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1914-1918: The World at War

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1914-1918: The World at War – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1914-1918: The World at War


1
1914-1918 The World at War
2
World War I
  • When?
  • 1914-1918
  • Armistice- a cease fire/when the fighting stops.
    (Nov. 11, 1100 A.M. 1918)
  • Treaty that ends WWI?
  • Treaty of Versailles 1919
  • very harsh on Germany.

3
Causes of the War
4
1. The Alliance System
Triple Entente
Triple Alliance
5
Two Armed Camps!
Allied Powers
Central Powers
6
2. Militarism Arms Race
Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers
Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus. in millions of
s.
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914
94 130 154 268 289 398
1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
France 10
Britain 13
Russia 39
Germany 73
7
3. Economic Imperial Rivalries
8
4. Aggressive Nationalism
9
Pan-Slavism The Balkans, 1914
The Powder Keg of Europe
10
The Spark
Archduke Franz Ferdinand His Family
11
The First World War
Why?
Long term - 1. Alliance system 2. Imperialist
Competition 3. Stockpiling of Weapons
Short term - Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of
the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his Wife
Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before
their deaths, June 28, 1914
12
Chain Reaction
  • One thing quickly led to another
  • On July 23rd Austrian leaders demanded apologies
    from Serbia
  • On July 24th an angry Serbia sought help from
    Russia, and received a promise of support if
    Austria were to attack
  • On July 28th after no response from Serbian
    leaders, Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia

13
Chain Reaction
  • In the next several days
  • Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary
  • Germany declared war on Russia
  • France declared war on Germany and
    Austria-Hungary
  • Britain joined France and Russia
  • Europe was at war!

14
World War I (Who)
  • Allies
  • France
  • Great Britain
  • Russia (leaves in 1917)
  • U.S (Enters in 1917)
  • Why did Russia leave?
  • Communist revolution
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria Hungary Empire
  • Bulgaria
  • Ottoman Empire

15
The Schlieffen Plan
  • Germanys Battle Strategy
  • 1st Attack and Defeat France (West)
  • 2nd Attack and defeat Russia (East)
  • First Battle of the Marne Single most important
    event of the War!
  • German Defeat

16
The Schlieffen Plans Destructive Nature
  • Germany made vast encircling movement through
    Belgium to enter Paris
  • Underestimated speed of the British mobilization
  • Quickly sent troops to France

17
New Technologies during WWI
  • Internal combustion engine
  • Flamethrowers
  • Rapid-fire artillery
  • Tanks
  • Submarines
  • Airplanes
  • Poison Gas
  • Machine Guns
  • Zeppelin

18
The Trenches
  • Trenches dug from English Channel to Switzerland
  • 6,250 miles
  • 6 to 8 feet deep
  • Immobilized both sides for 4 years

19
Life in the Trenches
  • Elaborate systems of defense
  • barbed wire
  • Concrete machine gun nests
  • Mortar batteries
  • Troops lived in holes underground

20
Death is everywhere
  • We all had on us the stench of dead bodies.
    Death numbed the soldiers minds.
  • Shell shock
  • Psychological devastation

21
Death is everywhere
  • Mustard gas
  • Carried by the wind
  • Burned out soldiers lungs
  • Deadly in the trenches where it would sit at
    the bottom

22
Life in the Trenches (cont.)
  • Trench warfare baffled military leaders
  • Attempt a breakthrough
  • Then return to a war of movement
  • Millions of young men sacrificed attempting the
    breakthrough

23
Attempts to Break the Stalemate
  • Peripheral Operations
  • (on the side)
  • Frontal Attacks
  • Frontal Assaults
  • Tanks!
  • American Entry
  • Hutier Tactics
  • Short, violent artillery prep as storm troops
    advance to assault positions
  • Storm troops infiltrate through main defenses to
    objectives in the rear

24
Attempts to Break the Stalemate Tanks
  • The British began developing tanks in 1914 and
    used them in small numbers at the Somme on Sept
    15, 1916
  • Achieved little in this initial employment
  • The Battle of Cambrai on Nov 20, 1917 marked the
    first large scale use of tanks with 474

British Mark I tank of the type used during the
Battle of the Somme
25
The Somme July, 1916
  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

26
The Sinking of the Lusitania
27
The Sinking of the Lusitania
  • Germany practiced unrestricted submarine
    warfare
  • Germans would sink any ship around Britain
  • No warning
  • Lusitania had 128 U.S Citizens on it when sunk
  • Later discovered that there was ammunition being
    transported

28
The Zimmerman Telegram
  • Telegram from Germany to Mexico in 1917
  • Promised Mexico parts of Texas, New Mexico and
    Arizona if they attacked US
  • Mexico declined
  • Greatly angered the US against both Germany and
    Mexico

29
US Enters the War
  • The US decides to enter the war on April 2nd,
    1917
  • Rationing
  • Women and the War
  • Took over mens jobs

30
Russia Leaves the War
  • Russia withdraws
  • Communist Party takes over
  • Trotsky
  • Germany can focus on Western Front
  • US brings fresh troops and supplies
  • War soon to be over
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (need to add this to
    notes)
  • Peace treaty between Russia and Central Powers

31
11 a.m., November 11, 1918
The Armistice is Signed!
32
Legacy of the War
  • 8.5 million soldiers died
  • 21 million wounded
  • Cost Europe 338 billion
  • In 2009 money
  • 4,774,693,955,870
  • Wilsons 14 points

33
Paris Peace Conference
  • The victorious powers met in Paris in 1919 to
    determine the postwar settlement
  • Representatives from the Central Powers were not
    invited
  • The Russians were not invited to attend
  • The French, British, and Americans dominated the
    conference

Georges Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George
(Britain), and Woodrow Wilson (US) at Versailles
34
Fourteen Points
  • Wilson had announced his Fourteen Points as a
    proposed basis for the armistice a year before
    the Paris Peace Conference opened. He
    envisioned
  • Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas in
    peace and in war,
  • The removal of all economic barriers and the
    establishment of an equality of trade conditions
    among all nations,
  • Adequate guarantees for a reduction in national
    armaments,
  • Adjustments of colonial disputes to give equal
    weight to the interests of the controlling
    government and the colonial population, and
  • A call for a general association of nations

35
Fourteen Points (cont.)
  • Many perceived Wilsons Fourteen Points as
    excessively idealistic
  • For the Allies, they conflicted with the secret
    wartime agreements they had made to distribute
    among themselves territories and possessions of
    the defeated nations
  • For the defeated powers, the harsh treaties that
    would be latter imposed upon them certainly
    seemed to violate the spirit of the Fourteen
    Points

36
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • In contrast to Wilsons Fourteen Points, the
    French especially wanted harsh terms imposed on
    the Germans
  • Wanted to destroy or permanently weaken Germany
    as a threat
  • The Treaty of Versailles denied the Germans a
    navy and air force and limited the size of their
    army to 100,000 troops
  • Prevented Germany and Austria from entering any
    sort of political union
  • Required the payment of war reparations
  • Harsh terms of the treaty would eventually
    facilitate Hitlers rise to power

37
Europe Before and After World War I
38
Africa Before and After World War I
39
Results of World War I
  • Loss of global power for Europe
  • Rise of the U.S. and Japan
  • Rise of Bolshevism in Russia
  • Increased nationalism among European colonies
    around the world
  • Political and social power shifts in several
    nations

40
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
  • 1915-1922
  • 1,500,000 Armenians killed
  • 500,000 exiled from the Ottoman Empire.
  • Beginning of World War 1
  • 2,500,000 living in the Ottoman Empire
  • Today fewer than 100,000 declared Armenians
    remain in Turkey

41
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
  • "When the Turkish authorities gave the orders for
    these deportations, they were merely giving the
    death warrant to a whole race they understood
    this well, and, in their conversations with me,
    they made no particular attempt to conceal the
    fact.
  • Henry Morgenthau
  • U.S. Ambassador to Turkey
  • "Ambassador Morgenthau's Story"

42
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
Districts Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey 1914 1914 1922
Erzerum 215,000 215,000 1,500
Van 197,000 197,000 500
Kharbert 204,000 204,000 35,000
Diarbekir 124,000 124,000 3,000
Bitlis 220,000 220,000 56,000
Sivas 225,000 225,000 16,800
       
Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey      
Western Anatolia 371,800 371,800 27,000
Cilicia and Northern Syria 309,000 309,000 70,000
European Turkey 194,000 194,000 163,000
Trapizond District 73,390 73,390 15,000
Total Total 2,133,190 387,800
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