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Chapter 11 Sectional Conflict Increases

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Title: Chapter 11 Sectional Conflict Increases


1
Chapter 11Sectional Conflict Increases
  • Section 1
  • An Uneasy Balance

2
A. Missouri Compromise
  • 1819 Missouri applies for statehood
  • Debate over slavery/sectional fears
  • Georgia congressman tells James Talmadge (NY),
    who wanted to gradually eliminate slavery if
    Missouri became a state
  • You have kindled a fire which all the waters of
    the ocean cannot put out, which seas of blood can
    only extinguish.
  • Would he prove to be correct?

3
A. Missouri Compromise
  • Agreement Henry Clay led Congress
  • Missouri admitted as a slave state
  • Maine admitted as a free state
  • Slavery banned in Louisiana Territory north of
    Missouris southern border (3630 N latitude)
  • Result Temporary relief
  • See quotes on next slide

4
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5
A. Missouri Compromise
  • Sectional Concerns
  • Sectional antagonism, Jefferson wrote, "is
    hushed, indeed, for the moment. But this is a
    reprieve only, not a final sentence and every
    new irritation will mark it deeper and deeper."
  • John Quincy Adams agreed. The Missouri crisis, he
    wrote, is only the "title page to a great tragic
    volume.
  • Why did Jefferson and Adams say this?
  • Will they be proven correct?

6
B. The Slavery Debate Reopens
  • A Tense Time
  • Southern members of House able to outlaw talk of
    abolishing slavery on the floor
  • Equal numbers continue Arkansas admitted as
    slave state in 1836, Michigan as free state in
    1837
  • February 1838 Congressmen from Maine and
    Kentucky have a duel, northerner was killed

7
B. The Slavery Debate Reopens
  • Annexation of Texas
  • Slave states vs. free states
  • Result
  • Texas admitted as a slave state but it could be
    divided into as many as five states if it wanted
  • Missouri Compromise line extended westward
  • Between 1845 and 1848, Texas and Florida added as
    slave states, Iowa and Wisconsin added as free
    states

8
B. The Slavery Debate Reopens
  • Popular Sovereignty and Wilmot Proviso
  • Big question What should be done with slavery
    in newly acquired land from Mexico in Mexican
    war?
  • Polks proposal extend Missouri Compromise line
    all the way to Pacific Ocean
  • Popular sovereignty proposed by Senators Lewis
    Cass (MI) and Stephen Douglas (IL) would allow
    the citizens of new territories to vote on
    whether or not to allow slavery
  • How was this different from previous discussions
    about the expansion of slavery?

9
B. The Slavery Debate Reopens
  • Neither proposal satisfied antislavery people
  • What did they want?
  • Wilmot Proviso wanted to make it a law and ban
    slavery in all lands that were added from Mexico
  • Result DID NOT BECOME A LAW

10
C. Election of 1848
  • Democrats Lewis Cass
  • Supported popular sovereignty and was against
    Wilmot Proviso
  • Whigs Mexican War hero Zachary Taylor
  • People didnt know Taylors views on slavery but
    since he had slaves it was assumed he would be in
    favor of it

11
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12
C. Election of 1848
  • Free Soil Party
  • Formed by antislavery Whigs and Democrats in
    August 1848
  • Nominated former president Martin Van Buren
  • Platform position Demanded that slavery be
    banned in all territories
  • Result Taylor beats Cass 163-127
  • Free Soil party takes enough votes in NY (Van
    Burens home state) to cost Cass the election

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14
D. Gold in California
  • Sutters Fort fort and trading post owned by
    Swiss immigrant John Augustus Sutter along the
    California Trail
  • California Trail trail that split away from
    Oregon Trail near the southernmost point of the
    Snake River
  • Gold discovered in the bottom of a wooden canal
    on January 24, 1848

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17
D. Gold in California
  • Discovery led to a huge number of incoming people
    to join the search (40,000 by May 1849 over
    California Trail)
  • Forty-niners migrants to gold rush, named
    because of the year (1849)
  • Nearly 80 percent of forty-niners were Americans,
    others were from Mexico, Australia, China, Europe
    and South America

18
E. Slavery in Congress
  • By 1850, California had enough people to apply
    for statehood
  • Wanted to enter the Union as a free state
    Taylor OK but Southerners said no
  • Texas role wanted more land, threatened to
    hold up approval of California

19
F. Clays Proposal
  • Henry Clay wanted Northern and Southern members
    of the Senate to compromise on slavery
  • Clay returned to Congress after a long absence
    due to illness
  • All society is formed upon the principle of
    mutual concession compromise
  • His rival in the Whig party Daniel Webster agreed
    with his ideas and so Clay presented them to the
    Senate

20
F. Clays Proposal
  • The Compromise of 1850
  • Admit California as a free state
  • Abolish the slave trade, but not slavery itself,
    in D.C.
  • Pay Texas 10 million to give up its claim to
    part of New Mexico

21
F. Clays Proposal
  • Create New Mexico and Utah Territories have
    slavery decided by popular sovereignty
  • Pass a tougher fugitive slave law that would
    force everybody to help federal officials track
    runaway slaves
  • State and local authorities along with private
    citizens were required to help
  • Clay urged both sides to solve their differences
    and save the Union
  • What factors were at work here?

22
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23
F. Clays Proposal
  • Fire-eaters
  • Definition southern political leaders who were
    extremely pro-slavery
  • Wanted slavery to be protected by federal law or
    constitutional amendment, otherwise wanted
    southern states to secede from the Union

24
G. Senate Debate
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Leading fire-eater who attacked Clays proposal
  • Said the South would be forced to choose between
    abolition and secession and it was the Norths
    responsibility to fix the problem
  • Webster gave a speech supporting Clays proposal
    but many northerners thought that compromising on
    slavery was wrong and thus were against the
    Compromise

25
G. Senate Debate
  • Change in power President Taylor died suddenly
    in July 1850, replaced by Vice President Millard
    Fillmore
  • Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress on
    September 20, 1850
  • Was the Compromise a permanent solution or a
    temporary fix?

26
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27
Chapter 11Sectional Conflict Increases
  • Section 2
  • Compromise Comes to an End

28
A. The Early 1850s
  • Election of 1852
  • Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce of New
    Hampshire
  • Whigs nominated another Mexican War hero,
    Winfield Scott
  • Free Soil Nominated John P. Hale
  • Result Pierce won in a landslide (254-42)
  • Why did Pierce win?
  • Term Pierces young son died in a train
    accident on the way to D.C., Pierce was never the
    same person

29
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30
A. The Early 1850s
  • Fugitive Slave Act
  • What did it do? Made it a federal crime to assist
    runaway slaves
  • What effect did it have?
  • Compromise of 1850 was in trouble long before
    Pierces election in 1852
  • Many Northerners did whatever they could to help
    runaway slaves
  • Further added to the divide between proslavery
    supporters and abolitionists

31
B. Antislavery Literature
  • Uncle Toms Cabin written by abolitionist
    Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • Novel about the realities of slavery from sugar
    plantations to homes of slaveholders to plight of
    runaway slaves
  • Reactions
  • Sold 300,000 copies in nine months, over 2
    million copies in U.S. by end of 1850s
  • It was banned in parts of the south, where many
    novels defending slavery appeared
  • Another event that widened the gap between north
    and south

32
Do you think Uncle Toms Cabin an accurate
portrayal of life in the South, particularly for
slaves? Why or why not?
33
C. Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Transcontinental railroad wanted from Chicago to
    West Coast
  • Douglas behind this one as well
  • What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act do?
  • Repealed the Missouri Compromise
  • Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
    and eventual statehood based on popular
    sovereignty

34
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35
C. Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Reaction was predictable
  • Southerners liked the possibility of expanding
    slavery
  • Abolitionists were upset at the turn of events
  • It was also opposed for economic reasons. Why?

36
D. Bleeding Kansas
  • Both sides (pro- and anti-slavery) organize to
    help people move to Kansas
  • Elections in Kansas March 1855
  • About 5,000 pro-slavery residents of Missouri
    cross the border to vote in territorial elections
  • How was this possible?
  • Proslavery candidates win
  • Antislavery settlers form own government, both
    claim to be legitimate government of Kansas

37
D. Bleeding Kansas
  • Violence
  • Lawrence May 1856 Pro-slavery raiders trashed
    the town that was headquarters of the Free State
    Party
  • Pottawatomie Massacre led by abolitionist John
    Brown (more about him later), attack on
    pro-slavery settlement, five men beaten and
    killed in middle of the night
  • Bleeding Kansas nickname given to violence in
    Kansas

38
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39
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40
D. Bleeding Kansas
  1. Attack on the Capitol Floor South Carolina Rep.
    Preston Brooks beat Massachusetts Sen. Charles
    Sumner unconscious with a cane
  2. End result of Brooks attack on Sumner and the
    violence in Kansas only created more
    abolitionists than anything else

41
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42
E. The New Republican Party
  • Republican Party created in 1854 by antislavery
    Whigs and Democrats along with some Free-Soilers,
    took name from old Republican Party of Jefferson
  • Elections of 1854 and 1856
  • 1854 Congressional Elections Republicans team
    up with American Party (anti-immigrant,
    anti-Catholic Know-Nothings) to defeat Democrats
  • By 1856, antislavery Know-Nothings officially
    join Republicans

43
Cuba refers to the Ostend Manifesto, which was a
proposal to buy Cuba from Spain and add it as a
slave state
44
E. The New Republican Party
  • Election of 1856
  • Republicans nominate John C. Fremont
  • Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Men, Fremont and
    Victory!
  • Democrats nominate James Buchanan of
    Pennsylvania over President Pierce
  • Supported Kansas-Nebraska Act, Democrats called
    Republicans a party of sectionalism in response

45
E. The New Republican Party
  1. American Party Know-Nothings and remaining
    Whigs nominate former president Millard Fillmore
  2. Result Buchanan wins (174 electoral votes),
    Fremont (114) and Fillmore (8) only carried
    Maryland
  3. Why did Buchanan win?

46
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47
E. The New Republican Party
  • Lecompton Constitution
  • It gave Kansas voters only the right to decide if
    more slaves could enter the territory, not
    whether or not slavery should exist
  • Douglas speaks out against Lecompton
  • Cost him Douglas key support and discredited
    popular sovereignty. Who was upset with him?

48
Chapter 11Sectional Conflict Increases
  • Section 3
  • On the Brink of War

49
A. Dred Scott Decision
  • Who was Dred Scott? Slave of army doctor John
    Emerson lived in Missouri, wanted to be free
    after Emerson passed away
  • What was his argument? He should be free because
    he had previously lived with Emerson in Wisconsin
    Territory and Illinois, both free
  • Missouri courts had already given slaves freedom
    in similar cases

50
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51
A. Dred Scott Decision
  • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney one of five
    southerners on the Supreme Court who wrote the
    majority opinion
  • What was his decision?
  • That since Scott was property and not a U.S.
    citizen, he had no right to sue
  • Congress did not have the right to outlaw slavery
    because you couldnt deny right to property
    without due process
  • Missouri Compromise line was illegal

52
A. Dred Scott Decision
  • Reaction
  • Abolitionists were outraged but some saw it as an
    opportunity to take action
  • Combined with Kansas-Nebraska Act, slavery looked
    like it was going to expand into territories

53
B. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Abraham Lincoln lawyer and former House member
    who was against slavery, ran for U.S. Senate from
    Illinois as a Republican
  • Stephen Douglas called the Little Giant, was
    running for a third term
  • Douglas was popular with people in Illinois

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55
B. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates (seven total between
    August and October)
  • A house divided against itself cannot stand
    Lincoln at Republican State Convention 6/16/1858
  • Lincoln willing to tolerate slavery in the
    South but strongly opposed to it in territories
  • Freeport Doctrine Douglas said that people of a
    territory could still keep slavery out by
    refusing to pass local laws necessary to make
    slave system work
  • Result Freeport Doctrine helped Douglas beat
    Lincoln in a close race

56
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57
First Debate Ottawa August 21, 1858 Second
Debate Freeport August 27, 1858 Third
Debate Jonesboro September 15, 1858 Fourth
Debate Charleston September 18, 1858 Fifth
Debate Galesburg October 7, 1858 Sixth Debate
Quincy October 13, 1858 Seventh Debate Alton
October 15, 1858
58
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59
C. John Browns Raid
  • Attack on Harpers Ferry, Virginia (October 16,
    1859)
  • Who? Abolitionist John Brown and a group of 20
    that included five African Americans. Group was
    funded by abolitionists from New England.
  • What happened? Browns group seizes the federal
    arsenal at Harpers Ferry

60
C. John Browns Raid
  1. Why? Brown hoped to revolt against slaveholders
    and start a new government in the Appalachian
    Mountains
  2. Result No slaves came to help and the army
    eventually attacked, killing half of the group
    and capturing the rest
  3. Fate of those captured? Brown and six of his
    followers were convicted and executed

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62
C. John Browns Raid
  • Reaction
  • Northerners questioned Browns sanity but many
    also saw him as a hero
  • Southerners
  • Some saw him as a fanatic who got what he
    deserved
  • Secessionists thought it would lead yeoman
    farmers and poor whites to support their cause

63
D. Election of 1860
  • Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas
  • Southern Democrats broke away and chose Vice
    President John Breckinridge
  • Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln, who
    seemed more moderate
  • Stronger abolitionists wanted William Seward
  • Platform designed to attract northern
    industrialists and wage earners along with
    midwestern farmers, totally ignored the South
  • Constitutional Union Party formed by Southern
    moderates, nominated John Bell

64
D. Election of 1860
  • Results
  • Same as sectional divisions Lincoln wins
    convincingly in Electoral College but only wins
    40 of popular vote
  • Lincoln carried almost all northern and Midwest
    states (180 electoral votes)
  • Douglas claimed almost 30 percent popular vote
    but only 12 electoral votes (Missouri and 3 of 7
    electoral votes from NJ)
  • Breckinridge carried every state of Lower South
    (18.1 popular vote, 72 electoral votes)
  • Bell Won three states in Upper South (KY, VA,
    TN), finished last in popular vote (12.6) but
    third in electoral votes with 39

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66
E. Secession
  1. Lincolns victory was seen in the South as a win
    for abolitionists
  2. States secede South Carolina first on Dec. 20,
    1860, six others follow by Feb. 1, 1861
  3. Confederate States of America formed by
    delegates from six of the seven seceding states
    in a convention at Montgomery, Alabama
  4. Jefferson Davis Mississippi planter and former
    U.S. senator named Confederate president

67
E. Secession
  1. Buchanan backs down Before leaving office, he
    says that states have no power to secede but that
    the government cant make them stay against its
    will
  2. Southern justification used states rights as
    basis for withdrawal but also feared that
    restricting slavery in territories would keep
    them as the minority in Congress
  3. Northern reaction states accepted the
    Constitution as supreme law of the land when they
    ratified it, cant just withdraw if they didnt
    like what was happening

68
Civil War Causes
  1. Cotton Gin
  2. Sectionalism
  3. Missouri Compromise
  4. Nullification Crisis
  5. Manifest Destiny
  6. Annexation of Texas
  7. Mexican War/Cession
  8. Wilmot Proviso
  9. Compromise of 1850
  10. Fire-eaters
  11. Fugitive Slave Act
  12. Uncle Toms Cabin
  13. Kansas-Nebraska Act
  14. Bleeding Kansas
  15. Attack on the Senate Floor (Sumner/Brooks)
  16. Republican Party Forms
  17. Dred Scott decision
  18. John Browns Raid
  19. Election of 1860
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