College Biology Human Body Systems Chapters 35-40 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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College Biology Human Body Systems Chapters 35-40

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Title: College Biology Human Body Systems Chapters 35-40


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College BiologyHuman Body SystemsChapters 35-40
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Organization in Multi-cellular Organisms
  1. Cell
  2. Tissue group of similar cells that perform a
    particular function
  3. Organ group of tissues that work together
  4. Organ System group of organs that work together
  5. Organism

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11 Organ Systems
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Feedback Control
  • Feedback systems - control regulate body
    processes.
  • Organ systems work together, use feedback to
    maintain homeostasis
  • Homeostasis stable internal conditions
  • Uses the consequences of the process (too much or
    too little produced) to control the rate at which
    the process occurs
  • Consists of a sensor, a control center, and an
    effector

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Feedback Control ExampleBody Temperature
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Digestive System
  • Structures mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,
    small intestine, large intestine
  • Accessory Structures salivary glands, pancreas,
    liver, gallbladder
  • Functions
  • Acquiring nutrients Breaks down large food
    molecules into simpler molecules that can be used
    by the cells of the body
  • Absorbs nutrients and eliminates waste

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Pathway of Food
  • Mouth
  • Chewing mechanically (physically) breaks down
    food
  • Salivary Glands
  • Saliva contains enzymes that break down starch
    (carbohydrate)
  • Pharynx
  • Beginning of throat
  • Connects mouth to esophagus


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  • Esophagus
  • Muscle contractions (peristalsis) push food down
    toward the stomach
  • Stomach
  • Churns food (mechanical digestion)
  • Enzymes break down proteins
  • Does NOT absorb any nutrients
  • Secretes acid

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  • Small Intestine
  • Chemical digestion of carbs, proteins, and lipids
    finishes
  • Carbs, proteins, and lipids are absorbed into the
    blood
  • Liver, gallbladder, and pancreas secrete enzymes
    into it for chemical digestion
  • Very long and lined with villi, wrinkles that
    increase surface area for more absorption

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Accessory Organs
  • Food never enters these organs!
  • Pancreas
  • Secretes enzymes into small intestine to break
    down nutrients
  • Liver
  • Stores extra glucose as the polysaccharide
    glycogen
  • Makes bile (which breaks down fats)
  • Filters out toxins (alcohol, drugs, bacteria, old
    cells) from blood
  • Gallbladder
  • Stores bile made by the liver

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  • Large Intestine (including rectum and anus)
  • Absorbs water from waste and then eliminates
    waste as feces

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Close-up of the Digestive System
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Summary of Food Breakdown
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Respiratory System
  • Structures nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
    bronchi, bronchioles, lungs
  • Functions
  • Gas exchange
  • Provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration
  • Removes excess carbon dioxide from the
    bloodstream

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Breathing
  • Inhalation breathing in. Exhalation
    breathing out.
  • Accomplished by expanding/contracting diaphragm
    muscle

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Gas Exchange in the Lungs
  • Pathway of air nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
    bronchi (lungs), bronchioles (lungs).
  • Tiny air sacs, alveoli, are at the end of each
    bronchiole, surrounded by blood capillaries.
  • Alveoli site of gas exchange. Oxygen diffuses
    from alveoli to blood, carbon dioxide diffuses
    from blood to alveoli

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Circulatory System
  • Structures heart, blood vessels, blood
  • Functions
  • Transport Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones
    to cells
  • Helps fight infection
  • Regulates body temperature

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Blood Contents
  • Plasma fluid part of blood that carries
    nutrients, enzymes, hormones, and wastes
  • Red blood cells contain the iron-based protein
    hemoglobin, which carries oxygen
  • Made in bone marrow
  • White blood cells attack foreign substances
  • Platelets help blood clot

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Circulatory System Structures
  • Heart - Made of muscle, pumps blood through body
  • Arteries carry blood away from heart to
    capillaries
  • Capillaries tiny vessels that allow diffusion
    of materials between blood and cells where
    arteries and veins meet
  • Veins carry blood back to heart from capillaries

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Blood Flow
  • De-oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart to
    the lungs where it picks up oxygen.
  • Oxygenated blood flows back to the heart.
  • Oxygenated blood pumped out to body cells to
    deliver oxygen and pick up carbon dioxide.
  • De-oxygenated blood flows back to the heart and
    the cycle restarts.

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Nervous System
  • Structures brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
    (sensory and motor)
  • Function
  • Controls and coordinates functions throughout the
    body in response to internal and external stimuli

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  • Neurons
  • A message called an action potential is
    transmitted by nervous cells (neurons).
  • Action potentials are electrical signals.
  • Neurons have 3 parts
  • Dendrites receive message (action potential)
  • Cell body contains the nucleus and other normal
    organelles
  • Axon sends action potential message to another
    cell

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  • Synapse the space between the end of one neuron
    and the start of the next
  • Neurons transmit messages by sending chemicals
    (neurotransmitters) across the synapse.

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Muscular System
  • Structures Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle,
    cardiac muscle
  • Functions
  • Movement
  • Works with skeletal system to produce voluntary
    movement
  • Helps circulate blood and move food through the
    digestive system

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Three Types of Muscle
  • Skeletal attached to bones by tendons voluntary
  • Smooth controls digestion, breathing,
    circulation involuntary
  • Cardiac heart muscle involuntary

31
Voluntary Muscle Contractions
  • Muscles cause movement by contracting (getting
    shorter) or relaxing (getting longer)
  • Example When the bicep muscle (a flexor)
    contracts and the tricep muscle relaxes, the arm
    bends.
  • When the tricep muscle (an extensor) contracts
    and the bicep muscle relaxes, the arm straightens.

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Skeletal System
  • Internal body framework skeleton
  • Structures bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons
  • Functions
  • Supports the body
  • Protects internal organs
  • Enables movement
  • Stores calcium
  • Makes blood cells

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Bone Structure
  • Bones cells and protein fibers supported by
    hard calcium
  • Cavities within bones contain soft bone marrow,
    which produces blood cells.

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Joints
  • Joints where bones are joined together
  • Tendons connect muscle to bone
  • Ligaments connect bone to bone
  • Cartilage a protective cushion or covering

35
Integumentary System
  • Structures skin and its structures (hair, nails,
    sweat glands, oil glands)
  • Functions
  • Serves as a barrier against infection, injury,
    and UV radiation from the sun
  • Helps to regulate body temperature (by sweating
    or expanding blood vessels)
  • Removes waste (sweat)

36
Close-up of Integumentary System
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Excretory System
  • Structures kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,
    urethra (other skin, lungs)
  • Functions
  • Eliminates waste, especially byproducts of
    metabolism
  • Regulates (controls) the amount of water in
    blood, which determines blood volume and pH

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How do the kidneys work?
  • Blood enters kidneys, full of excess water and
    nitrogenous wastes.
  • Excess water wastes filtered out by the
    kidneys, collected as urine.
  • Urine travels down the ureters, gets stored in
    the bladder, and is expelled from the body
    through the urethra.
  • Remember liver also filtered blood, but it
    removed toxins, whereas the kidneys remove wastes
    water

39
Lymphatic System
  • Structures white blood cells, thymus, spleen,
    lymph nodes, lymph vessels
  • Functions
  • Helps protect the body from disease
  • Maintains fluid balance in blood
  • Spleen filters old blood cells from blood,
    stores extra blood

40
Immune System Non-specific Defenses
  • Function fights off invading pathogens and
    prevents growth and spread of cancer
  • Non-specific Defenses protect body from all
    pathogens.
  • Skin physical barrier
  • Mucous membranes protect interior surfaces
  • Cilia line bronchi to sweep mucus and
    pathogens out of lungs

41
Immune System Specific Responses
  • Specific Responses defend against one certain
    invader (pathogen)
  • White blood cells recognize an invader
  • Create antibodies, proteins which bind to
    pathogens mark them for destruction

42
Endocrine System
  • Structures ovaries (females), testes (males),
    pancreas, hypothalamus, glands (pituitary,
    pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal)
  • Function
  • Chemical communication control
  • Hormones - chemicals that are released into the
    blood and signal cells to take action
  • Actions include growth, development, metabolism,
    and reproduction

43
Reproductive System
  • Male Structures testes, epididymis, vas
    deferens, urethra, penis
  • Female Structures ovaries, fallopian tubes,
    uterus, vagina
  • Functions
  • Produces reproductive cells
  • Males produce and deliver gametes (sperm) to
    females
  • Females produce gametes (eggs), maintain an
    environment which can support a developing embryo
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