therapist seek a NEW LIFESTYLE-more
    functional.
  • Therapist is informal, good humored, and avoids
    pampering neglect.
  • Insights gained are explained clearly to be
    understood accepted by patient (intellectually
    emotionally)
  • Expect results in MONTHS twice a week sessions
    year is rare.

27
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • IMPORTANT ABOUT ADLER
  • Interested in COMMON PEOPLE (Rare)
  • Worked directly with CHILDREN in FAMILY setting
    (Rare)
  • Founder of GROUP FAMILY psychotherapy.
  • Insisted on PREVENTION of disorders through
    proper CHILD RAISING
  • VIEWS OF UNCONSCIOUS
  • Denied importance of repressed traumatic
    experiences.
  • Difference between Conscious Unconscious was
    based on the COMPATIBILITY with ones
    personality.
  • Experiences previously not understood become
    UNDERSTANDABLE.

28
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • ADLERS METHODS OF RESEARCH
  • BIRTH ORDER firstborn (worst), second born (most
    fortunate) youngest (second worst) only child
    was like the firstborn.
  • (THESE ARE GENERAL TENDENCIES NOT ABSOLUTES)
  • FIRST MEMORIES important to interpret
    experiences.
  • DREAM ANALYSIS important
  • Freud allowed partial satisfaction of a wish
    that could not be satisfied.
  • Adler dreams are expressions of ones lifestyle
    and must be consistent with it if not
    consistent, that indicate a mistaken lifestyle.
  • BEHAVIORAL MANNERISMS indicate and allow for
    interpreting how Client views work and himself.

29
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • EVALUATION
  • CRITICISM
  • terms too nebulous to measure.
  • Overlooks baser side of human beings.
  • Overly simplistic-few early experiences determine
    adult personality.
  • Birth order research is questionable.
  • CONTRIBUTIONS
  • Importance of social variables for personality
    development.
  • Selected goals determine behavior.
  • Social determinants of personality.
  • Family therapy group therapy community
    psychiatry.
  • Importance of subjective reality.
  • Emphasis on PERSONAL FREEDOM RESPONSIBILTY in
    ones life.

30
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • B.F. SKINNER (1904-1990)
  • INFLUENCES
  • PAVLOV Connection between ORGANISM BEHAVIOR.
  • WUNDT Introspection self-analysis
  • DEWEY Darwin-evolution, survival depends on
    adapting to the environment.
  • JOHN B. WATSON (founder of School of Behaviorism)
  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING-TYPE S CONDITIONING
    (LEARNING)
  • Behavior can be studied-not consciousness.
  • If you control experiences (stimulus) you can
    create any type of person.
  • Studied relationships between ENVIRONMENTAL
    EVENTS BEHAVIOR
  • PAIRING
  • Conditioned STIMULUS elicits UNPREDICTABLE
    response.
  • Unconditioned STIMULUS elicits PREDICTABLE
    response.
  • RESULT

31
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • SKINNER OPERANT CONDITIONING-TYPE R
  • Two elements are necessary BEHAVIOR REINFORCER
  • Operant behavior is CAUSED by a stimulus but
    source is not known.
  • Operant behavior is CONTROLED by its CONSEQUENCES
  • If a RESPONSE is followed by a REWARD then the
    RESPONSE WILL BE
  • STRENGTHENED - EMPHASIS IS ON RESPONSE-REINFORCED.
  • IF YOU WANT TO STRENGTHEN A CERTAIN RESPONSE OR
    BEHAVIOR PATTERN, REWARD IT!
  • PERSONALITY CONSISTENT BEHAVIOR PATTERNS THAT
    HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENED THROUGH OPERANT
    CONDITIONING
  • EMPHASIS IS ON PROBABILITY if rewarded enough
    times, you will get the response you want.
  • PRIMARY GOAL OF OPERANT CONDITIONING predict
    manipulate the occurrence of a behavior given a
    set of environmental conditions.
  • ASSUMPTION Same set of learning principles exist
    for HUMAN NON
  • HUMAN ORANISMS.

32
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • COMPONENTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING
  • ACQUISITION (Skinner Box) a response is
    strengthened by a reinforcer.
  • SHAPING Response is NOT in organisms response
    repertoire shaped into existence-reinforce the
    closer you get to the response you want.
  • EXTINCTION REINFORCE desired behavior IGNORE
    undesirable behavior.
  • BEHAVOR MODIFICATION rewarded behavior persists
    non-rewarded behavior extinguishes.
  • PERSONALITY IS the ACQUISITION EXTINCTION of
    behavior.
  • CHAINING Complex behavior rein forcer
    strengthens past response and stimulates new
    response.

33
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • RE-INFORCEMENT SCHEDULES timing of re-inforcers
  • Fixed interval same time-end time same-30
    seconds
  • Fixed ratio same number of times-x number of
    responses before reward.
  • Variable interval different times-every 10
    seconds
  • Variable ratio different numbers-average number
    of times.
  • SUPERSTITION rein forcer happens at different
    times during different behaviors-strange
    behaviors are reinforced.
  • RE-INFORCEMENT CONTINGENCIES contingency
  • contracts
  • Positive increases behavior
  • Negative decreases or removes behavior or
    response
  • Avoidance prevent the aversive event.
  • Punishment remove Positive Reinforcementgive
    something not wanted-time out.
  • IDEAL RE-INFORCE DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR
  • IGNORE UNDERSIRABLE BEHAVIOR

34
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • BEHAVIOR DISORDERS/THERAPY
  • Behavior therapy is based on LEARNING THEORY
  • SKINNER Behavior therapy based on SPECIFYING
    DESIRABLE UNDERSIRABLE BEHAVIORS, REINFORCING
    THEM, AND ARRANGING REINFORCEMENT CONTINGENCIES
    RESPONSIVE TO THE DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR NOT THE
    UNDERSIRABLE BEHAVIOR.
  • Consequences control behavior.
  • PSYCHOTIC due to behavior.
  • TOKEN ECONOMIES example of Skinners therapy
    model.
  • Works with maladaptive behavior-behavior
    disorders.
  • Criticism treats symptoms not causes effects
    not always generalized sometimes just dont
    work.
  • WALDON TWO
  • Cultural Engineering design a culture
  • Manipulate the reinforcement environment
  • Encourage certain behaviors
  • NEED TO DEVELOP A TECHNOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR main
    barrier is the traditional view of human
    nature-autonomous, freed to do as they choose.

35
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • EVALUATION
  • CRITICISM
  • Generalization from nonhuman to humans.
  • Determinism reduces humans to mindless
    automatons
  • Cultural Engineering who controls the
    controllers?
  • CONTRIBUTIONS
  • Valuable in application to education, child
    rearing, prison reform.
  • Scientifically rigorous explanation of human
    behavior.

36
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • RAYMOND B. CATTELL
  • (1905-1998)
  • SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES FROM PREVIOUS THEORISTS
  • Emphasized scientific discovery and measurement
    of basic psychological TRAITS possessed by all
    people.
  • Uses scientific rather than clinical methodology.
  • Primarily concerned with explaining the
    personality of NORMAL ADULTS.
  • Interested in the contributions of BIOLOGICAL AND
    GENETIC factors rather than in developmental
    events.
  • BIOGRAPHICAL
  • Born in Straffordshire, England.
  • Happy childhood filled with many activities.
  • World War I life could be short-urgent to
    accomplish goals.
  • Concerned with social problems.
  • Charles Spearman factor analysis intelligence.
  • Interested in applying factor analysis to the
    study of personality.
  • Established Institute for Research on Morality
    and Self-Realization-social problems.

37
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • FACTOR ANALYSIS
  • Cornerstone- concept of CORRELATION two
    variables vary together and are therefore
    CO-RELATED. (Height Weight)
  • CORRELATION COEFFICIENT from 1.00 to 1.00.
  • Perfect POSITIVE 1.00 (both measures increase
    or decrease)
  • Perfect NEGATIVE -1.00 (one measure increases
    other decreases)
  • NOTE sample is important-more is better
    statistically.
  • FACTOR FOR CATTELL TRAIT.
  • CATTELL method used to discover TRAITS that he
    regarded as the building blocks of personality.
  • CATTELL used to study the characteristics of
    GROUPS, INSTITUTIONS, AND NATIONS.

38
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • INDUCTIVE REASONING (Cattell)
  • Began without a specific guiding hypothesis
  • Collected a large data set-generated hypothesis
    from patters that emerged from data.
  • L-data everyday behavior of various persons.
  • Q-data performance on standard self-report
    inventories-questionnaires.
  • T-data tests-word-association, Rorschach
    inkblot.
  • Attempted to determine which FACTORS OCCUR IN
    STABLE PATTERNS across a number of situations or
    over long periods of time- which of these are
    FUNDAMENTAL PERSONALITY TRAITS.
  • CATTELL identified 16 fundamental traits in
    NORMAL PERSOANLITY.

39
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CATTELLS ANALYSIS OF TRAITS
  • (BUILDING BLOCKS OF PERSONALITY)
  • SURFACE TRAITS observations that are correlated,
    superficial and
  • explain NOTHING.
  • Caused by one or more SOURCE TRAITS.
  • Outward manifestation of a source trait.
  • SOURCE TRAITS causes of behavior most important
    part of a
  • persons personality structure, and ultimately
    responsible for ALL of
  • a persons consistent behavior. BASIC ELEMENTS OF
  • PERSONALITY.
  • Can influence several surface traits..
  • Everything a person does is influenced by them.
  • ALL INDIVIDUALS POSSESS THE SAME SOURCE TRAITS
    BUT TO VARYING DEGREES.
  • EX. Intelligence all have but in different
    degrees.
  • Degree determines how why a person behaves.

40
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • (SOURCE TRAITS CONTINUED)
  • CONSITUTIONAL SOURCE TRAITS genetically
    determined internal
  • TEMPERAMENT TRAITS genetically determined
    determine a persons general STYLE TEMPO-speed,
    energy and emotion-HOW someone responds to a
    situation a persons style of behaving.
  • DYNAMIC TRAITS determine WHY a person responds
    to situations motivational elements.
  • ERG TRAIT drives, needs, or instincts-energy
  • METAERG TRAIT learned from environment
  • SENTIMENTS acquired predisposition cause
    attention to be paid to objects and feel and
    react in a certain way
  • MOST POWERFUL SENTIMENT IS SELF-SENTIMENT THAT
    ORGANIZES THE ENTIRE PERSONALITY.
  • ATTITUDE tendency to respond in a particular way
    in a particular situation to a particular object
    or event an interest.
  • CATTELL ALL HUMAN BEHAVIOR IS ULTIMATELY
    INSTINCTUAL

41
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • ENVIRONMENTAL-MOLD SOURCE TRAITS result from
  • experience external from social institutions
    and physical realities
  • resulting in a cultural pattern.
  • ABILITY SOURCE TRAITS determine how effectively
    a person
  • works towards a desired goal effectiveness in
    solving problems how
  • WELL a person responds to a situation.
  • FLUID INTELLIGENCE general intelligence, innate,
    adapts to all kinds of material 65 inherited.
    (Culture Free IQ Test)
  • CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE general factor,
    primarily learned in school, from past
    application of fluid intelligence and intensity
    of schooling-vocabulary and math tests 60
    inherited.
  • PERSONALITY SPHERE like periodic table of basic
    elements describe basic elements of personality.

42
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CATTELL HEREDITY VS. ENVIRONMENT
  • MAVA Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis
    compares members of
  • same, unrelated families raised together or
    apart, e.g. identical twins,
  • fraternal twins, siblings, unrelated.
  • Conclusion
  • Heredity plays a significant role in the
    development of some traits.
  • Fluid Intelligence about 65 genetically
    determined.
  • Active Disposition about 70 genetically
    determined.
  • Superego Strength largely a function of
    environmental influences.
  • Ego Strength Self-Sentiment strongly
    influenced by heredity.
  • CONCLUSION personality is about two-thirds
    determined by ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES about
    one-third by HEREDITY.

43
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
  • CATTELLS MULTIPLE INFLUENCE APPROACH (Cattell
    believed
  • personality development is a function of both
    MOTIVATION and
  • LEARNING.
  • LEARNING responsible for the development of
    SENTIMENTS ATTITUDES
  • Classical Conditioning a new stimulus gets
    attached to an old
  • response by occurring a moment before the old
    stimulus.
  • Learning emotional responses toward people and
    objects.
  • Phobias
  • Instrumental Conditioning (operant conditioning)
    learning to perform a response that will
    produce a reward.
  • How specific acts are learned that satisfy
    specific needs.
  • Structured Learning when one element of
    personality changes, it changes the entire
    configuration of traits.
  • One configuration of traits exists before
    learning and another exists after learning.
  • E.g. Pebble in pond

44
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • B. EARLY EXPERIENCE
  • Early experiences exert a strong influence on
    development of certain personality traits.
  • High affectia person comes from a warm, loving
    home.
  • Proneness to dominance and guilt characterize
    adults whose parents were authoritarian, used
    physical punishment, and were highly critical
  • Oldest child tends to be high in dominance, ego
    strength and conservatism but low in
    self-sentiment strength.
  • C. SYNTALITY much behavior is determined by
    their
  • GROUP AFFILIATIONS
  • Syntality is a GROUPS TRAITS.
  • Families, religions, schools, peer groups
    nations
  • Studying understanding group traits can help
    explain an individuals traits.

45
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • PSYCOHOPATHOLOGY
  • A. REASONS FOR PSYCHOPATHOLOY
  • Abnormal imbalance of the normal personality
    traits.
  • Possession of abnormal traits.
  • B. ABNORMAL PERSONS
  • Like normal persons-possess all of the normal
    source traits.
  • Also possess pathological traits.
  • Individuals with serious psychopathology are
    QUANTITATIVELY OR QUALITATIVELY different from
    normal individuals.

46
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • PSYCHOTHERAPY (ECLECTIC)
  • Psychotherapy should be PRECEDED by a precise
    personality-factor assessment.
  • Defines exactly what the problem is
  • Aids the clinician to determine the most
    effective treatment procedure.
  • Changes occurring in treatment need to be
    assessed.
  • THEREAPEUTIC TREATMENT eclectic type is
    dictated by the type
  • of disorder determined by precise ASSESSMENT.
  • Severe psychosis is best treated by drugs or
    electric shock.
  • Certain Neuroses treated by dream analysis and
    reliving traumatic experience.
  • Minor problems some form of behavior therapy.

47
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • EVALUATION
  • EMPIRICAL RESEARCH used assessments to determine
    personality profiles.
  • PREDICTIVE theory of personality must predict
    behavior.
  • DETERMINIST behavior is a function of a finite
    number of variables. Human behavior can be
    predicted with complete accuracy IF the variables
    are completely known.
  • Prediction of behavior will always be
    probabilistic all variables influencing behavior
    can never be known.
  • The more we known about the various traits of a
    person, the better we can predict his or her
    behavior.

48
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CRITICISMS
  • SUBJECTIVE
  • What to study about people-decide
  • What will be accepted as evidence of a factor-how
    many, how much.
  • How many factors need to be postulated to account
    for the result.
  • Difficult to replicate many of Cattells
    findings.
  • BEHAVIOR IS NOT AS CONSISTENT AS FACTOR THEORY
    SUGGEST.
  • Excessive emphasis on groups and averages may
    yield average traits that no person actually
    possessed.
  • REIFICATION assume a verbal label refers to
    something that exists physically. Little
    evidence that source traits super-factors have
    material existence.

49
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CONTRIBUTIONS
  • Pioneering scientific efforts
  • Use of scientific methodology in the study of
    personality.
  • BEYONDISM combining scientific rigor with
    compassion for
  • the human situation.
  • Places great value on evolutionary principles
    such as fitness and natural selection.
  • Relationship between BIOLOGICAL CULTURAL
    evolution is important.
  • Religion is based on scientific facts whose
    effectiveness can be objectively evaluated.
  • Replace traditional religious foundation of
    morality with scientific objectivity.

50
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • SUMMARY
  • Studied personality by measuring large groups of
    individuals in as many ways as possible. The
    measure are inter-correlated and displayed in a
    correlation matrix.
  • Factor Analysis highly or moderately correlated
    to attributes. Attributes are called TRAITS.
  • SURFACE TRAITS actually measured and expressed
    in overt behavior of some kind.
  • SOURCE TRAITS the underlying causes of overt
    behavior.
  • Provided scientific rigor to the study of
    personality.
  • Provided tools that can be used in a large number
    of applied areas clinical diagnoses, vocational
    and marital counseling, and personnel selection.

51
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CATTELLS TERMINOLOGY
  • ABILITY TRAIT determines how effectively a
    person works toward a desired goal-intelligence.
    (perseverance)
  • ATTITUDE learned tendency to respond in a
    particular situation to a particular object or
    event.
  • BEYONDISM scientific facts are utilized to
    create moral systems rather than religious
    illusions.
  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING type of learning in which
    a stimulus that did not originally elicit a
    response is made to do so.
  • CONSTITUTIONAL TRAIT genetically determined
    trait.
  • CORRELATION COEFFICIENT mathematical expression
    indicating the extent to which two variables are
    correlated. (1.00 to 1.00)
  • CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE intelligence that
    comes from formal education or from general
    experience. (IQ tests)
  • DETERMINISM behavior is a function of a finite
    number of variables, and if those variables were
    completely known, behavior could be predicted
    with complete accuracy.
  • DYNAMIC TRAIT motivational trait that sets a
    person in motion toward a goal.
  • FACTOR ability or characteristic that is thought
    to be responsible for consistent behavior. TRAIT.

52
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CATTELLS TERMINOLOGY
  • FLUID INTELLIGENCE general problem-solving
    ability that is largely innate.
  • INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING learning to make a
    response that will either make a reward available
    or remove an aversive stimulus.
  • P-technique type of factor analysis that studies
    how a single individuals traits change over
    time.
  • SENTIMENT learned predisposition to respond to a
    class of objects or evens in a certain way.
  • SOURCE TRAITS constitute a persons personality
    structure and are thus the ultimate causes of
    behavior.
  • STRUCTURED LEARNING learning that results in
    rearranging ones personality traits. CATTELL
    MOST IMPORTANT TYPE OF LEARNING.
  • SURFACE TRAITS outward manifestations of source
    traits-can be observed and measured.
  • TEMPERAMENT TRAIT constitutional source trait
    that determines a persons emotionality and style
    of behaving.
  • TRAIT either a group of interrelated overt
    behaviors (surface) or to the deeper determinant
    of such interrelated behavior (source). Surface
    traits provide information about source traits.

53
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • ALBERT BANDURA
  • 1925-Present
  • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
  • BACKGROUND
  • Born in Mundare, Province of Alberta, Canada
  • Worked on the Alaskan highway with many men
    escaping from problems.
  • Developed a keen appreciation for the
    Psychopathology of everyday life
  • STANFORD
  • Worked on the familial causes of aggression
  • Became aware of the importance of MODELING and
    OBSERVATIONAL learning for personality
    development.

54
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • WALTER MISCHEL (1930-present)
  • Studied delayed gratification, self-control, and
    the cognitive processes utilized by individuals
    in their interactions with the world.
  • Influenced by Rotter Kelly EMPHASIZED
    cognitive events in dealing with current
    situations and DEEMPHASIZED the importance of
    traits and early developmental experience.
  • Became a colleague of Bandura in 1962.
  • ASSUMPTIONS OF MOST PERSONALITY THEORISTS
  • A persons behavior is fairly consistent over
    time and across similar situations.
  • A person will behave in a characteristic way
    throughout most of their life.
  • Scores on personality tests and questionnaires
    would correlate significantly with actual
    behavior.
  • Tried to account for the consistency in behavior
    they assumed existed.
  • Psychoanalysis consistent behavior from
    repressed experiences, complexes, fixations,
    internalized values.
  • Learning Theory reinforced behavior tended to
    persist and transfer to similar situations.

55
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • MISCHEL Peace Corps Volunteers
  • Personality tests designed to measure traits were
    weak predictors of behavior.
  • People are better predictors of their own
    behavior
  • Conclusion human behavior is NOT very consistent
  • Traits and inner states are limited in predicting
    behavior-ILLUSIONARY CORRELATION
  • Practically impossible to predict how traits will
    manifest themselves in a persons behavior.
  • Traits contribute to a persons behavior but
    DONT PREDICT IT ACCURATELY.
  • PERSON (INTERNAL) VARIABLES traits, habits and
    repressed experiences
  • SITUATION (EXTERNAL) VARIABLES environmental
    circumstances in which a person find himself.

56
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
  • I. RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM
  • A. Variables
  • Person variables, situation variables, and
    behavior continuously interact with one another.
  • Situation Variables the setting in which a
    person behaves
  • Person Variables determines how a situation is
    analyzed and which behaviors are chosen
  • Behavior provides information concerning the
    persons analysis of the situation and modifies
    the environment. (p 151 diagram)
  • B. Implications
  • Peoples beliefs about themselves and the world
    will influence HOW they behave and the
    ENVIRONMENTS in which they place themselves.
  • Feedback from behavior and environmental
    experience will confirm or disconfirm peoples
    beliefs.
  • People activate different environmental reactions
    by their physical characteristics (sex) and
    socially conferred attributes, roles, and status.

57
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • C. PERSON VARIABLES (Social Cog. Theory)
  • Do not exclude person variables-extremely
    valuable
  • Not traits, habits and repressed experiences
  • ARE beliefs, values, and information-processing
    strategies.
  • II. COGNITIVE SOCIAL PERSON VARIABLES
  • A. ENCODING STRATEGIES How We See Things
  • Any given event can be construed or interpreted
    in a number of ways.
  • People are free to choose how they interpret
    their experiences.
  • Ex hot weather, meeting a person for the first
    time.
  • Provides consistency in behavior but not
    always-cross-situational behavior is not very
    consistent.
  • Determine what aspects of the world are attended
    to and how they are interpreted.

58
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • B. EXPECTANCIES What We Think Will Happen
  • Most important variable for actual performance is
    a persons expectations.
  • Behavior-outcome expectancy If I act in this
    way…following result
  • Stimulus-outcome expectancy If event 1
    occurs…event 2 will follow
  • Perceived Self-efficacy expectancy What a person
    thinks he or she is capable of doing in
    situations.
  • C. SUBJECTIVE VALUES What is worth having or
    doing?
  • Even if a strong behavior outcome expectancy and
    a strong self-efficacy expectancy-person may
    decide not to act.
  • Ones values will determine if translated into
    behavior.
  • D. SELF-REGULATORY SYSTEMS PLANS How do we
    attain our goals?
  • Human behavior is self-regulated.
  • Behavior is influenced MORE by INTRINSIC
    REINFORCEMENT and punishment than by EXTRINSIC
    REINFORCEMENT and punishment.
  • Human behavior is TELEOLOGICAL (purposive)

59
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • E. COMPETENCIES What we are capable of doing?
  • Competencies are tools available to a person in
    interacting (behaving) with the environment.
  • Competencies refer to what a person knows and
    what he or she is capable of doing.
  • III. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
  • A. Requires no direct personal reinforcement
  • Learning is a perceptual process
  • Contrasts with SKINNER direct reinforcement does
    NOT always influence learning.
  • Reinforcement influences what is attended to and
    determines which aspect of what has been learned
    is translated into behavior.
  • Individuals respond to vicarious reinforcement
    and vicarious punishment-what people see modeled
    influences their behavior-doesnt have to be
    personally experienced.
  • Whatever can be learned by direct experience can
    also be learned by vicarious experience.

60
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • B. News and Entertainment Media can be
    influential models
  • Influence of observing violence on TV and
    aggression
  • Parents modeling can influence learning and
    behavior
  • According to social cognitive theory what is
    observed is learned BUT certain processes
    influence what is attended to, retained, learned,
    translated into behavior and why it is translated
    into behavior.
  • C. Attention Processes
  • Aspects of the environment that influence
    attention-if similar to oneself, respected,
    considered powerful or attractive.
  • Depends on observer characteristics
  • Depends on consequences of past behavior
    positive or negative consequences.
  • D. Retention Processes
  • Experiences are stored either imaginably or
    verbally
  • Delayed modeling observational learning is
    translated into behavior long after the time it
    had been learned.
  • E. Motor Reproduction Processes
  • Must have the ability to translate learning into
    performance.
  • Cant be prevented from performing- injury,
    fatigue, illness.
  • Complex skills require all relevant information
    and rehearsals or attempts.

61
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • F. Motivational Processes
  • Must be an incentive to translate learning into
    behavior.
  • Reinforcement (direct or vicarious) can provide
    incentive to act.
  • Person places value on their translated behavior.
  • SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
  • TRANSLATION INTO ACTION
  • Observe something
  • Remember what was observed
  • Be able to perform the behaviors
  • Want to reproduce the behaviors.

62
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • Self-Exonerating Mechanisms WHY HUMAN BEHAVIOR
    IS
  • INCONSISTENT
  • Moral justification
  • Euphemistic labeling-soldiers
  • Advantageous comparison-somebody else is worse
    than me.
  • Displacement of responsibility-authority
  • Diffusion of responsibility-group decision
  • Disregard or distortion of consequences-removal
  • Dehumanization-Indians, mentally ill
  • Attribution of blame-someone else caused my
    behavior.
  • D. DELAY OF GRATIFICATION
  • Willingness to delay gratification can e learned
    by observing models.
  • Longest delay gratification relies on
    self-distraction strategies
  • Imposed or self-created distractions facilitate
    the ability to delay gratification.
  • High positive correlation between ability to
    delay SAT scores.
  • People with ability to self-distract can deal
    more effectively with pain, stress, and severe
    life crisis
  • Ability to delay gratification can be TAUGHT

63
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • V. DYSFUNCTIONAL EXPECTANCIES PSYCHOTHERAPY
  • A. Social Cog. Theory psychological problems
    result from DYSFUNCTIONAL EXPECTANCIES
  • Effective Therapy corrects and brings
    dysfunctional expectancies into line with
    reality.
  • B. PSYCHOTHERAPY
  • Goal change the clients perceived
    self-efficacy-become more realistic.
  • People need to have further experiences with the
    same types of objects, events or people that are
    positive.
  • Problem over generalized expectancy based on
    real experiences that is negative-disconfirming
    experiences.
  • Live modeling with participation is most
    effective, followed by symbolic modeling, and
    then desensitization.
  • Emphasis is on persons current perceptions and
    expectancies.

64
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • VI. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE
  • A. FREEDOM VS. DETERMINISM
  • Human nature is complex and rational
  • Human are NOT free to act independently of the
    environmental and personal influences in their
    lives
  • Human are NOT AUTONOMOUS
  • RECIPRICAL DETERMINISM people can influence both
    their behavior and environment.
  • BANDURA HUMANS ARE RATIONAL BUT DO NOT POSSESS
    AUTONOMOUS FREE WILL.
  • SOFT DETRMINIST human behavior is goal-oriented
    partially responsible for their own behavior.
  • Judgment and actions are partly self-determined
    but people can effect change in themselves and
    their situations through their own efforts.

65
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • B. FREEDOM AS OPTIONS
  • Freedom number of options available to people
    and their right to exercise them.
  • Freedom is limited by a persons options
  • Deficiencies in knowledge and skills
  • Perceptions of self-efficacy
  • Internal standards that are too stringent
  • Social sanctions that limit a person
    opportunities-discrimination
  • C. Chance Encounters and Life Paths
  • Chance Encounter unintended meeting of persons
    unfamiliar to each other.
  • Chance encounters can impact ones life and
    provide another reason for unpredictability of
    behavior.
  • Chance encounters can be fortuitous.
  • D. Mind-Body Relationship
  • SC Theory cognitive events are prominent
    causative agencies.
  • Cannot use how the brain works to create social
    conditions that cultivate the skills needed for a
    person to behave in a certain and effective way.

66
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • VII. EVALUATION
  • A. Empirical Research
  • Grounded in empirical research (like Cattell, and
    Skinner)
  • Best conclusion most people are consistent in
    their behavior some of the time and variable in
    their behavior the rest of the time.
  • B. Criticisms
  • Behavior Is More Consistent Than Social Cognitive
    Theory Claims-not true
  • Mental Events Cannot Cause Behavior form of
    operant reinforcement
  • Unfair to Psychoanalytic Theory unconscious
    conscious interplay ignored
  • Important Aspects of Personality Neglected
    unconscious motivation development maturation
    little about biological, hormonal, or
    maturational influences on personality.
  • Social Cognitive Theory Is Not Unified how the
    components relate to each other.

67
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • C. Contributions
  • Emphasis on Human Empirical Research terms
    precisely defined can be verified empirically.
  • Applied Value
  • Aggression, moral behavior, delay of
    gratification
  • Influence of models on behavior
  • Dysfunctional expectancies and how to correct
    the.
  • Self-regulation of behavior and importance of
    perceived self-efficacy.
  • Views humans optimistically
  • Emphasizes importance of the present or the
    future-not the past.

68
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • CARL ROGERS (1902-1987)
  • I. BIOGRAPHY
  • Born in Chicago-Oak Park
  • Protestant Christianity-almost fundamentalist
  • Moved to a farm-interest in science-farm run
    scientifically.
  • At 20, he declared his independence from his
    family
  • BA University of Wisconsin MA PHD Columbia
    University-clinical educational Psych.
  • Child Study Dept. Prev. of Cruelty to Children
  • Learned psychoanalytic approach was ineffective.
  • Learned that authorities could not agree on best
    treatment for troubled person.
  • Learned that looking for an insight into a
    problem often met with frustration.
  • Influenced by Adler and learned
  • Lengthy case histories are unnecessary
  • Therapist need not spend time probing past of
    patient.
  • LEARN MORE DETERMING HOW PATIENT RELATES TO HERE
    NOW

69
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • G. Faculty position at Ohio State University
    Clinical
  • Psychology
  • 1942 COUNSELING PSYCHOTHERAPY NEWER CONCEPTS
    IN PRACICE.
  • FIRST MAJOR ALTERNATIVE TO PSYCHOANALYSIS
  • H. Director of Counseling Services USO
  • University of Chicago Professor of Psychology
    Director of Counseling
  • CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY ITS CURRENT PRACTICE,
  • IMPLICATIONS THEORY (1951)
  • I. University of Wisconsin Inhumane treatment of
    graduate
  • students.
  • J. California Member of the Western Behavioral
    Sciences.
  • K. Center for the Studies of the Person La Jolla
    California

70
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • II. ACTUALIZING TENDENCY
  • SELF-ACTUALIZATION ONE MASTER MOTIVE, ONE
  • BASIC TENDECY STRIVING ACTUALIZE, MAINTAIN
    ENHANCE THE EXPERIENCING ORGANISM.
  • B. All humans all living organisms have
  • Innate need to survive, grow enhance
    themselves.
  • Forward thrust of life all biological drives
    are subsumed by actualizing tendency.
  • VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE OPPOSITE OF FREUD
  • All humans are basically good need no
    controlling.
  • Attempt to control humans makes them bad.
  • HUMANISTIC CAMP
  • Negative actions not in accordance with human
    nature result from FEAR DEFENSIVENESS.
  • Actualizing tendency causes person to become
    COMPLEX, INDEPENDENT SOCIALLY RSPONSIBLE.

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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
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  • III. ORGANISTIC VALUING PROCESS
  • Experiences in accordance with actualizing
    tendency are SATISFYING, APPROACHED MAINTAINED.
  • Experiences not in accordance with AT are
    UNSATISFYING, AVOIDED OR TERMINATED.
  • PEOPLE CAN TRUST THEIR FEELINGS If people are
    given the opportunity, they will choose WHAT IS
    BEST FOR THEM.
  • D. PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITION OF ROMANTICISM Valuing
    feelings (emotions) over the intellect
    BELIEVING IN THE INHRENT GOODNESS OF HUMANS.

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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
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  • IV. PHENOMENLOGICAL FIELD
  • People live in a subjective world known only to
    themselves.
  • Phenomenological reality (not physical world)
    that determines peoples BEHAVIOR.
  • Phenomenological reality is what the therapist
    must attempt to understand.
  • KELLY no innately determined condition driving
    toward actualization ROGERS YES.
  • EXPERIENCE all that is going on within the
    organisms environment-potentially available to
    Awareness.
  • AWARENESS when potential experiences become
    SYMBOLIZED, they enter awareness-could be words,
    visual auditory images.
  • Phenomenological field gradually differentiates
    SELF-can reflect on himself as distinct.

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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
OVERHEADS
  • V. NEED FOR POSITIVE REGARD
  • Positive regard was universal want others to
    feel good about them.
  • MEANS receiving warmth, love, acceptance from
    the RELEVANT PEOPLE IN ONES LIFE.
  • CONDITIONS OF WORTH circumstances in which child
    receives positive regard, internalized, become
    conscience or superego-guide behavior even when
    not monitored.
  • NEED FOR SELF-REGARD VIEW SELF POSITIVELY want
    to feel good about themselves. Based on someone
    elses values.
  • UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD experience
    positive regard no matter what they do.
  • LOVE THE PERSON NOT THE BEHAVIOR.

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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
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  • VI. INCONGRUENT PERSON
  • Out of balance organismic valuing process
    actualizing tendency creates INCONGRUENCY.
  • Result using someones intro-jected values
    results in ALIENATION between the SELF
    EXPEIENCE INCONGRUENCE IS THE CAUSE OF ALL HUMAN
    ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.
  • Eliminate incongruence and you solve problem.
  • ANXIETY when an event is encountered that
    threatens existing self-structure-SUBCEIVED NOT
    PERCEIVED.
  • SUBCEPTION detection of an experience before it
    enters full awareness.
  • DEFENSE editing experiences by using DENIAL
    DISTORTION.
  • Experience is denied symbolization because it is
    CONTRARY TO THE SELF-STRUCTURE
  • All individuals experience in congruency - when
    severe adjustment problems occur.

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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY CLASS PRESENTATIONS
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  • VII. PSYCHOTHERAPY
  • A. PSYCHOTHERAPY WAS PARAMOUNT-personality theory
  • develo
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