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Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour

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Title: Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour


1
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
2
Objectives
  • Assess prior knowledge
  • Define Evolution
  • Define Evolutionary Psychology

3
What is Evolutionary Psychology?
  • Read the article on page 3 of your resource pack.
  • Pick out 5 key points from the article and write
    them on a post-it!

4
Darwin
Natural Selection
Evolution
Genetic
Appear
Adaptive
5
Mastery Test
  • How much do you already know?
  • Complete the multi-choice test on page 2 on paper
  • Work on your own in SILENCE!!!

2min
Go!
STOP
6
Marking the Test
  • Swap papers!
  • Mark the answers as I read them out
  • How did you do?
  • You will complete this again at the end of the
    topic aim to improve!

7
Extension Tasks
  • Complete the definitions and the picture of the
    model on page 1 of your workbook
  • Create a poster about the four parts of Modern
    Darwinism

8
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
9
Parental Investment
Sexual Selection
Human Reproductive Behaviour
10
Objectives
  • State the nature of sexual selection
  • Evaluate the nature of sexual selection
  • State the forms of sexual selection
  • Evaluate the forms of sexual selection
  • State the consequences of sexual selection
  • Evaluate the consequences of sexual selection

11
My ideal partner!
  • Take a piece of plain paper.
  • Draw the head of a person.
  • Fold it over and pass left.
  • Draw the body and arms of a person
  • Fold it over and pass it left
  • Draw the legs and feet of a person
  • Fold it over and pass it left

12
Key Definition!
  • EEA (Environment of Evolutionary Adaptation)
  • This is the environment to which a species is
    adapted and the set of selection pressures that
    operated at this time.
  • Generally regarded as the time when our ancestors
    were hunter-gatherers on the African savannah.

13
Nature of sexual selection Gender Specific
  • Characteristics to promote reproductive success
  • Men young healthy females
  • Women resource investment
  • Female more choosy (intersexual competition)
  • Male compete with each other (intrasexual
    competition)

14
Evaluation
  • Buss (1989) study of 37 cultures.
  • Men choose on fecundity
  • Women choose on resource potential
  • Scheib (1994) sperm donor choice study
    supported Buss findings

15
Evaluation
  • Bereczkei (1997) females advertised for
    family-orientated men
  • Female financial independence
  • Homosexual relationships no reproductive
    potential.
  • Dunbar (1995a) Homosexual adverts also advertise
    resources despite having no reproductive
    potential

16
Nature of Sexual SelectionOrigins of Mate
Preferences
  • Preference for one mate over another
  • Links to problem of appropriate mate choice in
    EEA
  • Mating biased in favour of individuals with
    certain characteristics
  • Genetic quality of mate determines genetic
    quality of offspring!

17
Evaluation
  • Human behaviour influenced by selective pressure
    in EEA is not universally accepted.
  • Continuing evolution
  • Why so affected by one environment and not
    another?

18
Forms of sexual selection Selection for
Indicators
  • Indicators reveal traits that can be passed on.
  • Show information about mate survival
  • Tend to be condition dependent healthier
    bigger or revealing make better use of
    indicators, e.g. better groomed
  • Pre-programming

19
Evaluation
  • Indicators can be faked! E.g. female lips
  • Handicaps only reliable indicator (Zahavi 1975)
  • Facial symmetry.

20
Forms of sexual selection Selection for sperm
competition
  • Sperm is stored
  • Size matters!
  • Male humans have medium-sized testicles by
    primate standards.
  • Ancestral males mildly competitive females must
    have had multiple partners (Baker Bellis 1995)

21
Evaluation
  • Humans are by nature more promiscuous than
    monogamous
  • 9 misattributed fatherhood (Baker Bellis)
  • Majority of people do know who their father is
  • Majority not adulterous

22
Competition Activity
  • Complete the human intra-sexual competition
    activity.
  • Be prepared to share your opinions

23
Consequences of sexual selectionPhysical
Characteristics
  • Dimorphism (physical differences between the
    sexes) is linked to female mate choice Martin et
    al. (1994)
  • Size difference polygynous mating system (one
    male, many females)
  • More sexual competition between males.

24
Consequences of sexual selectionPhysical
Characteristics
  • Facial Characteristics
  • Neotenous (child-like) more attractive (Perrett
    et al 1994)
  • Strong testosterone linked features
  • Facial symmetry (Thornhill Gangstad 1993)

25
Sexual selection Human mental evolution
  • Physical and mental
  • Neophilia (love of novelty)
  • Favour the creative (Miller 1998)

26
Extension Task
  • Complete the task on Fishers hypothesis.

27
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
28
Parental Investment
Sexual Selection
Human Reproductive Behaviour
29
Objectives
  • State evaluate parental investment theory
  • Compare and contrast the differences between
    maternal and paternal investment and evaluate
    these

30
Fishers Hypothesis
  • What did we find out?

31
Key Definition
  • Parental Investment any investment by a parent
    in one of his or her offspring that increases the
    chance that the offspring will survive at the
    expense of the parents ability to invest in any
    other offspring (alive or yet to be born)
    (Trivers 1972)

32
Parental Investment Theory
  • Trivers (1972)
  • Males and females do not invest equally
  • Gametes

33
Evaluation
  • Plausible explanation (Buss 1998)
  • Men gain from polygyny. Females from monogamy.
  • Polygyny common prior to Western influence.
    (Smith 1984)
  • Reproduction rates are low among wealthy people.
  • Contraception
  • Socially enforced monogamy

34
Maternal vs. Paternal
Egg Pregnancy Childbirth Feeding Care Symons (1979) Sperm - - - - Daly Wilson (1978)
35
Evaluation
  • Females want male providers because of infant
    dependency
  • Female want good quality offspring.
  • Mistaken paternity supports this.

36
Cuckoldry
  • Self-protection against cuckoldry
  • Considerable investment need for fidelity
    (Miller 1998)
  • Care not misdirected

37
Paternal love
  • Read the article on paternal love in the resource
    pack
  • Pick out 5 key points and transfer to post-it
    notes
  • Be prepared to share

38
Sexual Jealousy
  • Different adaptive problems for males and females
  • Males incorrect investment
  • Females diversion of resources
  • Sexual jealousy a solution (Buss 1995)
  • Men jealous of sexual act
  • Women jealous of shift in emotional focus

39
Evaluation
  • Buss et al. (1992) male concerned with sexual
    fidelity, female concerned with emotional
    fidelity.
  • Galvanic skin responses
  • Veil
  • Changes in sexual morals
  • Surplus of men means marital life is more stable
    (Hill Hurtado 1996)

40
Evaluation
  • Dunbar (1995b) Joint parental investment is
    desirable because of high cost of successful
    reproduction.
  • Males restrict reproductive activity and invest
    more in each offspring.
  • Greater male selectivity means female
    attractiveness is important compared to non-human
    animals.

41
Sexual Jealousy
  • Complete the activity on sexual jealousy in the
    activity pack.
  • Be prepared to share your answers

42
Extension Activity
  • Complete the activity on polygyny and polyandry
  • Ensure it is complete by next lesson.

43
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
44
Parental Investment
Sexual Selection
Human Reproductive Behaviour
45
Objectives
  • State the main ideas about parent-offspring
    conflict
  • Evaluate the main ideas about parent-offspring
    conflict

46
Polygyny Polyandry
  • What did we find out?

47
Parent-offspring conflict
  • Trivers (1994)
  • Parents will be in conflict about weaning,
    parents will want to wean earlier than the child
  • Parents will encourage children to value siblings
    more than they are naturally inclined to
  • Parents will punish conflict and reward
    co-operation.

48
Sibling Rivalry
  • Individual offspring
  • Fair share
  • Maximise fitness
  • Sibling rivalry for attention and resources

49
Evaluation
  • Lalumiere et al. (1996) Different developmental
    paths
  • Harris (1999) Peer socialisation

50
Age related parent-offspring conflict
  • Begins at conception (Buss 1999)
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Sibling investment
  • Transfer of investment

51
Evaluation
  • High blood pressure beneficial (Xiong 2000)
  • Alliances against non-kin
  • Learned negotiation skills (Shaffer 1993) a
    non-evolutionary explanation

52
Parent-offspring conflict activity
  • Read the article on parent-offspring conflict
  • Pick out 5 key points ready to share....

53
Extension Activity
  • Complete the cut n stick for the first section
    of the topic
  • Ensure it is complete by next lesson

54
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
55
Parental Investment
Sexual Selection
Human Reproductive Behaviour
56
Objectives
  • Review what we have learned so far
  • Construct an answer to an essay that
    meets/exceeds ALIS target

57
Mastery Test
  • How much do you now know!?
  • Complete the multi-choice test on page 2 on paper
  • Work on your own in SILENCE!!!

2min
Go!
STOP
58
Marking the Test
  • Swap papers!
  • Mark the answers as I read them out
  • How did you do?
  • Did you improve?

59
AO1 AO2
  • Lets look at what makes effective A01 and AO2
  • Lets review some essay plans

60
Writing an Essay
  • Choose one of the essay titles
  • Try to choose whichever you think is most
    challenging to you.
  • Review the section of work
  • Write for 30 mins

61
Reviewing our Essays
  • Swap with someone near to you
  • Read their work
  • Write one thing that is good
  • Write one thing they could improve on
  • Give a mark and explain why you have given this

62
Objectives
  • Review what we have learned so far
  • Construct an answer to an essay that
    meets/exceeds ALIS target

63
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
64
Depression
Unipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Mental Disorders
Phobias
OCD
Anxiety
65
Objectives
  • State the symptoms of depression
  • State the differences between unipolar and
    bipolar disorder
  • State the evolutionary explanations of unipolar
    disorder
  • Evaluate the evolutionary explanations of
    unipolar disorder

66
Mastery Test
  • How much do you already know?
  • Complete the multi-choice test on page 2 on paper
  • Work on your own in SILENCE!!!

2min
Go!
STOP
67
Marking the Test
  • Swap papers!
  • Mark the answers as I read them out
  • How did you do?
  • You will complete this again at the end of the
    topic aim to improve!

68
Depression is
  • Using mini-whiteboards in groups of 3
  • Create a mind map of symptoms of depression.
  • You have 5 minutes!
  • Be ready to share your answers!

69
Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder
  • Unipolar
  • Consists of depressive phase only
  • Bipolar
  • Consists of manic and depressive phases and shift
    between the two

70
Evolutionary Explanations of Depression
Unipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Social Competition Hypothesis
Defection Hypothesis
Reproductive Fitness
EOBD Hypothesis
71
Social Competition Hypothesis
  • Price et al (1994)
  • Depression is an evolved response to loss of
    status
  • An adaptive response to losing rank and seeing
    self as a loser
  • Prevents risk of further injury
  • Preserves relative stability of social group
  • Prevents further competition

72
Evaluation of social competition hypothesis
  • Difficult to test
  • Gilbert Allan (1998) found feelings of defeat
    were significantly correlated with depression
  • Rank Theory (Price Sioman 1987)
  • Yielding subroutine
  • Winning subroutine

73
Evolutionary Explanations of Depression
Unipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Social Competition Hypothesis
Defection Hypothesis
Reproductive Fitness
EOBD Hypothesis
74
The defection hypothesis
  • Hagen (1999)
  • Post-natal depression an adaptive response led
    women to limit investment in the child as this
    would reduce overall reproductive success.
  • Hagen (2002)
  • Can be generalised to all forms of depression
    because it is a response to an event that has an
    evolutionary significant cost

75
Evaluation of defection hypothesis
  • Considerable empirical support
  • Lack of social support predicts this (Gotlib et
    al. 1991)
  • Poor environment predicts this (Warner et al.
    1996)
  • Post-natal depression results in loss of interest
    in child (Beck 1992)
  • Post-natal depression leads to increased paternal
    investment (Hagen 2002)

76
Extension Task
  • Complete the case study 1 activity on your
    whiteboard.

77
Case Study 1
  • Lets share our answers!

78
Homework
  • Log onto www.ashlawnpsych.wordpress.com
  • Follow the instructions under the post Year 13
    Evolutionary Homework due 9th October

79
Objectives
  • State the symptoms of depression
  • State the differences between unipolar and
    bipolar disorder
  • State the evolutionary explanations of unipolar
    disorder
  • Evaluate the evolutionary explanations of
    unipolar disorder

80
Evolutionary Explanations of Depression
Unipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Social Competition Hypothesis
Defection Hypothesis
Reproductive Fitness
EOBD Hypothesis
81
Objectives
  • State the symptoms of depression
  • State the differences between unipolar and
    bipolar disorder
  • State the evolutionary explanations of bipolar
    disorder
  • Evaluate the evolutionary explanations of bipolar
    disorder

82
Homework
  • Log onto www.ashlawnpsych.wordpress.com
  • Follow the instructions under the post Year 13
    Evolutionary Homework due 9th October

83
Reproductive fitness
  • Beneficial genes are passed on
  • Possession of bipolar genes an advantage
  • Small doses v large doses normal distribution
    curve

84
Evaluation
  • Based on assumptions caused by multiple genes
    and the genes are linked to desirable behaviour
  • Lack of genetic evidence chromosome 22 (Kelsoe
    et al. 2001)
  • Twin studies high concordance (Nesse 1999)
  • Number of genes involved
  • Expression of gene may be modified

85
Evolutionary Explanations of Depression
Unipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Social Competition Hypothesis
Defection Hypothesis
Reproductive Fitness
EOBD Hypothesis
86
EOBD Hypothesis
  • Sherman (2001) bipolar behaviours are
    adaptations to the selective pressures of long
    severe winters and short summers.

87
Evidence for EOBD
  • Cold-adapted physique
  • Bipolar linked to thick compact physique
  • Large trunk, small extremities
  • Improved clothing and shelter made this
    adaptation unnecessary
  • (Kretschmer 1970)

88
Evidence for EOBD
  • Hibernation
  • Bipolar evolved in response to environmental
    adversity
  • Depressive phase resembles hibernating behaviour
  • For example overeating then lethargy and
    depression similar to animals gorging and then
    sleeping. (Sherman 2001)

89
Evidence for EOBD
  • Adaptive significance in social groups
  • Inactivity in winter preserves harmony and
    survival
  • High energy requirement
  • Mania link to challenge, survival and emergencies
  • Aiello Wheeler
  • (1995)

90
Evaluation of EOBD
  • Previc (2002) Hypothesis is unproven
  • Makes intuitive sense
  • Tries to explain original development not cause
  • Arbisi et al. (1994)
  • Neurophysical support dopamine fluctuates
    seasonally

91
Case study 2
  • Read case study 2
  • Complete the questions on paper
  • Be ready to share your answers!

92
Extension Task
  • Complete the comparison flow chart between
    unipolar and bipolar disorder

93
Flowcharts
  • Lets share our answers!

94
Objectives
  • State the symptoms of depression
  • State the differences between unipolar and
    bipolar disorder
  • State the evolutionary explanations of bipolar
    disorder
  • Evaluate the evolutionary explanations of bipolar
    disorder

95
Depression
Unipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Mental Disorders
Phobias
OCD
Anxiety
96
Objectives
  • State the symptoms of anxiety
  • State some types of anxiety disorders

97
(No Transcript)
98
Anxiety is
  • Using big paper and pens in groups of 3
  • Create a mind map of symptoms of anxiety.
  • You have 5 minutes!
  • Be ready to share your answers!

99
Anxiety
  • Anxiety can be defined as feelings of
    apprehensiveness or dread in response to threats
    that are real or imagined

100
Symptoms of anxiety
  • Fight/Flight/Freeze

101
The nature of anxiety
  • General vs. Specific (Janzen 1981)
  • General threat general response
  • Specific threat Specific response

102
Anxiety as protection
  • Four responses (Marks 1987)
  • Escape or avoidance
  • Aggressive defence
  • Freezing/immobility
  • Submission or Appeasement

103
Types of anxiety disorder
  • Phobias
  • OCD
  • PTSD
  • You could be asked to explain two of these from
    an evolutionary perspective

104
Subtypes
  • Subtypes of anxiety have evolved to defend
    against threat.
  • Fear linked to survival but excessive fear can
    cause problems such as phobias and OCD

105
Threat situations and fear response (Mark Nesse
1994)
  • Heights Induce freezing so unlikely to fall,
    excess fear of small heights e.g. stairs
  • Public places guards against danger away from
    home territory, excess agoraphobia
  • Post-traumatic fear Avoidance of repeated
    trauma, excess PTSD
  • Social threats minimize threat of group
    rejection, excess dysmorphophobia OCD

106
Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviour
  • Exaggeration of mechanisms that drive adaptive
    behaviour
  • Grooming behaviour reduces parasitism in
    mammals -gt excess washing
  • Concern for others ensures group stability -gt
    fear of harming others
  • Hoarding guards against shortages -gt hoarding
    of all things

107
Is anxiety adaptive?
  • Without it you would die! (Tyrell Baxter 1981)
  • Adrenal gland removal death
  • Pleasurable fear films, roller-coasters
  • Learning
  • Why might anxiety be maladaptive?

108
Are anxiety disorders inherited?
  • Kendler et al. (2000) 3000 twin studies common
    genetic factor in all phobias and unique genetic
    factor for specific ones.
  • Nestadt et al. (2000) People with a first-degree
    relative with OCD 5x more likely to have OCD in
    their lives than those without.

109
Anxiety
Adaptive
Maladaptive
110
Extension Task 1
  • Read the anxiety article in the resource pack
  • Pick out five key points

111
Extension Task 2
  • Find an example of a story about fear in the
    media and bring to next lesson
  • Make a list of treatments for anxiety disorders
    and the main components (at least 3)

112
Objectives
  • State the symptoms of anxiety
  • State some types of anxiety disorders

113
Depression
Unipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Mental Disorders
Phobias
OCD
Anxiety
114
Objectives
  • State types of anxiety disorder
  • State and evaluate Pre-potency
  • State and evaluate Preparedness

115
Phobias Extension Task
  • What were your key points?

116
Evolution of Anxiety Disorders
  • Ancient fears
  • Snakes, heights, storms, darkness, strangers,
    seperation
  • Phobias exaggeration of these fears
  • Other stimuli eg, leaves no threat no phobia
  • Modern dangers eg cars rarely form phobias
    because these have not been around long enough to
    have influenced adaptive selection.

117
Pre-potency
  • Evolved to respond to potential threat (little
    point in experiencing anxiety after a loss!)
  • Ancestors able to respond to threats more likely
    to survive and more likely to pass on genes.
  • Natural selection shaped nervous system to
    respond to cues
  • E.g. noise and visual stimuli of a snake-like
    object may cause big anxiety response
  • This is PRE-POTENCY where something has power
    to direct experience.

118
Evaluation ofPre-potency
  • Ohman Soars (1994)
  • Masked pictures bigger anxiety response than
    neutral pictures

119
Evaluation ofPre-potency
  • Bennet-Levy Marteau (1984)
  • Form and texture different to human greatest
    fear.
  • 1 exception slugs!

120
Preparedness
  • Learning rather than fixed response
  • Seligman (1970) learn an association between
    stimuli and fear, once learned, difficult to
    extinguish, passed on genetically.
  • Fear in infants gauged by mothers reaction.
    (Marks 1987)

121
Evaluation
  • Strangeness is the problem not the stimulus
    itself.
  • Prepared to fear the strange learn not to.
  • Explains high rate of phobias in childhood and
    adolescence and reduction in adulthood.

122
Evaluation
  • We learn some fears readily and these are
    difficult to unlearn. McNally (1987)
  • Expectancy bias fear relevant stimulus (danger,
    unpleasantness) produces future responses. No
    need to invoke evolutionary history.
  • Modern phobias unexplained (eg. Hypodermic
    needles)

123
Nausea and Alcohol
  • Garcia Koelling (1966) rats saccharin
  • Berstein (1978) Ice-cream Chemotherapy
  • Why do people persist in drinking alcohol when it
    makes them feel sick?

124
Little Albert
  • Complete the activity on Little Albert from your
    resource pack
  • Be ready to share your answers!

125
Extension Task 1
  • Complete the Evolutionary explanations of mental
    disorders task.

126
Extension Task 2
  • Mind map an essay title for depression and for
    anxiety
  • Choose the one you are then least comfortable
    with and write it!

127
Objectives
  • State types of anxiety disorder
  • State and evaluate Pre-potency
  • State and evaluate Preparedness

128
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
129
Depression
Unipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Mental Disorders
Phobias
OCD
Anxiety
130
Objectives
  • Review what we have learned so far
  • Construct an answer to an essay that
    meets/exceeds ALIS target

131
Mastery Test
  • How much do you now know!?
  • Complete the multi-choice test on page 2 on paper
  • Work on your own in SILENCE!!!

2min
Go!
STOP
132
Marking the Test
  • Swap papers!
  • Mark the answers as I read them out
  • How did you do?
  • Did you improve?

133
AO1 AO2
  • Lets look at what makes effective A01 and AO2
  • Lets review some essay plans

134
Writing an Essay
  • Choose one of the essay titles
  • Try to choose whichever you think is most
    challenging to you.
  • Review the section of work
  • Write for 30 mins

135
Reviewing our Essays
  • Swap with someone near to you
  • Read their work
  • Write one thing that is good
  • Write one thing they could improve on
  • Give a mark and explain why you have given this

136
Objectives
  • Review what we have learned so far
  • Construct an answer to an essay that
    meets/exceeds ALIS target

137
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
138
Foraging
Language
Development of Human Intelligence
Social Theories
Brain Size
139
Objectives
  • State and evaluate evolutionary factors in the
    development of human intelligence including
  • Foraging demands
  • Social demands
  • Language

140
Mastery Test
  • How much do you already know?
  • Complete the multi-choice test on page 2 on paper
  • Work on your own in SILENCE!!!

2min
Go!
STOP
141
Marking the Test
  • Swap papers!
  • Mark the answers as I read them out
  • How did you do?
  • You will complete this again at the end of the
    topic aim to improve!

142
Intelligence is
  • Using big paper and pens mind map in pairs what
    you think intelligence is
  • Include anything you think is associated with
    intelligence
  • Be ready to share!

143
Some key definitions
  • Intelligence the ability to think flexibly
  • Primates includes lemurs, monkeys and apes
  • Great apes the most advanced group of primates
    including gorillas, chimpanzees and humans
  • Hominids early humans

144
Why did intelligence evolve?
  • Survival
  • Food
  • Shelter
  • Mating

145
Foraging Finding food
  • Dunbar (1992)
  • Fruit-eaters had high cognitive demand
  • Needed to monitor food supply and ripening
    patterns, develop harvesting plans and survive in
    the interim
  • Leaf-eaters had lower cognitive demand as food
    more readily available
  • Hominids were fruit eaters

146
Foraging tool use
  • Mercader et al. (2002)
  • Chimps use stones as hammers to crack open nuts
  • Most successful hunter-gatherers also used tools
  • These tribes survived

147
Evaluation of foraging
  • Is tool use a cause or an effect of intelligence?
  • Is tool use developed by trial and error
    learning?
  • Visalberghi Trinca (1987) Monkeys used trial
    and error to find suitable tools and showed no
    understanding of why one worked and not another
  • Byrne (1995) only chimps use tools in the wild

148
Social Theories
  • Machiavellian Intelligence (Whiten Byrne (1998)
    Human intelligence may be an adaptation to
    social problem solving. Individuals able to use
    others without causing aggression would be
    favoured. This deceit seems cooperative but is
    actually selfish

149
Evaluation
  • Dunbar (1992)
  • Strong positive correlation between group size
    and neocortex ratio
  • Polygamous primates had a larger neocortex ratio
    than monogamous ones polygamy involves more
    complex social relations

150
Machiavellian Intelligence
  • Forming alliances
  • Harcourt (1992)
  • Power in social groups right allies not
    physical strength
  • Alliances formed based on ability to provide
    useful future help

151
Machiavellian Intelligence
  • Manipulation deception
  • Byrne (1995)
  • Manipulate others into providing unwitting help
  • Ability to understand and plan deception
  • Diversions of attention

152
Evaluation
  • Byrne Whiten (1992)
  • Strong positive correlation between amount of
    tactical deception and neocortex ratio
  • Suggests a clear relationship between social
    manipulation and intelligence

153
Evaluation
  • Cosmides (1989)
  • Variations of the Wason card task
  • Particpants solved it 75 of the time if it is a
    social context
  • Only solved 21 of the time with unfamiliar
    context
  • Suggests a link between intelligence and social
    problems

154
D
F
7
3
If a card has a D on one side it has a 3 on
the other side. Which cards do you need to turn
over to find out if this is true?
155
Beer
Coke
25
16
You are a bouncer in a bar. You must make sure
that no under-age drinkers have beer. Each card
is a customer It says age on one side and drink
on the other Which cards need turning over?
156
Meat-sharing Hypothesis
  • For ancestors in the EEA meat was an important
    source of saturated fat
  • Chimpanzees face similar problems today
  • When they do manage to kill they eat the fattiest
    parts first not the lean tender flesh

157
Meat - sharing
  • Meat could be used to form alliances
  • Meat could be used to persuade females to mate
  • Stanford (1992) observed
  • Males withheld meat until after sex
  • Hunting more prevalent when females were sexually
    receptive
  • Sexually receptive females had more success when
    begging for meat
  • Requires individual recognition and scores of
    debts, credits and relationships

158
Evaluation
  • Hill Kaplan (1988)
  • Men in Paraguay give women meat for sex
  • Gilby (2001) males share meat with receptive and
    non-receptive females
  • Mitani and Watts (2001) males share meat with
    other males to form alliances because hunting was
    more successful in groups

159
Language
  • Humans are the only species to develop this
    spontaneously.
  • Other species show precursors attributing
    intentions and beliefs to others (eg. Sally-Anne
    test)
  • Chimpanzees and gorillas express thoughts and
    emotions through sign language and understand
    human communication

160
Evaluation
  • Human language is likely to be the outcome of
    rather than the cause of intelligence
  • Once language evolved it had a significant effect
    on further intelligence development
  • Cultural transmission is only possible through
    language
  • Vygotsky language transforms elementary mental
    functions (possessed by all animals) into higher
    mental functions

161
Human Intelligence
  • Read the article on human intelligence in the
    resource pack
  • Pick out 5 key points and write them on post-it
    notes.
  • Be ready to share!

162
True or False?
  • Complete the activity True/False questions of
    intelligence using what we learned today.
  • How will you do?

163
Extension Activity
  • Using Activity 8 on Cosmides and Toobys study,
    conduct the experiment and bring your results to
    next lesson

164
Objectives
  • State and evaluate evolutionary factors in the
    development of human intelligence including
  • Foraging demands
  • Social demands
  • Language

165
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
166
Foraging
Language
Development of Human Intelligence
Social Theories
Brain Size
167
Objectives
  • State and evaluate theories into the relationship
    between brain size and intelligence including
  • Comparative studies
  • Human Studies

168
Cosmides Tooby
  • What were the results of your study?

169
Brain Facts
  • 2 of body mass 20 of metabolic rate
  • Large brains would not have evolved unless they
    gave humans a significant advantage
  • Important in cognitive development

170
Comparative studies
171
Brain Quantity
  • Absolute brain size Most intelligent species
    would be the ones with the biggest brains sperm
    whale
  • Big brain big body
  • Need to control and maintain big body needs a big
    brain

172
Brain quantity
  • Brainbody ratio
  • Jerison (1978)
  • Encephalization quotient (EQ)
  • Actual brain mass is divided by expected species
    brain size
  • High EQ High intelligence
  • Humans 7 (highest), other primates 2.34,
    Dolphins 4.5

173
Evaluation
  • EQ not supported by research
  • Macphail (1982) rats and squirrels had the same
    performance on a learning task but rat EQ 0.40
    squirrels EQ 1.10
  • Different species comparison is difficult.
  • Different perceptual systems

174
Brain Quality
  • Holloway (1979)
  • Growth of the neocortex is responsible for
    evolution of intelligence
  • Mammals 6 layers of neocortex
  • Cetaceans (whales, dolphins) 5 layers.

175
Evaluation
  • Cetacaens are highly intelligent
  • Herman (1986) Dolphins can understand human
    language and perform complex tasks beyond the
    ability of chimpanzees.
  • Fewer neocortical layers but the same neural
    density and size of frontal lobes as humans

176
Brain size in Humans
177
Head size and IQ
  • Sir Francis Galton (1888)
  • Studied Cambridge undergraduates
  • Insignificant relationship between head size and
    intelligence
  • Wickett et al. (1994) repeated and found
    significant relationship
  • Broman et al. (1987) Head perimeter at birth
    predicted head perimeter at age 7 and head
    perimeter at both ages predicted IQ

178
MRI measures
  • A recent development which allows accurate
    measurement of brain size
  • Andreasen et al. (1993) found significant
    relationship
  • Tan et al. (1999) used male and female Turkish
    students and found a significant relationship.

179
Evaluation
  • Other meaningless correlations also found, eg.
    Amount of cerebrospinal fluid and IQ (Egan et al.
    1994)
  • Other causal factors of big brains!
  • Diet
  • Some aspects of intelligence not measure by IQ
    tests so may be normal in terms of IQ. E.g.
    expertise is critical to survival and requires
    brain capacity but not measured by IQ tests
  • No simple relationship between brain size and IQ

180
Brain Structure in humans
181
Cortical Neurones
  • Haug et al. (1987)
  • Correlation between brain size and number of
    cortical neurones

182
Evaluation
  • Relationship between neurones and brain size is
    supported by animals reared in enriched
    environments have more neurones
  • Diamond (1991) rats reared in enriched
    environments had larger brains and more neural
    connections.
  • Brain development relies on experience

183
Grey matter
  • Size of the regions of the brain associated with
    intelligence is under tight genetic control
  • Thompson et al. (2001) MRI twin study
  • Volume of grey matter is highly heritable and an
    important determinant of IQ

184
Evaluation
  • Development of grey matter is affected by genes
    and environment
  • Young adults have more grey matter than
    middle-aged people likely to be due to improved
    diet (Storfer 2001)

185
Sex differences
  • Ankey (1992)
  • Brains of men larger than brains of women in both
    European-American and African-American cultures
  • Supported by similar studies by Rushton (1992)
    Pakkenberg Gundersen (1997)

186
Evaluation
  • Size differences are accurate
  • Research cannot account for men and women
    obtaining the same IQ scores (Peters 1993)
  • Ankey (1992) different intellectual abilities
  • Female brains may be better organised (Johnson
    1996) as women have larger corpus callosum.

187
The intelligence gene
  • Read the article in the resource pack
  • Pick out 5 key points and write them on post-it
    notes
  • Be ready to share

188
Thats all folks!
  • That is all the input on Evolutionary Psychology
  • Complete the quiz at the end of your resource
    pack using your knowledge of the whole topic!

189
Objectives
  • State and evaluate theories into the relationship
    between brain size and intelligence including
  • Comparative studies
  • Human Studies

190
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Behaviour
191
Foraging
Language
Development of Human Intelligence
Social Theories
Brain Size
192
Objectives
  • Review what we have learned so far
  • Construct an answer to an essay that
    meets/exceeds ALIS target

193
Mastery Test
  • How much do you now know!?
  • Complete the multi-choice test on page 2 on paper
  • Work on your own in SILENCE!!!

2min
Go!
STOP
194
Marking the Test
  • Swap papers!
  • Mark the answers as I read them out
  • How did you do?
  • Did you improve?

195
AO1 AO2
  • Lets look at what makes effective A01 and AO2
  • Lets review some essay plans

196
Writing an Essay
  • Choose one of the essay titles
  • Try to choose whichever you think is most
    challenging to you.
  • Review the section of work
  • Write for 30 mins

197
Reviewing our Essays
  • Swap with someone near to you
  • Read their work
  • Write one thing that is good
  • Write one thing they could improve on
  • Give a mark and explain why you have given this

198
Objectives
  • Review what we have learned so far
  • Construct an answer to an essay that
    meets/exceeds ALIS target
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