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Title: 1914-1918: The World at War Chapter 10


1
1914-1918The Worldat WarChapter10
2
Causesof theGreat War
3
Basic Causes of World War I
  • Nationalism
  • Pride for ones own country or culture.
  • Led to German and Italy
  • Imperialism
  • British and French colonies in Africa
  • Germany wanted them.
  • Militarism
  • Build armies and navies to combat other nations.

4
1. NATIONALISM - pride/devotion for your country
or culture
  • France and Germany fight for leadership
  • Russia (protector of the Slavic people)
  • Russia and Austria-Hungary rivals for influence
    over Serbia
  • Ethnic groups hoped to create nations of their
    own Ex. Poles, Czechs

5
2. Imperialism - Economic Imperial Rivalries
6
Competition for colonies.
  • Provide markets to sell goods
  • Provide needed raw materials/resources
  • Added prestige to the imperialist nation
    (nationalism)
  • GERMANY INDUSTRIALIZES AND COMPETES WITH FRANCE
    AND GB

7
3. Militarism Arms Race
Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers
Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus. in millions of
s.
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914
94 130 154 268 289 398
1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
France 10
Britain 13
Russia 39
Germany 73
8
4. Alliances
  • Triple Alliance
  • Germany
  • Austria Hungary
  • Italy
  • Triple Entente
  • Britain
  • France
  • Russia

9
The Alliance System
Triple Entente
Triple Alliance
10
TheSpark
11
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  • Austria
  • Black Hand
  • Bosnian terrorist group
  • Wanted a independent Bosnia
  • Visit to Sarajevo
  • Capital of Austro-Hungary
  • Assassinated
  • Gavrilo Princip
  • The war is on!

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13
WAR
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbs
  • Russia promised to protect the Serbs and mobilize
    its troops.
  • Germany sees this as an act of aggression and
    declares war on Russia.
  • Germany declares war on France to protect their
    back door.
  • Germany invades Belgium
  • Great Britain pledged to defend Belgium and
    declares war on Germany.
  • War has Begun!

14
Two Armed Camps!
Allied Powers
Central Powers
15
The Great Powers of Europe
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Allied Powers
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Russia
  • Italy joined the allied powers because of
    disagreements.

16
Key Figures in WWI
Allied Powers
Central Powers
George V GB
Kaiser Wilhelm II Gr
Nicholas II Rus
Enver Pasha OE
Victor Emmanuel II It
Pres. Poincare Fr
Franz Josef A-H
17
The Schlieffen Plan
18
Germany invades neutral Belgium
  • Aug. 4, 1914 use Schlieffen Plan
  • Attack Belgium, holding action against Russia
    after France falls they can put two armies
    against Russia
  • Great Britain joins War against Germany

19
German Atrocities in Belgium
20
New Technology of the War
  • Uniforms
  • Germans Gray uniforms used as camouflage
  • French dressed in old ceremonial uniform. Left
    them with little camouflage

21
New Technology of the War
  • Machine Gun
  • Could set up in 4 seconds
  • Could fire 600 bullets a minute

Maschinengewehr German MG
Water Cooled Vickers British MG
22
New Technology of the War
  • Artillery

British Mark I Howitzer
400mm Rail Howitzer French
420mm Big Bertha Germany
23
1st Battle of the Marne
  • Germans only 25 miles from Paris
  • French counterattack Sept. 7, 1914
  • 2 million men fight over 125 mile battlefield
  • 5 days 250,000 lost Germans pushed back
  • Gave Russia time to mobilize

24
The Plans falls Apart
  • The Battle of the
    Marne

25
Taxis to the Rescue
26
Trench Warfare -stalemate
No Mans Land
27
New Technology of the War
  • Trench Warfare

28
Trench Warfare
29
Trench Foot YUCK!!!
30
New Technology of the War
  • Poison Gas
  • Good and Bad
  • Gas Masks developed
  • Barbaric?

31
New Technology of the War
32
FlameThrowers
GrenadeLaunchers
33
New Technology of the War
TANK! GET OUT OF THE TRENCH!
  • Tanks

British Mark IV Tank
M1 U.S. Tank
Schwerer Kampfwagen A7V German Tank
34
New Technology of the War
  • Airplanes

Eddie Rickenbacker U.S. Flying Ace
Nieuport 17 French and American
Manfred von Richthofen A.K.A. Red Baron
Fokker Dr.I German
Sopwith Camel British
35
Looking for the Red Baron?
36
The Zeppelin
37
Christmas, 1914
  • German and British soldiers fraternizing in No
    Man's Land, Christmas 1914

38
The Western Front
  • Verdun
  • German Offensive
  • Somme
  • UK French

39
Verdun February, 1916
  • German offensive.
  • Each side had 500,000 casualties.

40
The Somme July, 1916
  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

41
The Eastern Front
  • Gallipoli
  • Russia failing
  • Promise of the Dardanelles
  • Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

42
War Crimes in Armenia
  • Ottoman Turks fear Armenian support of Russia
    (Christian V Islam)
  • The solution men, women and children marched
    into the desert till dead from exposure and
    dehydration
  • 1915-1918
  • 1.5 Million Dead

43
War Is HELL !!
44
Sacrifices in War
45
The United States in WWI
46
Isolationism
  • President Woodrow Wilson declared they would stay
    neutral.
  • This is an isolationist view.
  • However Wilson leaned
  • toward the allies because
  • they traded with them and
  • supplied them with war
  • goods.

47
New Technology of the War
  • Submarine Warfare

German U-Boat
British Submarine
48
U-Boats
49
But Why Did the U.S. Enter the War?
  • Germanys Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • Germany would attack any ships in the war zone
  • The Sinking of the Lusitania May 1st 1915
  • British cruise liner with American passengers
  • Sussex Pledge
  • Germans would not sink
  • merchant vessels without
  • warning and without saving
  • human lives.

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51
But Why Did the U.S. Enter the War?
  • Sussex Pledge 1915
  • Germans would not sink
  • merchant vessels without warning
  • and without saving human lives.
  • Germany resorts back to unrestricted submarine
    warfare 1917
  • U.S. ends diplomatic ties with Germany.

52
But Why Did the U.S. Enter the War?
  • Zimmermann Note
  • German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann sent
    telegram to Mexico.
  • Telegram asked Mexico to
  • attack the U.S. in exchange
  • for New Mexico, Texas, and
  • Arizona.
  • Mexico had no desire to be
  • involved and it backfired.
  • It was intercepted by Great Britain.

53
America Prepares For War
54
Congress declares War
  • Wilson outraged because of the previous events
    asks congress to declare war on Germany. April
    2nd 1917
  • Congress declares
  • war on Germany April 6th
  • 1917. United States
  • joins the Allied Powers.

55
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56
World War IThe Home Front
  • Chapter 10
  • Section 2

57
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58
U.S. Prepares for War
  • Selective Service Act
  • May 18th 1917
  • Requires men between 21 and 30 to register to be
    drafted into the armed forces.
  • You faced a combat position or prison .
  • U.S. was not prepared for war.
  • New recruits did not have rifles,
  • supplies, or even places to sleep.
  • Training was extreme.
  • Trained all day on marching and
  • military rules.
  • Used rifles until they were given rifles.

General John J. Pershing Commander of U.S. Forces
59
Mobilizing the Home Front
  • Economy
  • War Revenue Act of 1917
  • Very high taxes especially for the wealthy.
  • Liberty Bonds
  • Loan to the government.
  • Government owed 20 billion to the people after
    the war.

60
Mobilizing the Home Front
  • Regulations
  • Industry
  • War Industries Board
  • Couldnt use steel, copper, cement, or rubber
    without their approval.
  • Food
  • Herbert Hoover led the food administration
  • Food can win the War
  • Victory gardens
  • Meatless Mondays and wheatless Wednesdays
  • Eighteenth Amendment
  • Prohibition
  • Fuel
  • Fuel Administration
  • Set prices for fuel to make sure military needs
    were met.

61
Mobilizing the Home Front
  • Workers
  • Pay and hours went up but so did the cost of
    living.
  • Increased production meant less safety
    precautions.
  • National War Labor Board
  • Judged disputes between management and workers to
    prevent strikes.
  • Women
  • Went to work on railroads, docks, and factories.
    Jobs usually held by men.
  • After the war women left these jobs by choice and
    by force from employers who wanted men.

62
Support the War!
  • Committee on Public Information (CPI)
  • Nationwide Propaganda
  • Led by George Creel

63
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67
Freedom of Speech?
  • Espionage Act
  • Punished Americans for aiding the enemy or
    refusing military service.
  • Sedition Act
  • Cannot criticize the government, flag, or
    military.
  • Penalty was jail.
  • Schenck v. United States
  • Charles Schenck of the American Socialist Party
    printed 15,000 pamphlets opposing the war.
  • Unanimous decision ruling against Schenck.
  • Speech can be limited if it poses a threat to
    others.

68
Minorities in the U.S. Army
  • African Americans
  • Segregated and trained in separate camps.
  • Only a few regiments were trained.
  • Were only allowed to be in the Army
  • and in the Navy as mess men.
  • Usually assigned to French regiments
  • Gave them 11 citations for bravery
  • and valor
  • Latinos
  • Often assigned menial tasks.
  • Some couldnt speak English
  • Women
  • Enlisted and went oversees to
  • work as switch board operators, nurses,
  • and typists in the Army, Navy, and Marines.

69
Great Migration
70
Wilson, War, and Peace
  • Chapter 10
  • Section 3

71
U.S. in Action
  • Convoy System
  • Troops and supply ships surrounded by destroyers
    and cruisers.
  • French wanted U.S. to begin fighting as soon as
    they got off the ships.
  • Pershing wanted them to train for another year in
    France to get use to the environment.

72
Russians
  • Czar Nicholas II loses power
  • People adopt a republic government in March 1917.
  • This pleased the Americans.
  • November 1917 the Bolsheviks take control of
    government.
  • Led by Vladimir Ilich Lenin
  • Communists
  • Sign a peace treaty with Central Powers. Germany
    can focus on western front.

73
Key Battles Involving Americans
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.

74
Alvin York
75
The Allies fight back
  • With the help of the Americans in 1918 the allies
    fought back and pushed the Germans back into
    Belgium and Germany.
  • Central Powers were failing
  • Germanys economy was crippled.
  • Food and supplies were depleted.
  • Austria-Hungary fell into revolution.
  • Central Powers troops did not want to fight
    anymore.

76
The Tide Turns
  • The US the Convoy System
  • Doughboys tip scales, Germans deep into their
    reserves
  • Ottomans and Austrians surrender

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78
War Ends
  • November 1918
  • Austria-Hungary signed a peace treaty with the
    Allies
  • November 7th
  • Germany begins peace negotiation
  • November 11th
  • Armistice went into effect.
  • What holiday today?

79
World War I Casualties
80
Wilsons View of World Peace
  • Fourteen Points
  • 1-4 dealt with removal of trade barriers and
    reduction of military arms of the Central Powers.
  • 5th point deals with a system to resolve
    disputes.
  • 6-13 dealt with self-determination.
  • The right for people to decide their own
    political status.
  • Wilson wanted the ethnic groups of
    Austria-Hungary to split up and form their own
    nations.
  • 14th point dealt with forming the League of
    Nations
  • Group of nations that would
  • Settle disputes
  • Protect democracy
  • Prevent future wars.
  • What happened to the U.S. foreign policy?
    Isolationism? Progressivism?

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82
Paris Peace Conference
  • Wilson was in attendance.
  • Felt he would be the unbiased leader that would
    finally bring Europe to peace.
  • 32 Nations attended
  • The Allied leaders controlled the negotiations.
  • The Big Four
  • U.S. Pres. Woodrow Wilson
  • Wanted the Fourteen Points
  • Great Britain PM David Lloyd George
  • France Premier George Clemenceau
  • Wanted to punish Germany severely for the War.
  • Italy PM Vittorio Orlando

83
Treaty of Versailles
  • Allies reach an agreement.
  • Germany
  • Had to pay reparations
  • 269 billion gold marks (Equivalent today to
    393.6 Billion U.S. dollars)
  • Had to disarm its military.
  • Accept full responsibility for starting the war.
  • What is this called?
  • League of Nations would be formed.
  • Some ethnic groups would be allowed to form their
    own Nations.

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Can Wilson sign the Treaty?
  • No, needs the Senate to approve it.
  • Senate was split into 3 groups
  • Democrats approve the treaty
  • Irreconcilables didnt want U.S. in the League
    of Nations.
  • Reservationists would approve it if changes
    were made.
  • Henry Cabot Lodge head of reservationists
  • Wilson would not cooperate with the
    reservationists.
  • Went on a 22 day campaign
  • through the U.S. traveling 8,000
  • miles and speaking 32 times
  • trying to gain the publics approval
  • It was too much for him and he
  • had a stroke and never fully recovered.
  • Wilson still continued not to
  • compromise with Lodge

86
Does the League of Nations work?
  • Wilson leaves office in 1921
  • Never got the treaty approved by the Senate.
  • The U.S. signs separate treaties with Austria,
    Hungary, and Germany having never joined the
    League of Nations.
  • Without the U.S. power the League of Nations
    would never be able to keep the peace.

87
Effects of the War
  • United States History
  • 10.4

88
Why Fear?
  • Changes in American Society as a result of World
    War I
  • End to Wartime Prosperity and Unity

89
Influenza Epidemic
  • Spread across the U.S. and Europe.
  • More than ½ of the soldiers on the western front
    died from influenza.
  • Trenches were dirty and filthy and this helped
    the disease spread.
  • Flu like symptoms
  • City officials cancelled group gatherings in an
    attempt to stop the spread of the disease.
  • It didnt help.
  • The disease cost 675,000 Americans their lives.

90
1919 Race Riots
91
Labor Unrest
  • Strikes Communist
  • Returning soldiers want jobs back
  • Foreigners
  • Women
  • Blacks

92
What is Communism?
  • No private property
  • Equal wealth
  • Government control of Industry
  • Abolition of
  • Marriage
  • Family
  • Religion
  • Nation
  • World-wide Revolution.

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Communism
Russian Revolution of 1917 ? U.S.S.R. under V. I.
Lenin
95
Russian Revolution - 1917
  • Bolsheviks, led by V.I. Lenin, seize control of
    Russia and establish the Soviet Union.
  • Red Scare panic over the spread of communism
    sweeps through the U.S.

96
Americas First Red Scare
97
Palmer Raids
Anarchists known as Galleanists started to Bomb
various American towns. Including Washington
D.C.Americans feared Communists were tryingto
take over the U.S. like they did RussiaPalmer
lived on the street where bomb wentoff along
with FDR, who was walking home with his wife. In
this case the bomber was Killed because it went
off prematurely.This incident will make Palmer
want to Target all communists and anarchists
A.Mitchell Palmer
98
Terrorist Attacks
Wall Street Bombing 1920 Horse drawn carriage
explodes in Front of JP Morgan building100
pounds of TNT and 500 poundsof cast-iron
pellets. Meant to kill and Maim as many as
possible. 38 died Over 400 injured.This will
fuel Palmer even moreover 10,000 people will be
arrested4,000 in one night alone.
99
A Society in Conflict
  • Anti-immigrant
  • National Origins Act
  • Discrimination
  • Sacco-Vanzetti Trial
  • Italian immigrants
  • Unfair trial

100
The Ku Klux Klan
Great increase In power
Anti-black
Anti-immigrant
Anti-Semitic
Anti-Catholic
Anti-womens suffrage
1915
Anti-bootleggers
It is like writing history with lightning. And
my only regret is that it is all so terribly
true Woodrow Wilson
101
Impact of World War 1
  • Political
  • Overthrow of monarchies in Russia,
    Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.
  • Rise of the Bolsheviks and Communism.
  • Economical
  • U.S. was becoming the leading economic power.
  • However
  • Increased production of food during the
  • war was not needed anymore. Farmers go into debt.

102
Impact of World War 1
  • Social
  • Womens rights
  • Passage of the 19th amendment 1919
  • Europe
  • An entire generation of young
  • men were killed.
  • France was in shambles
  • Great Britain and Germany were
  • in severe debt.
  • People thought this was the war to end all wars.
    Obviously it wasnt.

103
Impact of World War 1
Each Symbol equals 100,000 deaths
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