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World War I

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World War I Chapter 30-31 1914-1918 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I


1
World War I
  • Chapter 30-31
  • 1914-1918

2
Woodrow Wilson - 1912
  • Taking advantage of the Republican disorder
    Democrats nominate progressive reformer Dr.
    Woodrow Wilson
  • Wilson Doctor of Political Science at
    Princeton, President of Princeton (1902),
    Governor of New Jersey (1910)

3
Election of 1912
  • Wilson platform was called the New Freedom
    which called for stronger anti-trust legislation,
    banking reform and tariff reductions
  • Roosevelt organized the Bull Moose Party with
    2000 delegates from 48 states

4
Roosevelts Plan
  • Consolidation of trusts and labor unions that
    would be regulated by the government
  • Womens suffrage
  • Minimum wage laws
  • Socialistic social insurance

5
Wilsons Plan
  • Favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship and
    free functioning unregulated and un-monopolized
    markets
  • Enforcement of anti-trust laws
  • Shunned social welfare

6
Election Results
  • Wilson won with 41 of the popular vote
  • Called for an all out assault on what he called
    the triple wall of privilege the tariff, the
    banks, and the trusts

7
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8
Tariffs
  • Underwood Tariff Bill provided for a
    substantial reduction of rates
  • In addition paved the road for the 16th Amendment
    which allowed for a graduated income tax

9
Banks
  • Federal Reserve Act of 1913 President appointed
    a Federal Reserve Board
  • 12 regional reserve districts with its own
    central the bank of banks

10
Trusts
  • Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 searchlight
    on companies engaged in interstate commerce aim
    to CRUSH monopolies by uprooting unfair
    practices, including unlawful competition, false
    advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, and
    bribery
  • Clayton Anti-Trust Act added to the list of
    objectionable business practices including price
    discrimination and interlocking directorates

11
Help for the Farmers
  • Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 made credit
    available to farmers at low rates of interest
  • Warehouse Act of 1916 authorized loans on
    security of staple crops

12
Help for the Workers
  • Seamens Act of 1915
  • Workingmens Compensation Act of 1916
    assistance to federal employees during periods of
    disability
  • Child labor laws
  • Adamson Act of 1916 established the 8 hour work
    day for train employees with extra pay for
    overtime

13
Foreign Affairs
  • Wilson opposed Dollar Diplomacy and Imperialism
  • Ended the Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912
  • Jones Act Philippines to territorial status and
    promised independence as soon as a stable
    government could be established

14
eating his Anti-Imperialism words.
  • 1915 sent marines to Haiti to protect American
    interest
  • 1915 sent marines to Dominican Republic
  • 1917 Wilson purchased the Virgin Islands from
    Denmark
  • 1917 Unrest in Mexico sent troops twice

15
The Great War
  • Europe was a volcano ready to explode in the
    early 1900s
  • June 28, 1914 Serbian nationalist killed Franz
    Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary,
    and his wife Sophie

16
The Start of the War
  • Serbia was allied with powerful Slavic Russia.
  • Russian Tsar Nicholas II mobilized troops and
    moved toward Germany on the east
  • Alliance between France and Russia
  • France confronted their ancient enemy, Germany,
    on the west

17
Kaiser Wilhelm II Attacks
  • Germany became alarmed and attacked France
    through Belgium
  • AIM knock off France to use full force against
    Russia

18
Britain Enters the War
  • Great Britain felt threatened with the German
    attack on neutral Belgium
  • Britain entered the war on the side of France and
    Russia

19
Enter the war later
20
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21
The USA
  • Neutrality Woodrow Wilson issued a routine
    neutrality proclamation, and urged all Americans
    to be neutral

22
Blood Money
  • 1914 United States was in a recession
  • Demand for war materials by the French and
    British jump-start the US economy
  • J.P. Morgan advanced the Allies 2.3 Billion
  • THIS DID NOT VIOLATE INTERNATIONAL NEUTRALITY
    LAWS
  • Germany was technically free to trade with the
    America but the British naval blockade prevented
    Germany from trading

23
Submarine Warfare
  • February 1915 Germany announces an unrestricted
    submarine war
  • Germany will try to uphold neutrality rights but
    mistakes might occur

24
Unterseeboot
  • 1915 German U-Boats sank 90 ships in the war
    zone
  • Lusitania British passenger liner torpedoed and
    sunk off coast of Ireland
  • May 7, 1915 1,198 dead with 128 Americans dead
  • 4,200 cases of small arms ammunition were on board

25
The Arabic
  • The British ship Arabic was sunk in August 1915
  • 200 Americans dead
  • America protested - Germany agreed not to sink
    anymore unarmed ships without warning

26
The Sussex Pledge
  • March 1916
  • German pledge was violated with the sinking of
    the French ship Sussex
  • Wilson threatened to cut diplomatic relations
  • Germans buckle but wanted Washington to persuade
    allies to modify blockade

Sign of the Imperial German Navy
27
Election of 1916
  • Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes ran
    against Wilson
  • Wilson won 277-254 in a very close race

28
Neutrality Restated
  • Jan. 22, 1917 restated US neutrality
  • Jan. 31, 1917 Germany announced unrestricted
    submarine warfare
  • Wilson broke diplomatic ties with Germany, but
    waited for overt agression

29
The Zimmerman Note
  • March 1, 1917
  • German Foreign Secretary - Arthur Zimmerman
  • Wrote letter to German ambassador to Mexico to
    propose an alliance
  • Promised Mexico Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
    after victory

30
A war against tyranny
  • German U-Boats promptly sank 4 unarmed American
    merchant vessels in March
  • Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks created a
    Communist state, and formally ended Russias
    involvement in the war

31
The US Declares War
  • April 2, 1917 Wilson asks Congress to declare
    war
  • Only 6 Senators and 50 Representatives voted no

32
Jeanette Rankin
  • Jeanette Rankin (MT) 1st woman ever elected to
    the US Congress
  • Voted no on the declaration of war

33
The War to End All Wars
  • Wilson said the war would be the war to end all
    wars
  • He called it a crusade to make the world safe
    for democracy
  • Aim of war shape international order and end
    autocratic, militaristic rule

34
Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • The Woodrow Wilson boosted the morale of the
    Allies
  • Jan. 8, 1918 Wilson delivered his famous
    Fourteen Points speech to Congress
  • 1. Abolish secret treaties
  • 2. Freedom of the seas
  • 3. Removal of economic barriers
  • 4. Reduction of armaments
  • 5. adjustment of colonial claims in the interest
    of both native people everywhere
  • He also called for independence by
    self-determination
  • 14. Proposed a League of Nations international
    organization that would provide collective world
    security

35
Committee on Public Information
  • Headed by journalist George Creel
  • His job was to sell America on the war and sell
    Wilsons ideas
  • Employed 150,000 four minute men at home and
    abroad
  • Propaganda poster, billboards, leaflets, and
    pamphlets

36
Hatred
  • Orchestras would not play German composers
  • German books were removed from libraries
  • German classes were cancelled in schools
  • Beer became suspect (Schlitz and Pabst)

37
Fear of Germans
  • Espionage Act of 1917 - 10,000 fine and 20 years
    imprisonment for interfering with the recruitment
    of troops or disclosure of information dealing
    with national defense. 900 went to prison under
    the act
  • Sedition Act of 1918 federal crime to criticize
    the government or Constitution, negative opinions
    of the war, or the draft could lead to
    imprisonment

38
Eugene V. Debs
  • Socialist politician who had run for president
    was against the war
  • He gave a speech encouraging young men to rethink
    their decision to go to war
  • Imprisoned for violating the Espionage and
    Sedition Acts

39
Schneck v. United States (1919)
  • Supreme Court decision stating that freedom of
    speech can be revoked when it poses a clear and
    present danger to national defense
  • Most people arrested for such war crimes were
    later pardoned by Republican Warren Harding in
    the 1920s

40
United States ready for war?
  • Shipbuilding programs were launched
  • Army only had 100,000 regulars
  • 15th largest Army in the world

41
War Industries Board
  • Bernard Baruch appt. head of WIB
  • Created to organize production of steel and
    explosive powder

42
Labor
  • Labor will win the war.
  • Work or Fight rule 1919 threatened any
    unemployed male with immediate draft
  • Discouraged strikes

43
The National War Labor Board
  • Chaired by W.H. Taft
  • To head off labor disputes that might hamper war
    efforts

44
War Time Inflation
  • Inflation increased during the First World War
  • 1914-1920 prices more than doubled
  • 6,000 strikes
  • 1919 250,000 steel workers went on strike
  • Companies refused to negotiate with unions, and
    30,000 black workers were brought in
  • Setback crippled union for years

45
The Great Migration
  • 10,000 Southern blacks were drawn North during
    the war
  • Jobs were available and fueled the movement
  • Their appearance in northern cities sparked
    violence

46
Women During The War
  • Women worked in factories and fields while men
    were fighting
  • Hurt the womens movement many feminist were
    pacifist
  • National Womans Party led by Quaker Alice Paul

47
Women During The War
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association
  • Supported Wilsons war
  • Said women must take part in the war effort to
    earn a role in shaping the peace

48
Womens Suffrage
  • 1917 NY voted for womens suffrage.
  • Michigan, Oklahoma, and South Dakota soon
    followed.
  • 19th Amendment 1920- gave all American women
    the right to vote.

49
War Economy
  • Food Administration headed by Quaker Herbert
    Hoover
  • Relied on voluntary compliance, not force
  • Rejected ration cards
  • Posters, billboards, newspapers, pulpits, and
    movies
  • Wheatless Wednesdays Meatless Tuesdays
  • Conservation and Victory Gardens

50
War Economy
  • Foodstuffs for production of alcohol was
    prohibited by the government
  • Prohibition became a popular idea
  • 18th Amendment 1919 prohibited manufacturing,
    sale, and distribution of alcohol

51
War Economy
  • Hoovers plan increased farm production by 25
  • Food exports to Allies tripled
  • Fuel Administration imitated Hoovers campaign by
    supporting heatless Mondays, gasless Sundays
    and lightless nights
  • Treasury Department promoted Liberty Loan drives
    which netted 21 billion (2/3 the cost of the
    war)
  • Nation took over railroads and shipbuilding in
    1917

52
Doughboys
  • Conscription laws were passed to raise an army
  • All men between 18-45 had to register
  • Exemptions were granted only in key industries
  • 4 million man army
  • Women and African Americans were allowed in army
    in segregated units

53
Russia
  • Vladimir Lenin and Bolsheviks take over Russia in
    1917
  • Withdrew from capitalist war in 1918
  • Two front war ended Germanys troops on the
    eastern front were sent to the western front

54
US Troops
  • United States an effective fighting force did
    not reach France until one year after the
    declaration of war
  • Americans fought in France, Belgium, Italy, and
    Russia.
  • 5,000 troops to Archangel, Russia
  • 10,000 troops to Siberia along with 70,000
    Japanese

55
Hammering the Hun
  • Germans exploded on the western front Spring 1918
  • 500,000 troops strong
  • Terrifying momentum
  • May 1918 Germans within 40 miles of Paris

56
American Combat
  • 30,000 American Marines enter the war at
    Chateau-Thierry
  • 1st engagement of US troops against German
    regulars
  • Truckloads of fresh American soldiers assist in
    the victory

57
2nd Battle of the Marne
  • July 1918 Germans are exhausted
  • Americans assisted at the victory of the 2nd
    Battle of the Marne
  • Beginning of German withdrawal
  • Sept 1918 9 US Divisions (243,000) and 4 French
    Divisions pushed Germans from St. Mihiel

Chateau-Thierry Monument at the Marne River Valley
58
General John J. Pershing
  • American General given command in France
  • Undertook the Meuse-Argonne Offensive
  • September 26 - November 11, 1918
  • Cut German rail lines to western front
  • 47 days
  • 120,000 killed/wounded

59
Germans Seek Peace
  • Oct. 1918 Germans turned to Wilson for peace
    based on his Fourteen Points
  • Wilson wants Kaiser removed
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to Holland
  • Armistice - 11 day of the 11 hour of the 11 month

60
Wilson Loses Support
  • 1918 Congressional Elections Wilson campaigns
    hard for Democratic candidates
  • Republicans win majority in the US House
  • Wilson goes to Paris to help with peace
    negotiations
  • 1st sitting president to go to Europe

61
Paris Peace Conference
  • Controlled by the Big Four
  • 1. Woodrow Wilson United States
  • 2. Premier Vittorio Orlando Italy
  • 3. Prime Minister David Lloyd George England
  • 4. Premier Georges Clemenceau - France

62
Treaty of Versailles
  • Jane. 18, 1919 conference opened in France at
    Versailles
  • Wilsons goal was to implement a world parliament
    known as the League of Nations
  • Wilson stipulated that the victors would not take
    possession of the conquered territory outright
    but would receive it in trust
  • Syria was given to France
  • Iraq was awarded to Britain

63
Wilson Returns Home
  • Republicans, led by Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge,
    proclaimed they would not support the League of
    Nations and planned to Americanize the treaty
  • Wilson appeals to the American people and
    embarked on a countrywide speech making tour

64
Election of 1920
  • Warren G. Harding
  • Gov. James M. Cox
  • Harding swept election 404-127
  • Debs gets 1 million votes from prison
  • Harding calls for a return to normalcy

65
Collapse of the Treaty
  • America never joined the League of Nations or
    ratified the treaty
  • Treaty collapsed
  • France began to fortify and arm the Franco-German
    border
  • Germany began to illegally rearm
  • What did WWI accomplish?
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