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Describe the relationship between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.


Objectives For Chapter 25 Describe the relationship between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Compare the somatic nervous system with the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Describe the relationship between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

Objectives For Chapter 25
  • Describe the relationship between the central
    nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
  • Compare the somatic nervous system with the
    autonomic nervous system.
  • List one function of each part of the brain.
  • List four sensations that are detected by
    receptors in the skin.
  • Describe how a feedback mechanism works.
  • Describe how light relates to sight.
  • Describe how the senses of hearing, taste, and
    smell work.
  • Explain why the endocrine system is important to
    the body.
  • Identify five glands of the endocrine system, and
    describe what their hormones do.
  • Describe how feedback mechanisms stop and start
    hormone release.
  • Name two hormone imbalances.

The Nervous System
  • The central nervous system (CNS) includes the
    brain and the spinal cord.
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is all the
    parts of the nervous system except the brain and
    spinal cord.
  • The peripheral nervous system has nerves made of
    axons of neurons.
  • Sensory neurons have receptors that detect
    information about the body and its environment.
    Motor neurons carry messages from the brain and
    spinal cord to other parts of the body.
  • The PNS has two types of motor nerves somatic
    nerves and autonomic nerves.
  • The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and
    controls thinking, sensing, and voluntary
  • The cerebellum is the part of the brain that
    keeps track of the bodys position and helps
    maintain balance.
  • The medulla controls involuntary processes, such
    as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature,
    and breathing.

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Responding to the Environment
  • Touch allows you to respond to temperature,
    pressure, pain, and vibration on the skin.
  • Reflexes and feedback mechanisms help you respond
    to your environment.
  • Sight allows you to respond to light energy.
  • Hearing allows you to respond to sound energy.
  • Taste allows you to distinguish flavors.
  • Smell allows you to perceive different odors.

The Endocrine System
  • Glands in the endocrine system use chemical
    messengers called hormones to control bodily
  • Hormones regulate body functions by causing
    changes in cells or tissues.
  • Feedback mechanisms tell endocrine glands when to
    turn hormones on and off.
  • A hormone imbalance is when a gland releases too
    much or too little of a hormone.

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Objectives For Chapter 26
  • Distinguish between sexual and asexual
  • Explain the difference between external and
    internal fertilization.
  • Identify three different types of mammalian
  • Identify the structures and functions of the male
    and female reproductive systems.
  • Describe two reproductive system problems.
  • Summarize the processes of fertilization and
  • Describe the development of the embryo and the
  • Identify the stages of human development from
    birth to death.

Animal Reproduction
  • In asexual reproduction, a single parent produces
    offspring that are genetically identical to the
  • In sexual reproduction, an egg from one parent
    combines with a sperm from the other parent.
  • Fertilization can be external or internal.
  • All mammals reproduce sexually and nurture their
    young with milk.

Human Reproduction
  • The male reproductive system produces sperm and
    delivers it to the female reproductive system.
  • The female reproductive system produces eggs,
    nurtures developing individuals, and gives birth.
  • Humans usually have one child per birth, but
    multiple births, such as those of twins or
    triplets, are possible.
  • Human reproduction can be affected by cancer,
    infertility, and disease.

Growth and Development
  • Fertilization occurs when a sperm from the male
    joins with an egg from the female and their
    nuclei fuse.
  • The fertilized egg (zygote) becomes an embryo
    once the first cell division occurs.
  • Eleven to twelve days after fertilization
    implantation occurs, which is the embedding of
    the embryo in the thick, nutrient-rich lining of
    the uterus.
  • The embryo and fetus undergo many changes between
    implantation and birth.
  • The first stage of human development lasts from
    fertilization to birth.
  • After birth, a human goes through four more
    stages of growth and development.

Stages of Development
  • Weeks 1 and 2 Doctors commonly count the time
    of a womans pregnancy as starting from the first
    day of her last menstrual period. A normal
    pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks.
  • Weeks 3 and 4 The zygote becomes an embryo as
    it moves to the uterus. At the end of week 4
    implantation occurs.
  • Weeks 5 to 8 The umbilical cord forms, which
    connects the embryo to the placenta. The heart,
    brain, other organs, and blood vessels start to
    form. Eyes and ears take shape, spinal cord
    begins to develop, tiny limb buds appear, muscles
    start to develop, nerves grow into the arms and
    shoulders, fingers and toes start to form, and
    the embryo can swallow and blink.
  • Weeks 9 to 16 The embryo begins to make tiny
    movements, embryo is called a fetus.
  • Week 17 to 24 The fetus can make faces and
    starts to make movements the mother can feel.
  • Week 25 to 36 The fetuss lungs are well
    developed, but not fully matured. The fetus still
    gets oxygen from its mother through the placenta.
    The fetuss eyes can open and close.

Stages of Development
  • Birth The fetus is fully developed and labor
  • Infancy and childhood Infancy is the stage from
    birth to age 2. During infancy you grow quickly,
    your baby teeth appeared, and your nervous system
    developed allowing you to become more coordinated
    and you start to walk. Childhood lasts from age 2
    to puberty. Your baby teeth are replaced by
    permanent teeth, and your muscles become more
  • Adolescence The stage from puberty to
    adulthood. A persons reproductive system becomes
  • Adulthood From about age 20 to 40, you are a
    young adult. At around age 30 changes associated
    with aging begin. The aging process continues in
    middle age (between 40 and 65). A person who is
    more than 65 years old is considered an older

Objectives For Chapter 27
  • Explain the differences between infectious
    diseases and noninfectious diseases.
  • Identify five ways that you might come into
    contact with a pathogen.
  • Discuss four methods that have helped reduce the
    spread of disease.
  • Describe how your body keeps out pathogens.
  • Explain how the immune system fights infection.
  • Describe four challenges to the immune system.

  • Noninfectious diseases cannot be spread from one
    person to another.
  • Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens that
    are spread from one organism to another.
  • Pathogen a microorganism, another organism, a
    virus, or a protein that causes disease.
  • Pathogens are spread by contact with infected
    organisms and through contaminated objects, food,
    water, or air.
  • Cleanliness, antibiotics, pasteurization,
    vaccines, and antiviral medicines help control
  • Pasteurization- the heating of material to kill
  • Antibiotics can kill only living things. Viruses
    are not considered to be alive because they
    cannot reproduce on their own.

Your Bodys Defenses
  • Macrophages engulf pathogens, display antigens on
    their surface, and activate helper T cells. The
    helper T cells put the killer T cells and B cells
    to work.
  • Killer T cells kill infected cells. B cells make
  • Fever helps speed immune-cell growth and slow
    pathogen growth.
  • Memory B cells remember how to make an antibody
    for a pathogen that the body has previously
  • An allergy is the overreaction of the immune
    system to a harmless antigen.
  • Autoimmune diseases are responses in which the
    immune system attacks healthy tissue.
  • Cancer cells are cells that undergo uncontrolled
  • AIDS is a disease that results when the human
    immunodeficiency virus kills helper T cells.

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  • In place of a summary, describe how the body
    systems meet the needs of cells