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World War I (1914-18), and the Russian Revolution (1917)

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Title: World War I (1914-18), and the Russian Revolution (1917)


1
World War I (1914-18), and the Russian
Revolution (1917)
2
World War I, and Russian Revolution
  • How was the old order shattered?
  • Where do we see the fruits of the Industrial
    Revolution?
  • Fruits of nineteenth-century thought?
  • Other reflections on why this war matters?

3
World War I
4
World War I
  • Balkan Origins
  • Resentment between Austria-Hungary, Serbia
  • Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo
    (6/28/1914)
  • Austria declared war (July 28)

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie
5
World War I
  • The Great War Begins
  • Allied Powers Russia, France, Great Britain,
    Italy
  • Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman
    Empire

6
World War I
  • The Western Front
  • German aim defeat France quickly
  • Invaded through Belgium (August 1914)
  • FIRST BATTLE OF THE MARNE (September)
  • French and British counterattacked
  • Germans halted, dug in at Aisne

The Schlieffen Plan
7
World War I
Destruction of Louvain (August 1914)
8
World War I
Shelling of Reims Cathedral (September 1914)
9
World War I
10
World War I
11
World War I
12
World War I
13
World War I
Big Bertha
14
World War I
  • Eastern Front Gallipoli Campaign (1915-16)
  • Allied objectives
  • Cut Ottomans off from Germany
  • Get supplies to Russians
  • Ottoman artillery blocked squadron, troops
  • Allies evacuated ? Ottoman victory

15
World War I
  • The Armenians (1915)
  • Growing nationalism, Armenian volunteers in
    Russian army
  • Armenian collaboration ? deportation from
    Anatolia to Syrian desert
  • Reprisals elsewhere too
  • Death toll approx. 1 million!

Ottoman march of Armenians to prisons
16
World War I
  • The Arab Revolt (1916-18)
  • Result of British arrangement with Sharif Hussein
  • British to recognize independent Arab state
  • Commanded by Prince Faisal, with T.E. Lawrence
  • Attacked Ottoman garrisons, and disrupted Ottoman
    communications, supply lines

Prince Faisal, and Lawrence
17
World War I
1962
18
World War I
  • Questions?

19
The Russian Revolution
  • Russias Problems
  • Tsar Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917) inept, reluctant
    to share power
  • War going poorly!
  • Tsars departure for front ? Alexandras control
    of government

The Royal Family
20
The Russian Revolution
  • The Fall of the Tsar
  • Severe food shortages ? riots in Petrograd (March
    8, 1917), joined by soldiers
  • Nicholas II persuaded to abdicate (March 15)
  • Duma established provisional government
  • Goal constitutional democracy
  • Aimed to continue war effort
  • SOVIETS formed, sought land reform

21
The Russian Revolution
  • Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
  • Leader of Bolshevik Party
  • Had been exiled ? Petrograd (April 1917)
  • Opposed provisional government
  • Peace, land, bread!
  • Revolution!

22
The Russian Revolution
  • The Bolshevik Revolution
  • Gained majority among soviets
  • Coup (Nov. 6-7, 1917)
  • New government one-party rule, under Lenin
  • Royal family executed (July 1918)

23
The Russian Revolution
  • Peace of Brest-Litovsk (March 3, 1918)
  • Russia out of the war
  • Had to cede territory

24
The Russian Revolution
  • Questions?

25
World War I
German U-Boat
26
World War I
  • The USA Enters the War
  • German U-boats blockaded British Isles (Feb.
    1915)
  • Torpedoed Lusitania (May 1915) ? warning!
  • Germans resumed unrestricted sub warfare (January
    1917)
  • USA declared war April 6, 1917

The sinking of the Lusitania
27
World War I
  • The Defeat of the Central Powers (1918)
  • Germans continued war effort, reached Marne again
    (May)
  • First American troops arrived (June)
  • Western, eastern fronts rolling back
  • Central Powers capitulated
  • Ottomans (October 31)
  • Austria-Hungary (November 3)
  • Germany (November 11)

28
World War I
  • Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
  • Fourteen Points for new international order
  • Open diplomacy
  • National self-determination
  • International body
  • Popular in Europe!

29
World War I
  • Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919)
  • Ended war with Germany
  • The Arrangements
  • Alsace-Lorraine returned to France,
    demilitarization of Rhineland
  • Military to be largely dismantled
  • Reparations!

30
World War I
  • Aftermath
  • Unfathomable death toll
  • Disillusionment, cynicism
  • Declining European hegemony
  • New international order

31
World War I
Käthe Kollwitz, Mother with Dead Son (1937-38)
Michelangelo, The Pietà (ca. 1500)
32
World War I
  • Wilfred Owens Dulce et decorum est (1917-18)
  • Bent double, like old beggars under
    sacks,Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed
    through sludge,Till on the haunting flares we
    turned our backsAnd towards our distant rest
    began to trudge.Men marched asleep. Many had
    lost their bootsBut limped on, blood-shod. All
    went lame all blindDrunk with fatigue deaf
    even to the hootsOf tired, outstripped
    Five-Nines that dropped behind.

33
World War I
  • Wilfred Owens Dulce et decorum est (1917-18)
  • Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! -- An ecstasy of
    fumbling,Fitting the clumsy helmets just in
    timeBut someone still was yelling out and
    stumblingAnd flound'ring like a man in fire or
    lime . . .Dim, through the misty panes and thick
    green light,As under a green sea, I saw him
    drowning.In all my dreams, before my helpless
    sight,He plunges at me, guttering, choking,
    drowning.

34
World War I
  • Wilfred Owens Dulce et decorum est (1917-18)
  • If in some smothering dreams you too could
    paceBehind the wagon that we flung him in,And
    watch the white eyes writhing in his face,His
    hanging face, like a devil's sick of sinIf you
    could hear, at every jolt, the bloodCome
    gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,Obscene
    as cancer, bitter as the cudOf vile, incurable
    sores on innocent tongues, --My friend, you
    would not tell with such high zestTo children
    ardent for some desperate glory,The old lie
    Dulce et decorum estPro patria mori.

35
World War I
36
World War I
37
World War I
  • Questions?

38
World War I, and Russian Revolution
  • How was the old order shattered?
  • Where do we see the fruits of the Industrial
    Revolution?
  • Fruits of nineteenth-century thought?
  • Other reflections on why this war matters?
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