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Chapter 17: The U.S. in WWII Section 4: The Impact of the War on the Homefront

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Chapter 17: The U.S. in WWII Section 4: The Impact of the War on the Homefront Standards 11.7.5 11.7 Students analyze America's participation in World War II. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 17: The U.S. in WWII Section 4: The Impact of the War on the Homefront


1
Chapter 17 The U.S. in WWII Section 4 The
Impact of the War on the Homefront
2
Standards
  • 11.7.5
  • 11.7 Students analyze America's participation in
    World War II.
  • .5 Discuss the constitutional issues and impact
    of events on the U.S. home front, including the
    internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred
    Korematsu v. United States of America)

3
Objectives
  • Following lecture and reading of this section,
    students will be able to
  • Describe the economic and social changes that
    reshaped American life during WWII
  • Summarize the opportunities and the
    discrimination American minorities experienced
    during the war.

4
Economic Gains
  • Defense industries boom
  • unemployment falls to 1.2 in 1944
  • average pay rises 10 during war
  • Farmers prosper from rising crop prices, increase
    in production
  • many pay off mortgages
  • Percentage of women in work force rises to 35

5
Population Shifts
  • The growth of the defense industry sparks the
    largest migration in U.S. history.
  • Mass migrations to towns with defense industries
  • Many are African-Americans moving from the south
    to find better opportunities

6
Social Adjustments
  • Families adjust
  • fathers in military
  • mothers raise children alone and work
  • Families must get to know each other again after
    fathers return
  • Many couples had rushed to get married before
    husband went overseas
  • 1944 GI Bill of Rights or Servicemens
    Readjustment Act was implemented
  • Paid for an education
  • Loan guarantees for homes and new businesses

7
Civil Unrest
  • Civil Rights Protests
  • Racial tensions rise in overcrowded Northern
    cities
  • James Farmer founds Congress of Racial Equality
    (CORE)
  • works on racial segregation in North
  • 1943 racial violence sweeps across country
    Detroit riots worst case
  • Tension in Los Angeles
  • Anti-Mexican zoot suit riots involve thousands
    servicemen and civilians

8
Internment
  • Japanese Americans Placed in Internment Camps
    Visual
  • Hawaii governor forced to order internment
    (confinement) of Japanese
  • 1942 FDR signs removal of Japanese Americans in
    four states
  • U.S. Army forces 110,000 Japanese Americans into
    prison camps
  • 1944 Korematsu v. United StatesCourt rules in
    favor of internment
  • After war, Japanese American Citizens League
    pushes for compensation
  • 1988, Congress grants 20,000 to everyone sent
    to relocation camp

9
  • Americans who lived in places for years moved
    elsewhere for work.
  • CA had over 1 million newcomers from 1941-44.
  • Burbank grew from 12,000 to 60,000 in the first
    two years of the war.
  • The mass migrations and rations left the U.S. in
    a housing shortage and food shortages in
    restaurants.

10
  • Families struggled with separations and changing
    roles.
  • Fathers in the war, women raising children alone,
    and young children got used to being left alone.
  • People got married quickly, before soldiers went
    off to war.
  • Soldiers received Dear John letters from their
    wives or sweethearts when she found someone new.

11
  • The GI bill of rights was passed in 1944, to help
    ease the transition of returning serviceman to
    civilian life.
  • Discrimination and Reaction
  • African Americans and Mexican Americans fight
    segregation and discrimination but persist and
    have decorated units.

12
  • During the war, about 330,000 blacks left the
    south, many moved to the West Coast.
  • They left for jobs and found that between
    1940-1944 their skilled positions doubled from
    16 to 30.

13
  • Discrimination followed African Americans
    wherever they went, so James Farmer established
    the Congress of Racial Equality to confront urban
    segregation.
  • As new black immigrants moved into already
    crowded cities, tensions rose.
  • Mexican Americans were faced with the zoot suit
    riots.

14
  • The zoot suit was a style of dress adopted by
    Mexican American youths as a symbol of their
    rebellion against tradition.
  • The zoot suit consisted of a knee-length jacket,
    pleated pants nipped in at the cuff, and a
    broad-brimmed hat.
  • In Los Angeles, the riots began when 11 sailors
    claimed they were attacked by Mexican Americans.

15
  • The charges triggered two nights of violence
    between servicemen and civilians.
  • Mobs went into Mexican neighborhoods and grabbed
    any zootsuiters they could ripped off their
    clothes and beat them.
  • The city responded by outlawing the wearing of
    zoot suits.

16
  • The Japanese American Experience
  • The Japanese were interned, as we mention before,
    into prison like camps because we worried many
    Japanese were spies.
  • Some Japanese got out of the camps by
    volunteering for military service.
  • The Japanese that served were highly decorated
    with war medals.

17
  • Japanese Americans also fought for justice, both
    in the courts and in congress.
  • In the 1944 Supreme Court decision Korematsu v.
    U.S. claimed government was justified by
    evacuating Japanese because of military necessity.

18
  • After the war, the Japanese Americans Citizen
    League (JACL) pushed the government to compensate
    those sent to camps for their lost property.
  • In 1965, 20 years after the war, congress
    authorized 38 million in compensation.
  • This was okay but nothing compared to the 400
    million that was actually taken.

19
  • A New Threat Looms
  • After the war, America would barely have time to
    deal with the aftermath of the war and to adjust
    to peace, before it found itself mobilizing
    against a new enemy- the threat of Communism.

20
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Japanese Internment camps
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Rosie the Riveter
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30
Aircraft Carrier
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