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World War I (1914-1918)


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Title: World War I (1914-1918)

World War I (1914-1918)
  • McFarland

I. The Road to War
  • Hidden Causes of WWI existed well before 1914
  • Imperialism European powers competed for
    territory around the world led to conflicts in
    those areas
  • Militarism policy of building up a nations
    armed forces in preparation of war all the
    great European powers participated England,
    France, Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary

I. The Road to War
  1. Nationalism countries acted in their own
    interest, regardless of how it affected other
    countries also, many European countries
    contained many ethnic groups (races) within their
    borders who wanted their independence
  2. Alliances developed in the late 1800s
    designed to increase a nations security and to
    defend each other during an attack

I. The Road to War
  • -two great alliances formed in Europe
  • a. Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary,
  • Italy
  • b. Triple Entente England, France, Russia


I. The Road to War
  • Immediate Cause of WWI (sparkplug)
  • -the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    and his wife Sofie on June 28, 1914
  • -he was the heir to the throne in Austria-Hungary
  • -shot while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia, which was
    a province of A-H
  • -killed by a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo
    Princip (19 yrs old)

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I. The Road to War
  • After the assassination
  • -July 28 A-H blamed the Serbian govt and
    declared war on them
  • -July 29 Russia, Serbias protector, began
    mobilization (the readying of troops for war)-
    Germany, A-Hs chief ally, demanded that Russia
    stop mobilizing Russia refused Russias ally,
    France, began mobilization as did Germany

I. The Road to War
  • -Aug. 1 Germany declared war on Russia
  • -Aug. 3 Germany declared war on France
  • -The U.S. remained neutral

I. The Road to War
  • Germany knew it would be forced to fight a
    two-front war (East and West) eventually
  • -so, they had a plan called the Schlieffen Plan
    which called for a quick strike on France to
    knock them out of the war and then they would
    turn and attack Russia

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II. War Begins
  • To get to France as quickly as possible, the
    German Army passed through Belgium, a neutral
  • -the invasion brought England, Belgiums
    protector, into the war on Aug. 4
  • -Germany had hoped England, with the worlds
    strongest Navy, would stay out of the war

II. War Begins
  • After the start of the war, countries in Europe
    began to take sides
  • a. Central Powers Germany, A-H, Bulgaria,
  • and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
  • b. Allied Powers (Allies) France, Russia,
    Italy (1915), Serbia, Romania, Greece,
    Montenegro, Portugal, Belgium, Albania

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II. War Begins
  • Sept. 1914 Germans advanced within 30 miles of
    Paris but were stopped at the Marne River by
    French and British troops in the First Battle of
    the Marne

II. War Begins
  • The war reached a stalemate, a situation in which
    neither side could gain an advantage, on the
    Western Front (in France)
  • -the Allies began to dig trenches to help reduce
    casualties and the Germans did the same (trench
  • -the move to the trenches prolonged the war
  • -heavy casualties resulted from soldiers going
    over the top into no mans land (area between
    the trenches)

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II. War Begins
  • While both sides fought evenly in France, the
    Central Powers took over Serbia, Montenegro,
    Albania, and Romania
  • -they also attacked Italy and began to push the
    Russian lines back

II. War Begins
  • New Weapons used during WWI
  • Machine gun forced the soldiers to the trenches
    fired up to 450 rounds a minute
  • Tanks first used by the British used mainly
    to smash barbed wire fences to clear the way for
    the infantry (foot soldiers)
  • Poison gas chemical warfare used by the
    Germans first

II. War Begins
  1. U-boats German submarines attacked without
    warning used to fight the British blockade
    interfered with American trade and threatened the
    safety of Americans
  2. Airplanes used only for observation at first
    later armed with machine guns ex Manfred von
    Richthofen Red Baron (German ace pilot shot
    down over 80 planes)

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II. War Begins
  • The American Response
  • -some Americans felt personally involved Why?
    1/3 were 1st or 2nd generation immigrants
  • -most Americans wanted to Allies to win Why?
  • Cultural ties with England
  • Most of the news from the war came from England
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II, German leader, was an autocrat
    (ruler with unlimited power)

II. War Begins
  • The U.S. remained neutral at first and continued
    to trade with both sides
  • -we were an isolated country at that time

III. U.S. Declares War
  • 3 Major Events led the U.S. to join the Allies
  • Germanys use of unrestricted submarine warfare
  • a. Sinking of the Lusitania (May 7, 1915)
    British passenger liner sunk by a German u-boat
    because it was secretly carrying weapons for the
    Allies 1,200 died (128 Americans)

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III. U.S. Declares War
  • b. Sinking of the Sussex (March 24, 1916)
    French passenger liner sunk by a u-boat the
    Germans later agreed to the Sussex Pledge
    (promised to warn ships before attacking) kept
    the U.S. out of the war

III. U.S. Declares War
  • Election of 1916 Pres. Wilson ran under the
    slogan He kept us out of the war and was
  • Feb. 1, 1917 Germany resumed unrestricted
    submarine warfare thought they could defeat the
    British and win the war before the U.S. could
    make a difference

III. U.S. Declares War
  • Feb. 3, 1917 Wilson ended Am. neutrality by
    arming merchant ships armed neutrality

III. U.S. Declares War
  • Zimmerman Note / Telegram German foreign
    secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, made a secret offer
    to Mexico
  • -if they would attack the U.S., then they
    would be given back the lost territory in TX, AZ,
    and NM
  • -the note was intercepted by the British
  • -neither Wilson nor Mexico took the note
  • -however, the American public called for war

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III. U.S. Declares War
  • Revolution in Russia March 1917, Czar Nicholas
    II was overthrown and replaced by a republican
    (democratic) govt
  • -since a czar was no longer in power, the
    U.S. viewed Russia as an acceptable ally
  • -this was the last stumbling block to a full
    Am. commitment to the Allies

III. U.S. Declares War
  • Pres. Wilson asked Congress to declare war on
    Germany saying
  • The world must be made safe for democracy.
  • War was declared on April 6, 1917

IV. On the Homefront
  • Selective Service Act (May 1917) required all
    men, 21-30 years old, to register for the draft
  • -ages later changed to 18-45
  • -24 million registered and 3 million drafted
    by lottery
  • -2 million volunteered (5 million total troops)

IV. On the Homefront
  • 11,000 women volunteered to serve as nurses,
    clerks, and drivers also began working in
    factories, auto mechanics, traffic cops, etc.
    (jobs only men used to do)
  • 300,000 African Am.s volunteered or were drafted
    mostly used for manual labor fought in
    segregated units

IV. On the Homefront
  • War Industries Board led by Bernard Baruch
    -regulated how natural resources were used and
    told factory owners what to make
  • -ex iron and steel industries used to make
    guns and later tanks factories worked around
    the clock which created more jobs

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IV. On the Homefront
  • War Labor Board settled labor disputes to
    prevent strikes during the war
  • Food Adm. led by Herbert Hoover conserved
    food and set crop prices also encouraged
    meatless Tuesdays and wheatless Wednesdays
    victory gardens were also planted

IV. On the Homefront
  • Fuel Adm. encouraged greater coal production
    and urged citizens to conserve coal and fuel
    heatless Mondays est. day-light saving time
    to save an hours use of lighting and heat each day

IV. On the Homefront
  • Financing the war two ways to pay for war
  • Taxes were raised
  • Liberty Bonds were sold loans by the Am. people
    to the govt paid back with interest

IV. On the Homefront
  • Laws Passed to Enforce Loyalty
  • Sedition Act prohibited any speech that was
    disloyal, profane, or abusive about the govt,
    flag, Constitution, or armed forces very
  • Espionage Act punished anyone found guilty of
    helping the enemy, hindering recruitment, or
    inciting revolts

IV. On the Homefront
  • Both acts were upheld in the Supreme Court case
    Schenck v. U.S. (1919) ruled freedom of speech
    could be limited in certain situations or
    whenever there was a clear and present danger
    to public safety or national security

V. Americans on the European Front
  • American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) led by Gen.
    John J. Pershing arrived in Paris on June 14,
    1917 provided reinforcements to British and
    French troops
  • -U.S. soldiers nicknamed doughboys

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V. Americans on the European Front
  • The first job of the doughboys was to help
    England attack the German u-boats Americans
    thought they would only provide naval assistance
    at first
  • Convoy system began in May 1917 group of
    unarmed merchant ships surrounded by armed naval
    ships reduced number of ships sunk

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V. Americans on the European Front
  • The Bolshevik Revolution (communist revolution in
    Russia Oct. 1917) changed the involvement of
    Am. soldiers
  • -led by Vladimir Lenin
  • -Russia signed a treaty with Germany in March
    1918 to drop out of the war
  • -allowed Germany to send all troops to the
    Western Front
  • -forced U.S. to send in more foot soldiers to
    help Allies

V. Americans on the European Front
  • Battle of Chateau-Thierry (June 1918) major
    turning point in the war U.S. helped French
    save Paris and began to push German lines back
    towards Germany
  • Battle of Argonne Forest (Sept.-Nov. 1918) last
    critical battle of the war 47 day battle 1.2
    million Allied troops began to push German lines
    back and eventually broke through

V. Americans on the European Front
  • The hero of Argonne was Alvin C. York
  • -grew up in the mountains of TN
  • -applied to be classified as a conscientious
    objector (refuses to serve in military because of
    religious beliefs) application denied and was
  • -killed 25 Germans and captured 132 others
  • -said he killed those Germans to save lives
  • -most decorated soldier of WWI

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VI. Postwar
  • An armistice (cease fire) was signed on Nov. 11,
    1918 (11th hour, 11th day, 11th month)
  • WWI Casualties
  • -Russia 9 million -Germany 7 million
  • -France 6 million -A-H 7 million
  • -England 4 million
  • -U.S. 364,000

VI. Postwar
  • WWIs Impact on U.S.
  • -lost 116,000 young men
  • -created a distrust of foreigners
  • -created new opportunities for women and Afr.
  • -higher wages
  • -booming economy richest nation in world

VI. Postwar
  • Pres. Wilsons Plan for Peace
  • -to prevent future world wars he outlined his
    goals in his Fourteen Points speech before
    Congress included
  • Ban on secret treaties / alliances
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Reduction of arms

VI. Postwar
  1. self-determination, or power to make decisions
    about ones own future, for all A-Hs ethnic
  2. League of Nations international org. that would
    help keep world peace and maintain order

VI. Postwar
  • Paris Peace Conference (Jan. 1919) attended by
    the Big 4 (leaders of the 4 major Allied
  • Woodrow Wilson (U.S.)
  • David Lloyd George (G.B.)
  • George Clemenceau (France)
  • Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

VI. Postwar
  • -remember Russia had dropped out of the war in
    1917 and Italy joined Allies in 1915
  • -Goals Wilson concerned about world peace
    brought 14 Points with him the other 3 leaders
    wanted to punish Germany (esp. France)

VI. Postwar
  • -Treaty of Versailles officially ended WWI
    compromise included
  • War Guilt Clause forced Germany to take the
    blame for starting the war (big mistake!)
  • Germany stripped of all colonies
  • Germany forced to pay reparations (payment for
    damages) to Allies - 33 billion total

VI. Postwar
  • League of Nations created
  • Created new countries based on self-determination
  • -Poland -Austria
  • -Finland -Estonia
  • -Czechoslovakia -Latvia
  • -Yugoslavia -Lithuania
  • -Hungary

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VI. Postwar
  • Germany refused to sign treaty at first (too hard
    on them) they eventually did sign it on June
    28, 1919
  • Republicans in Congress were upset that they were
    not represented in Versailles (Wilson was a
    Dem.), so they refused to approve the treaty
    never joined League of Nations (very weak without
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