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World History/Cultures Chapter 11 The French Revolution Section 1 The Old Order

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World History/Cultures Chapter 11 The French Revolution Section 1 The Old Order Terms/Name Estate: One of three social classes in France during the 1700s. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World History/Cultures Chapter 11 The French Revolution Section 1 The Old Order


1
World History/Cultures Chapter 11 The French
Revolution Section 1 The Old Order
2
  • Terms/Name
  • Estate One of three social classes in France
    during the 1700s. First Estate- Roman Catholic
    clergy Second Estate- Nobility Third Estate-
    Commoners. Orders of society determined a
    persons legal rights/status.
  • Tithe 10 tax on income from each church member
    paid to the clergy.
  • Bourgeoisie Middle class between aristocrats
    workers. The Third Estate.

3
  • Terms/Name cont
  • King Louis XVI 19 year old grandson of Louis
    XV. Upon grandfathers death, became king in
    1774. Wife- Marie Antoinette. Government
    Cost-cutting measures. Began taxing nobility
    clergy. Both groups refused to be taxed. King
    summoned Estates-General to Versailles in May
    1789. Hoped to gain agreement for tax.
  • Monarchy controlled France, a rich powerful
    country. Only a few wealthy. Majority- poor, had
    few rights wanted a better life. American
    Revolution sparked their wanting change.

4
King Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
5
  • Divisions of French Society
  • People were grouped into one of three estates,
    orders of society. Third Estate members resented
    First Second Estates.

6
  • First Estate
  • Clergy, 1 of population. Higher lower clergy.
  • Did not pay taxes.
  • Higher clergy controlled 5-10 of land. Grand
    lifestyles supported by tithes.
  • Lower clergy- poor backgrounds ran schools
    parishes.

7
  • Second Estate
  • Nobility 2 of population owned 25 of land.
  • Grand lifestyles.
  • High posts in government military.
  • Main income from feudal dues from peasants who
    lived worked on their land.

8
  • Third Estate
  • 97 of population peasants, artisans members
    of bourgeoisie (middle class).
  • Few political rights/privileges.
  • Read Enlightment works- freedom/social justice.
  • Peasants owned 40 of land. Poor- had to pay
    tithes, feudal dues, fines land tax.

9
  • Growing Unrest
  • Third Estate demanded change due to high cost of
    living desire for more political power.
  • Second Estate- nobility wanted more political
    influence resented monarchy.
  • Government financial problems- debts from wars
    extravagant lifestyle of Louis XV.
  • 1774- King Louis XVI in power deals with
    financial crisis. Taxed nobility clergy-
    refused to pay taxes.
  • 1786- Banks refused to lend money to government.
    Crop failures in 1788-89 caused bread shortages.
  • King Louis XVI called for Estates-General to meet.

10
  • Meeting of Estates-General
  • King Louis XVI hoped First Second Estates would
    agree to be taxed.
  • Second Estate wanted to protect privileges gain
    control of government. First Estate wanted to
    control Third Estate.
  • Third Estate refused plan of First Second
    Estate. Called for joint meeting with each estate
    voting individually.
  • King demanded estates meet separately. Third
    Estate refused and locked out of Estates-General.

11
  • Meeting of Estates-General cont
  • Third Estate renamed the National Assembly and
    met at an indoor tennis court with deputies from
    First Second Estates who supported them.
  • National Assembly took the Tennis Court Oath.
    Promised not to disband until they wrote a
    constitution for France.
  • King ordered First Second Estates to join Third
    Estates National Assembly.

12
  • Revolt
  • National Assembly delegates expressed dismay with
    rigid French social order government. Third
    Estate wanted social equality. Rebellion ideas
    spread.
  • King gathered more troops at palace in
    Versailles.
  • Fearing king wanted to dissolve National Assembly
    stop reforms, focused on Bastille, the French
    prison.

13
Bastille
14
  • Events Lead to Revolution
  • Bastille represented injustices of monarchy.
  • July 14, 1789 Mob surrounded Bastille to steal
    weapons defend National Assembly.
  • Mob freed 7 prisoners. 98 rioters killed. Prison
    commander several soldiers killed.
  • Outbreak led to formation of revolutionary
    government in Paris.
  • Bastilles storming led to the Great Fear-
    violence. Hearing rumors, peasants feared losing
    land armed themselves.
  • Peasants anxiety grew turned to violence.
    Drove landlords off property refused to pay
    feudal dues. Broke into manors robbed
    granaries. First wave of French Revolution.

15
The Great Fear
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