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Ludwig Van Beethoven 1770-1827 Born in Bonn Died in Vienna Ludwig Van Beethoven Third member of the great Viennese masters The great transitional composer By the time ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ludwig%20Van%20Beethoven

Ludwig Van Beethoven
  • 1770-1827
  • Born in Bonn
  • Died in Vienna

Ludwig Van Beethoven
  • Third member of the great Viennese masters
  • The great transitional composer
  • By the time he was 35 years old he was the most
    important composer in the world

BEETHOVEN 1770-1827
MOZART 1756-1789
HAYDN 1732-1809
  • Father and Grandfather were musicians.
  • Father was Ludwigs first music teacher.
  • His father was an alcoholic
  • Supported his family as a child
  • Showed an interest in composing very early

  • Louis van Beethoven a boy of 11 years and a
    most promising talent. He plays the clavier very
    skillfully and with power, reads at sight very
    well This youthful genius is deserving of help
    to enable him to travel. He would surely become a
    second Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were he to
    continue as he has begun.
  • Christian Gottlob Neefe

Young adulthood
  • Beethoven went to Vienna, Austria to learn more
    about composing when he was 17. He played for
  • He had to return home when his mother died, and
    help raise his brothers.

Return to Vienna
  • When Beethoven was 22 (1792), he moved to Austria
    and never returned to Germany.
  • He studied with Haydn

Ludwig Van Beethoven
  • True, its van, not the aristocratic von,
    but if someone mistakenly thinks Im a von of
    royal blood I certainly wont correct him.

Beethoven and Patronage
  • Patronage is gone. Besides, Beethoven considered
    himself equal to, not the servant of, any noble!
  • made his living by
  • selling compositions to publishers
  • concertizing as a pianist
  • 1st musician to make a living almost exclusively
    through composition

His temperament
  • Beethoven was not easy to be around. He had a
    temper, and he was very demanding.
  • He would get lost in his own thoughts and would
    get impatient with others when they didnt do
    what he thought they should do.
  • He criticized other musicians when they didnt
    perform his pieces the way he wanted them to
  • His whole life was very stormy there were many
    sad and discouraging times.

Beethovens Contract
  • But as it has been demonstrated that only one
    when he is free from care as possible can devote
    himself to a single department of activity and
    create works of magnitude which are exalted and
    which ennoble art, the undersigned have decided
    to place Herr Ludwig van Beethoven in a position
    where the necessities of life shall not cause him
    embarrassment or clog his powerful genius.

Beethovens Contract
  • His Imperial Highness, Archduke Rudolph
  • 1500 florins
  • The Highborn Prince Lobkowitz
  • 700 florins
  • The Highborn Prince Ferdinand Kinsky
  • 1800 Florins
  • Total. 4000 florins (150,000 USD)

Beethovens Contract
  • All Beethoven had to do was to declare Vienna his
  • It is good to walk among the aristocracy, but
    first you must MAKE them respect you.

Beethoven, the pianist
  • the most virtuosic in Europe
  • dazzling technique and power
  • genius improviser
  • a composer
  • much music for piano
  • piano is being developed
  • cast iron frame (stronger, more powerful
  • larger range (Beethoven wrote notes that were not
    on current pianos, then told manufacturers to
    build new instruments)

Losing his hearing
  • Beethoven began hearing buzzing in his ears.
  • At first he tried to hide his loss of hearing
    from his friends.
  • He continued to write music when he was deaf.
  • Beethoven tried many hearing devices, but none of
    them worked.
  • He could watch peoples lips to understand what
    they were saying, or have them write in a

Beethovens Deafness
  • Manifests itself as early as 1796
  • By 1820 he could barely hear
  • Heiligenstadt Testament
  • Letter Beethoven writes in 1802
  • Describes his illness and his melancholy

Ca. 1799, Beethoven learned his increasing
deafness was irreversible. Deep in despair, he
remained in Heiligenstadt the summer and fall of
1802 contemplating suicide.
Beethovens Deafness
  • Though born with a fiery, active temperament I
    was soon to withdraw from society, to live a life
    alone. If at times I tried to forget all this, oh
    how harshly was I flung back by the doubly sad
    experience of my bad hearing. Yet it wasnt
    possible for me to say to people, Speak Louder,
    shout for I am deaf! Ah, how could I possibly
    admit to an infirmity in the one sense that ought
    to be more perfect in me than in others, a sense
    that I once possessed in the highest degree.

  • How humiliated I have felt if somebody standing
    beside me heard the sound of a flute in the
    distance and I heard nothing...It is impossible
    for me to say to people, Speak louder, for I am
    deaf. How would it be possible for me to admit
    to a weakness of the one sense that should be
    perfect to a higher degree in me than in theirs.
    So forgive me if you see me draw back from your
    company which I would so gladly share. I would
    have ended my life. It was only my art that held
    me back for it seemed impossible to leave the
    world until I have brought forth all that is
    within me.
  • Beethoven

Medical methods back then...
  • Doctors poured warm milk and crushed nuts in
    Beethovens ears, telling him that this would
    help restore his hearing!
  • Doctors rubbed Beethovens arms with an ointment
    until they blistered, then punctured and drained
    the blisterstelling him that this would help
    restore his hearing!

Beethovenian Pathos
  • Man at some unexpected time in his life will sink
    to the depths of his existence, into the depths
    of chaos. It is only HE that can make the
    decision to turn the chaos into a triumphant
    victory. Rising out of the depths of human chaos
    is humanitys primary task for survival.

Beethovenian Pathos
  • Shows up in music.
  • Sense of despair.
  • Sense of acceptance
  • Sense of reconciliation
  • Sense of victory over despair.

  • I am resolved to rise superior to every
    obstacle. With whom need I be afraid of
    measuring my own strength? I will take Fate by
    the throat. It shall not overcome me. O how
    beautiful it is to be alivewould that I could
    live a thousand times.
  • -Beethoven

Beethovens death
  • Beethoven died in Vienna, Austria in 1827.
  • Thousands of people lined the streets during his
    funeral procession to pay tribute.

Beethoven, the composer
  • Wrote many works for piano
  • Wrote music that required improvement of the
  • For years, his compositions drew mixed reactions
  • Critics and journalists hassled himIntellect,
    Intellect, Intellect. Why must Herr Beethoven
    write such difficult and complex music? It
    sounds like cats fighting! Cannot he write a
    decent singable melody?

  • I carry my thoughts within me long, often very
    long before I write them down. As I know what I
    want, the fundamental idea never deserts me. It
    mounts, it grows in stature. I hear, I see the
    picture in its whole extent standing all of a
    piece before my spirit, and there remains for me
    only the task of writing it down.
  • -Beethoven

Some of his Works
  • 32 Piano Sonatas
  • Moonlight Sonata
  • Sonata Pathetique
  • Fur Elise
  • Fidelio (his only opera)
  • 9 Symphonies
  • Choral Symphony 9 (Ode to Joy)
  • Beethovens Fifth 5
  • Pastorale ..6

Beethoven Symphonies
  • Supreme architect
  • Tied all movements into a theme
  • 5th
  • Fate versus hope

Beethoven Symphonies
  • 9th
  • Finale
  • Ode To Joy

Jacques Louis David
Coronation of Napoleon
Jacques Louis David
Napoleon in his study
Symphony 5 C minor op. 67.
  • Archetypical Sonata Allegro Form.
  • Three note motive.
  • Shows up throughout the whole symphony.
  • What is this piece about?

Beethoven Piano Sonata in C minor. Pathetique
  • Beethovenian Pathos in each movement
  • Dramatic quality, sudden dynamic changes
  • Adagio section that is hymn-like
  • 2nd and 3rd movements are in Rondo form

Beethovenian Pathos
  • Mvt.1 Slow intro
  • Tempo rubato
  • Sense of sadness and then anger/ desperation as
    the music moves to the fast section.

Beethovenian Pathos
  • Mvt. 2. Slow and hymnl-ike
  • Sense of calm acceptance
  • Familiar theme

Beethovenian Pathos
  • Mvt. 3.
  • Rising out of chaos.
  • Sounds of triumph.

Ludwig van Beethoven
  • composed by evolving and revising musical ideas
    and compositions
  • kept notebooks of themes and ideas
  • Bs manuscripts, unlike Mozarts, are a MESS--a
    sea of cross-outs, arrows, re-writes, etc.
  • Much of Bs music was composed in deafness (total
    by age 29!) He could only hear the music in his
  • works are larger, longer, more complex
  • TRANSITION composer
  • Bs last two composition periods and styles
    clearly point the way to the coming Romanticism.
  • composed for himself and future, NOT for
    publishers or middle class market
  • For Beethoven music is much more important to
    human existence than mere entertainment!

  • 1. Early years
  • a. Beethoven born in Bonn
  • b. Studied under Christian
  • Gottlob Neefe (1748-98)
  • 1. Court organist at Bonn
  • 2. Wrote Singspiels and songs
  • c. 1787 Brief visit to Vienna,
  • may have played for Mozart
  • d. 1790 Haydn hears Beethoven's music
  • and urges the archbishop of
  • to send him to Vienna

  • 2. Vienna
  • a. Beethoven moves to Vienna in November of
  • b. Studies with a number of composers
  • 1. 1792-94 studied with Haydn
  • 2. 1794 Johann Schenk (1753-1836)
  • composer of
  • 3. 1794 Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
  • teaches Beethoven
  • 4. Antonio Salieri (1750-1825)
  • teaches vocal composition

  • 3. Compositional overview
  • a. 9 symphonies b. 11 overtures
  • c. Incidental music to plays
  • d. 1 violin concerto e. 5 piano
  • f. 16 string quartets g. 9 piano trios
  • h. 10 vioin sonatas i. 5 cello
  • j. 30 large piano sonatas
  • k. Numerous piano variations
  • l. 1 oratorio m. 1 opera
  • n. 2 Masses (including the Missa Solemnis in
  • o. Arias, songs and 1 song cycle

His Musical Style Three Periods
  • 1. Classical Elements Musical style learned at
    the hands of Mozart and Haydn.
  • Use of sonata allegro form. Perfect architecture
    in his music.
  • Balanced melodies.
  • Diatonic Harmony

  • 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven
  • a. It is customary to divide Beethoven's
  • into three periods on the basis
    of style and chronology
  • b. "Bonn" period is usually not taken into

  • 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven
    Historiography (cont.)
  • c. Periodic breakdown
  • 1. Early Period in Vienna (1792-1802 )
  • Six String Quartets, Op.18/1-6
  • The first 10 piano sonatas (through Op.14)
  • Symphonies 1 2

  • 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven
    Historiography (cont.)
  • C. Periodic breakdown
  • 2. Middle Period Beethoven's "Heroic" period
  • Symphonies 3-8 - Egmont
  • Coriolan overture - Fidelio
  • Piano concertos in G and Eb - Violin concerto
  • Piano sonatas through Op.90
  • String quartetsOp.59/1-3 ("Rasumovsky"), Op.74
    ("Harp"), Op.95 ("Quartetto serioso")

  • 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven
    Historiography (cont.)
  • c. Periodic breakdown
  • 3. Late Period Reflective and
    introspective style
  • ( 1817-1827)
  • Last 5 piano sonatas
  • Diabelli Variations
  • Missa solemnis

First Period
  • Sonatas
  • 1. Op.2/1-3 (f,A,C) Publ.1796
  • Dedicated to Haydn
  • 2. Op.7 (Eb) publ. in 1797
  • 3. Op.10 No.1 (c min.)
  • 4. Op.13 "Pathetique" slow mov't

First Period
  • Characteristic texture
  • 1. Frequent use of octaves
  • 2. Thick piano writing

First Period
  • Contemporaries that may have influenced
  • 1. Muzio Clementi (1752-1832)
  • 2. Jan Ladislav Dussek (1760-1812)
  • 3. Dussek's Grande Sonate, Op.44 "Les
  • adieux" (Eb) publ.1800 may have
  • Beethoven's Op.81a "Les adieux" of 1810

Second Period
  • Expanded works.
  • Form, melody, dynamics
  • Explosive accents.
  • Longer Movements in Symphonies
  • Hymn-like calmness in his slower movements.

Second Period
  • A. Background
  • B. Symphony no.3 (Eb) "Eroica"
  • C. Fidelio
  • D. Piano Sonatas
  • E. Piano Concertos

Second Period
  • A. Background
  • 1. By 1803 Beethoven was recognized as the
  • foremost pianis and composer for
  • 2. Patronage differed from that of Mozart
    and Haydn,
  • Beethoven was extremely
    independent, and drove a
  • hard bargain both with publishers
    and patrons

Second Period
  • B. Symphony no.3 (Eb) "Eroica Composed in 1803
  • 1. Originally dedicated to Napoleon but
  • tears up dedication when Napoleon
  • himself Emperor in 1804. 1806
  • "Heroic Symphony... to celebrate
    the memory
  • of a great man"
  • 2. Significance
  • a. Expansive movements and
    extraordinary length
  • b. 2nd mov't is a funeral march (C
  • c. 4th mov't is a set of variations
    (w/fugato episodes)

Second Period
  • C. Fidelio
  • Compositional history
  • a. Most problematic compostion as
    it was revised numrous times
  • b. Composed initially in 1803,
    First perf. in Vienna in 1805
  • c. 1805-1806
  • - Originally has 3 acts but
    revises and shortens to 2 acts
  • - March 1806 perf. of this
    version is immediately withdrawn
  • d. 1814 version The 1st successful
    production (extensive revision)

Second Period
  • D. Piano Sonatas
  • 1. Op.27/1-2 From ca.1802 known as the
  • "Moonlight" Sonata
  • Each designated as "quasi una
  • 2. Op.53 (C) "Waldstein Sonata" and
  • Op.57 (f) "Appassionata"
  • Exemplary piano works of the
    middle period
  • Each is in three mov't scheme
  • Formal schemes of the sonata,
    rondo and
  • variation are stretched to
    the limits

Second Period
  • E. Piano Concertos
  • 1. Composed concertos for his own
  • concert appearances
  • 2. Piano concertos nos.1-3 (C,Bb,c)
  • All date from early years in Vienna
  • Concertos influenced by Mozart
  • 3. Violin Concerto, D maj. Op.61 (1806)

Third Period
  • A. Background
  • 1. 1810-1815 as a prosperous period for
  • 2. Health deteriorating, deafness
  • 3. Compositional output in the final
  • a. 1816-1821 last 5 piano sonatas
  • b. 1822 Missa Solemnis
  • c. 1823 Diabelli Variations
  • d. 1824 Symphony no.9
  • e. 1825-26 String Quartets

Third Period
  • B. Characteristics of the late style --
    Meditative quality
  • a. Manifest in the extensive development of
  • b. Late use of variation forms --gt thematic
  • lengthier passages subjected to dev.
    rather than
  • short bar-long motives
  • c. Variation techniques used by Haydn, Mozart and

Third Period
  • B. Characteristics of the late style (Cont.)
  • Meditative quality (Cont.)
  • e. Fugato and use of contrapuntal textures
  • 1. Fugal movements
  • a. Finales of Op.106 and 110 Piano
  • b. Grosse Fuge
  • c. Gloria and Credo of the Mass in D
  • d. 2 double fugues in the finale of
    the 9th Symphony
  • f. Use of nontraditional movement plans
  • 1. Op.111 Piano Sonata 2 mov't
  • 2. Op.131 String Quartet (Cmin) 7
    sections (mov't)

Third Period
  • C. Mass in D
  • 1. Beethoven regarded the Mass as his
    greatest work
  • 2. Mass as a single musical unity, a
    symphony in 5 mov't
  • D. Ninth Symphony
  • 1. Premiered on May 7, 1824
  • 2. Significant features
  • a. Choral finale
  • 1. Setting of Schiller's "Ode
    to Joy"
  • 2. Beethoven selects stanzas
  • universal brotherhood
    of man
  • b. Double fugue in the finale

Final period
  • Chromatic harmonies.
  • Easier to produce for Beethoven due to the fact
    that the hands did not have to move so far on the
  • Music? Not for you.. For a later time.

Beethoven is Power, the strangler of fate, who
bowed neither to any man or to lesser gods. With
men who do not believe in me I cannot and will
not associate. - Beethoven His music
reflects the complete emancipation of human
emotion and mind. No composer was more
committed to the struggle of mankind. Bach wrote
for the Glory of God, Mozart because genius must
out, (and because he had to eat), Beethoven to
impose his will on the world. - All quotes
from Goulding text
Symphony No. 5, 1st Movement Coda Symphony No. 9,
Ode to Joy
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps,
Beethoven did not succumb to this, the gravest of
a musicians ills. Instead he composed the
heroic and remarkably optimistic Third Symphony.
It is today one of the best loved
orchestral works ever written.
Ferdinand Ries recalls the piano contest with
Stiebelt Stiebelt again played a quintet with
much success and in addition (and this was quite
evident) had prepared a brilliant improvisation,
choosing as the theme the subject of the
variations of Beethoven's trio (Op.11). This
outraged not only Beethoven's supporters but also
the composer himself. He now had to seat himself
at the piano in order to improvise. He went in
his usual, I must say ungracious, manner to the
instrument as if half lunging towards it,
grabbing as he passed, the 'cello part of
Stiebelt's quintet, placed it (intentionally?)
upside down on the music stand and from the
opening notes drummed out a theme with one
finger. Offended and stimulated at the same
time, he improvised in such a manner that
Stiebelt left the room before Beethoven had
finished. He refused ever to meet him again in
fact he made it a condition that Beethoven should
not be invited anywhere where his company was

Ferdinand Ries describes the concert of 22 Dec
1808 Beethoven gave a large concert in the
Theater an der Wien at which were performed for
the first time the 5th and 6th Symphonies as well
as his Fantasia for Piano/orchestra and chorus.
In this last work, at the place where the last
theme already appears in a varied form, the
clarinet player made, by mistake, a repeat of 8
bars. Since only a few instruments were playing,
this error was all the more evident to the ear.
Beethoven leapt up in a fury, turned round and
abused the orchestra players in the coarsest
terms and so loudly that he could be heard
throughout the auditorium. Finally he shouted
"From the beginning! The concert was a great
success, but afterwards the artists remembering
only too well the honourable title which
Beethoven had bestowed on them in public swore
never to play for Beethoven again - this went on
until Beethoven composed something new and their
curiosity got the better of them.
Ludwig Reelstab on Beethoven's deafness
Beethoven This is a beautiful piano! I got
it as a gift from London. Look at the name!" He
pointed with his finger to the strip of wood
above the keyboard. It is a wonderful present,
said Beethoven looking at me "and it has a
beautiful tone," he continued turning towards the
piano without taking his eyes off me. He struck
a chord softly. Never will another chord pierce
me to the quick with such sadness and heartbreak.
He has played C major in the right hand and B
natural in the bass he looked at me steadily and
repeated the false chord several times to let the
mild tone of the instrument sound, and the
greatest musician on earth could not hear the
  • Beethoven
  • Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67
  • Symphony
  • I Standard symphony format
  • IMP Romantic characteristics
  • cyclicism

It looks like a classical symphony, but mark this
well Underneath that polite, perhaps
predictable, exterior rages an overwhelming storm
of romanticism.
Music Journalism
  • CA 1790 Music Journalism exploded on the European
    scene. Middle class people wanted to read
    essays, analyses, and criticisms about new
    compositions, performers, instruments, concert
    halls, etc. (ANYTHING MUSIC!) They bought music
    newspapers, journals, and magazines by the
    millions. While these music rags loved and
    praised Beethovens pianistic virtuosity (until
    deafness curtailed his playing), they mercilessly
    and audaciously condemned most of his
    compositions! Intellect, intellect, intellect!
    Herr Beethovens music is too complex. It isnt
    musical entertainment its intellectual mind
    games. Once again Beethoven wrote something
    that no one wants to hear. These invectives and
    journalistic fulminations bothered Beethoven a
    great deal. However, he is known to have replied
    to at least one upstart reporter, Of course you
    dont understand it (implying the interviewer had
    neither the intelligence nor world view). I
    wrote the piece for future generations. They
    will understand and appreciate it. He was

Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1Kamien, p. 193, CD 2
Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda T1 B
T2 CT T1 B T2 Ct What? How?
LONG!New ideas
What change from Expos?
What instruments?
What instruments?
  • Sonata form

Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1Kamien,
Exposition Development Recapitulation T1 B T2
CT T1 B T2 Ct What? How?
LONG!New ideas
What change from Expos?
What instruments?
What instruments?
  • Sonata form

Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1
D e v e l o p m e n t
Based on Th 2
Reminder of Th 1
Horn call w/ new answer
2 notes of horn call!
1 note of horn call!!
Theme 2 reminder
Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1
Click for guided listening to the entire
Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1
D e v e l o p m e n t
Based on Th 2
Reminder of Th 1
Based on Th 1
Horn callw/ new answer
2 notes of horn call!
New melody,motive R
Th 1melody R
1 noteof horn call!!
motive is ubiquitous!
Reminder of Th 2
Back to1 note
Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1
Click for guided listening to the
recapitulation and coda.
Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1
R e c a p i t u l a t i o n
Theme 2
Closing Th
Theme 1
Subdued horns Bassoons! in accompa-niment
Important addition
Yes! It was an oboe. Now it continues w/ a
short cadenza.
motive is ubiquitous!
Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1
C o d a
Long! based mostly on motive some new ideas
Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1
Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda T1 B
T2 CT T1 B T2 Ct What?
  • This movement is UNIFIED like no earlier piece
    had ever been!

Listen to entire piece
Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 2
  • I contrasting key time out,
    lyrical double theme variations (Why not a
  • A B A B A (?)
    A Coda
    A B Mood?

Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 3
  • I scherzo (joke) minuet trio form
    triple meter BUT character is rough and
    rollicking, not genteel

energy level? Perceived tempo? Texture? Dynamic? V
irtuoso double bass
motive R
Symphony No. 5Bridge between mvts. 3 4
  • Listen for
  • timpani motive R
  • repeated patterns--high strings
  • ambiguous mode (How will this symphony end?)
  • C minor? (turmoil, struggle, failure)
  • C major? (victory, triumph, overcoming)
  • Crescendo at end leads to Mvt 4

Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 4
Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda T1 B
T2 CT T1 B T2 Ct What? How?
VERY LONG!Earlier themes reviewed including
motive R!
motive Ra la mvt 3
C Major! Triumphant mood
Symphony No. 5
  • Mvt 1 motive used in every part of sonata
  • Cyclicism motive used in Mvts 1, 3, 3-4
    bridge, 4. (It is even obscurely used in mvt
  • Mvts 3 4 tied together by ambiguous bridge

Symphony No. 5Romantic Notions
  • 1. Postponement of gratification, emotional
  • 2. Conflict struggle idea of C minor
  • 3. Symphony is more highly unified than earlier
  • 4. Symphony deals with emotion, passion

Mvt. 1 Mvt. 2 Mvt. 3 Mvt. 4C
minor C Major
  • Beethoven
  • String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4, Mvt. 4
  • String Quartet movement
  • I rondo

String quartet ??
What is the meaning of Op. (opus)?
Rondo Form
Beethoven String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No.
4, Mvt. 4
B A Coda aababa ccdcdc
aababa eeff
Unity ? Contrast ?
Rondo Form
Beethoven String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No.
4, Mvt. 4
A B A aababa
Unity ? Contrast ?
Rondo Form
Beethoven String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No.
4, Mvt. 4
A a a b a b a
Q u e s t i o n
Q u e s t i o n
Q u e s t i o n
A n s w e r
A n s w e r
A n s w e r
A n s w e r
Q u e s t i o n
Opening Phrase Incomplete cadence
Closing Phrase Complete cadence
Rondo Form
Beethoven String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No.
4, Mvt. 4
B A Coda aababa ccdcdc
aababa eeff Rhythm ? ? ? Major ? ?
? Minor ? ? ? Style ? ?
? Energy ? ? ?
How doesBeethoventreat theupward scales?
Unity ? Contrast ?
Click the record, listen, track theform,
describe points of contrastbetween the A, B, and
C sections.
Beethoven Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 61.
  • Third Movement
  • Written in 1806
  • From his first and second period of compositional
  • Development of a five note motive.

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
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