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Human Nervous System

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Human Nervous System Bombick 7th Grade Science November 2010 Outline of Presentation A. Nerve Cell Biology 1. Anatomy 2. Physiology B. Parts of Nervous System 1. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Nervous System


1
Human Nervous System
  • Bombick
  • 7th Grade Science
  • November 2010

2
Outline of Presentation
  • A. Nerve Cell Biology
  • 1. Anatomy
  • 2. Physiology
  • B. Parts of Nervous System
  • 1. Brain
  • 2. Spinal Cord
  • 3. Peripheral Nerves
  • C. Nervous System Physiology
  • 1. Brain Physiology
  • 2. Autonomic System
  • D. Human Psychology
  • E. Pharmaceuticals and Psychotropic agents

3
Nerve Cell Biology
4
Nerve Cell Physiology
  • Nerve impulse (think of it as a wave) travels
    down the axon because ions (sodium and potassium)
    temporarily travel across the plasma membrane
  • Nerve impulse at a synapse releases a
    neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles
  • Neurotransmitter crosses the synapse and binds to
    specific receptors to start another nerve impulse
    on the other nerve cell
  • Neurotransmitter that travelled across the
    synapse is destroyed or reabsorbed by the nerve
    cell
  • Large number of drugs and biochemicals interact
    with this physiological mechanism

5
Nervous System Anatomy
  • Nervous system can be divided into two major
    componentscentral and peripheral nervous system
  • Central nervous system is comprised of the brain
    and spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous system is comprised of nerves
    that come off the brain (cranial) or spinal cord
    (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacrolumbar)

6
Brain Anatomy
  • Brain contains many folds and convolutions to
    increase surface area
  • Brain can be separated into three principle
    regionsforebrain, cerebellum, and brain stem

7
Brain Functions-Brain Stem
  • Brain stem is comprised of medulla, pons, and
    midbrain
  • The medulla is the center for respiration,
    cardiovascular, and digestive functions
  • The pons has inhibitory control centers for
    respiration and interacts with the cerebellum
  • The midbrain is involved with the regulation of
    walking and posture and of reflexes for head and
    eye movements

8
Brain Functions-Cerebellum
  • Cerebellum is located behind the brain stem
  • Cerebellum is involved in movement coordination
  • Involved in the vestibular apparatus

9
Brain Functions-Forebrain
  • Forebrain is comprised of two principle organized
    regionsa lower diencephalon and a higher
    telencephalon
  • The diencephalon is comprised of the hypothalamus
    and the thalamus
  • The hypothalamus is a homeostatic center
    controlling body temperature, blood sugar, hunger
    and satiation, and sexual behavior
  • The thalamus is a complex relay station that
    integrates sensory signals and relays them to the
    cerebral cortex also involved in motor control

10
Brain Functions-Forebrain (cont.)
  • The telencephalon of the forebrain contains two
    nearly symmetrical cerebral hemispheres
  • The cerebral hemispheres contain the cerebral
    cortex, the basal ganglia, and the limbic system
  • Each hemisphere is divided into four distinct
    areasfrontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal

11
Brain Functions-Forebrain (cont.)
  • Frontal lobe is involved in learning, planning,
    speech, other psychological functions, and some
    motor functions
  • Parietal lobe is involved in some sensory
    functions (e.g., skin senses) important in
    certain cognitive and intellectual processes
  • Occipital lobe is involved in visual functions
  • Temporal lobe is involved in hearing functions
    and associated speech centers important
    involvement in memory

12
Brain Functions-Forebrain (cont.)
  • Basal ganglia helps plan and coordinate gross
    voluntary movements
  • In lower animals the basal ganglia are the
    highest motor structures
  • Limbic system is comprised of the hippocampus,
    amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and the septum
  • Limbic system works with the hypothalamus to
    control the expression of instinctive behavior,
    emotions, and drives
  • Hippocampus and amygdala also have major
    cognitive functions, mainly in processing of
    memory
  • Limbic system of mammals are similar indicating
    similar instinctive behaviors common to all
    mammals

13
Simple Anatomy of the Human Brain
14
Important Note about Brain Function
Even though many functions can be localized to
specific regions of the brain, there are many
connections via fiber pathways throughout the
brain resulting in the brain working as a whole.
This is true for the global functions of the
brain such as learning, memory, and consciousness.
15
Autonomic Nervous System
  • The autonomic nervous system and the endocrine
    (hormone) system control the bodys internal
    organs. It innervates smooth muscle, cardiac
    muscle, and glands, controlling the circulation
    of blood, the activity of the gastrointestinal
    tract, body temperature, and a number of other
    body functions. Most of this control is not
    conscious.

16
Autonomic Nervous System (cont.)
  • The autonomic nervous system is divided into two
    parts, the sympathetic and parasympathetic
    nervous systems, whose actions are mostly
    antagonistic. Many organs are supplied by nerves
    from each division, but some are not. The
    sympathetic nervous system is activated in times
    of crisis (fight or flight) while the
    parasympathetic nervous system operates in
    ordinary times.

17
Autonomic Nervous System (cont.)
  • Autonomic nervous system also stimulates the
    secretions of the adrenal gland
  • The principle secretion of the adrenal gland is
    epinephrine (adrenalin)
  • Epinephrine further effects other parts of organ
    systems in the autonomic nervous system response
    (fight or flight)

18
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
19
Psychopharmacotherapy
  • Antipsychotics (Neuropleptics)-Gradually reduce
    psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations,
    delusions, paranoia, disordered thinking, and
    incoherence. Examples include Haldol, Mellaril,
    Thorazine, and Clozapine
  • Antidepressants (Thymoleptics)-Designed to
    relieve symptoms of depression. Examples include
    Tofranil, Elavil, Prozac, Anafranil, and Nardil

20
Psychopharmacotherapy (cont.)
  • Antianxiety Drugs (Anxiolytics)-Commonly called
    tranquilizers, these mood-altering substances are
    calming, reduce anxiety and stress, and lower
    excitability. They are the mose widely
    prescribed of all legal drugs. Examples include
    Librium, Valium, Xanax, BuSpar, Equanil, Miltown,
    and Tranxene.
  • Antimania Drugs (Lithium)-If taken regulary,
    lithium carbonate can be effective in preventing
    both the depression and mania associated with
    bipolar disorder. Examples include Lithium
    carbonate and Eskalith.
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