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Essentials of Human Anatomy

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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology The Nervous System Chapter 7 Nervous System Functions 1. Sensory input gathered information Allows you to monitor changes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Human Anatomy


1
Essentials of Human Anatomy Physiology
The Nervous System Chapter 7
2
Nervous System Functions
  • 1. Sensory input gathered information
  • Allows you to monitor changes occurring in
    outside of the body (changes stimuli)
  • 2. Integration
  • Process and interpret the sensory input and
    decide if action is needed
  • 3. Motor output
  • A response to integrated stimuli activates
    muscles or glands

3
Structural Classification of the Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Brain
  • Spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • Nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord

4
Functional Classification of the Peripheral
Nervous System
  • Sensory (afferent) division
  • Nerve fibers that carry information to the
    central nervous system

5
Functional Classification of the Peripheral
Nervous System
  • Motor (efferent) division
  • Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the
    central nervous system

6
Functional Classification of the Peripheral
Nervous System
  • Motor (efferent) division
  • Two subdivisions
  • Somatic nervous system Voluntary
  • Autonomic nervous system Involuntary
  • Sympathetic
  • Parasympathetic

7
Organization of the Nervous System
8
Nervous Tissue Support Cells
  • Supporting Cells in the CNS
  • Lumped together as neuroglia (AKA- glia or glial
    cells)
  • Nerve glue
  • Includes many types of cells that support,
    insulate, protect the delicate neurons
  • Each type has specific functions

9
Nervous Tissue Neurons
  • Neurons Nerve cells
  • Cells specialized to transmit messages
  • Nerve impulses
  • Major regions of Neurons
  • Cell body Contains the nucleus and is the
    metabolic center of the cell
  • Processes Fibers that extend from the cell body
    (dendrites and axons)

10
Neuron Anatomy
  • Cell body
  • Nucleus
  • Metabolic Center

11
Neuron Anatomy
  • Extensions outside the cell body
  • Dendrites Conduct impulses toward the cell body
  • Axons Conduct impulses Away from the cell body

12
Axons and Nerve Impulses
  • Axons end in axonal terminals
  • Axon terminals contain vesicles that contain
    neurotransmitters
  • Axon terminals are separated from the next neuron
    by a gap
  • Synaptic cleft just the space between adjacent
    neurons
  • Synapse junction between neurons including the
    membranes of both neurons the space between them

13
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15
Nerve Fiber Coverings
  • Myelin
  • Covers nerve fibers
  • Whitish, fatty material
  • Waxy appearance
  • Protects insulates the fibers
  • Increases the transmission rate of nerve impulses
  • Schwann cells produce myelin sheaths in
    jelly-roll like fashion
  • Nodes of Ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath
    along the axon

16
Application of Neurons
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Chronic, potentially debilitating disease that
    affects the central nervous system, which is made
    up of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Myelin sheath is destroyed- It hardens to a
    tissue called the scleroses
  • Transmitted nerve impulses are short-circuited
  • Affected person loses control of his/her muscles
    and becomes increasingly more disabled
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Protein component of the sheath is attacked
  • No cure
  • Interferon injections
  • Hormone like substance released by some immune
    cells- provides relief
  • website

17
Multiple Sclerosis
18
Neuron Cell Body Location
  • Most neurons are found in the central nervous
    system
  • White matter- dense collections of myelinated
    fibers
  • Gray matter unmyelinated fibers cell bodies
  • Nuclei clusters of cell bodies within the white
    matter of the central nervous system
  • Ganglia collections of cell bodies outside the
    central nervous system (PNS)

19
Functional Classification of Neurons
  • Sensory (afferent) neurons
  • Carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the
    CNS
  • Cutaneous sense organs (Vision, hearing,
    equilibrium, taste smell)
  • Proprioceptors detect stretch or tension in
    skeletal muscles, tendons and joints
  • Pain receptors

20
Functional Classification of Neurons
  • Motor (efferent) neurons
  • Carry impulses from the central nervous system to
    the viscera and/or muscles and glands
  • Interneurons (association neurons)
  • Connect sensory and motor neurons in neural
    pathways

21
Neuron Classification
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