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The Cold War 1945-1990


Title: The Cold War Author: Robert Merrill Last modified by: LCPS Created Date: 9/10/2008 9:07:33 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War 1945-1990

The Cold War 1945-1990
US/USSR Relationship during WWII
  • 1939 Stalin (USSR) makes a deal with Hitler
  • 1941 Hitler breaks deal attacks USSR.
  • Stalin changes sides fights with US and other

Yalta Conference
  • Before end of WWII, Stalin, Churchill Roosevelt
    met at Yalta to plan end of war. Agreed on
  • Establishment of United Nations
  • Division of Germany into four zones
  • Free elections allowed in states of Eastern
  • Russias promise to join the war against Japan
  • Germany would pay reparations to Soviet Union
  • No agreement was reached on Poland.

Winston Churchill (England), Franklin Roosevelt
(US) and Joseph Stalin (USSR) meet in Yalta in
1945 to decide the fate of post-war Europe.
  • In the United Nations, Universal Declaration of
    Human Rights
  • Provided code of conduct for treatment of people
    under the protection of their government

A Divided Germany
Superpower Aims in Europe
  • United States
  • Soviet Union
  • Encourage communism in other countries
  • Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern
    Europes industrial materials
  • Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders
    balance US influence in the west
  • Keep Germany divided to prevent its waging war
  • Encourage democracy in other countries
  • Gain access to raw materials markets
  • Rebuild European governments create new markets
    for American goods
  • Reunite Germany to stabilize it increase
    security in Europe
  • Stop
  • Domino Effect

Cold War Characteristics
  • Political, strategic and ideological struggle
    between the US and the USSR ? spread throughout
    the world
  • Struggle that contained everything short of war
  • Competing social and economic ideologies

Key Concept How did the Cold War affect the
domestic and foreign policies of the United
  • Domestic Policies
  • 1. McCarthyism
  • 2. HUAC
  • House Un-American Activities Committee
  • 3. Loyalty oaths
  • 4. Blacklists
  • 5. Bomb shelters
  • Foreign Policies
  • 1. Korean War
  • 2. Arms Race
  • 3. Truman Doctrine
  • 4. Eisenhower Doctrine

A 1950s era bomb shelter
What were the six major strategies of the Cold
  • 1. Brinkmanship
  • 2. Espionage
  • 3. Foreign aid
  • 4. Alliances
  • 5. Propaganda
  • 6. Surrogate wars

Soviet Union Creates a Buffer Zone
  • Soviets want to be shielded from another invasion
  • Took over countries of Albania, Bulgaria,
    Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland,
    Yugoslavia ? wanted to build buffer zone, called
    satellite nations
  • Pres. Truman viewed this as a violation
    Truman/Stalin agreed communism capitalism
    couldnt exist together

USSR Satelline Nations
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for USSR
  • Create greater security for itself
  • lost tens of millions of people in WWII
  • Stalins purges
  • feared a strong Germany
  • Establish defensible borders
  • Encourage friendly governments on its borders
  • Spread communism around the world

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the
Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals
of the ancient states of Central and Eastern
Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest,
Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous
cities and the populations around them lie in
what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are
subject in one form or another, not only to
Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some
cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.
Excerpt from Winston Churchills Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
  • All of Europe now divided between east west ?
    US controls W. Germany Soviet Union controls E.
  • Eastern Europe Soviet-controlled Communist ?
    German Democratic Republic
  • Western Europe split between Allies Capitalist ?
    Federal Republic of Germany
  • Churchills famous speech about Iron Curtain,
    dividing Europe

US Counters Soviet Expansion
  • US adopts policy of containment ? policy directed
    at blocking Soviet influence preventing
    expansion of communism
  • Included creating alliances helping weak
    countries fight off Soviets

Truman Doctrine
  • 1947 British help Greek government
  • fight communist guerrillas.
  • Appealed to America for aid,
  • response was the Truman Doctrine.
  • America promised it would support free
    countries to help fight communism.
  • Greece received large amounts of
  • arms/supplies ? 1949 defeated
  • communists.
  • The Truman Doctrine showed America
  • was most powerful democratic country
  • prepared to resist communism

Marshall Plan
  • In 1947, US Sec. of State George
  • Marshall announced Marshall Plan
  • Economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover
    from war
  • Two motives
  • Helping Europe would provide
  • markets for American goods
  • A prosperous Europe
  • would be better able
  • to resist spread of
  • communism
  • 12 billion

A poster promoting the Marshall Plan
The Berlin Airlift Crisis June 1948 - May 1949
  • 1948 three western zones of Germany united
    grew in prosperity due to Marshall Plan
  • West wanted East to rejoin Stalin feared it
    would hurt Soviets
  • June 1948 Stalin decided to gain control of
    West Berlin, which was deep inside the
    Eastern Sector
  • Cuts road, rail canal links w/West Berlin,
    hoping to
  • starve it into submission
  • West responded by airlifting supplies to allow
    West Berlin to survive
  • May 1949 USSR admitted defeat, lifted blockade

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The Cold War Berlin Wall
  • Increasing conflicts were beginning of COLD WAR
  • State of hostility between 2 superpowers
  • Later in 1961, East Germans built wall to
    separate East West Berlin ? Berlin Wall

Berlin Wall
  • In the dark on August 13, 1961, a low,
    barbed-wire barrier rose between East and West
    Berlin. Within days, workers cemented concrete
    blocks into a low wall, dividing neighborhoods
    and families, workers and employers, the free
    from the repressed.
  • The USSR called the wall a barrier to Western
    imperialism, but it also was meant to keep its
    people going to the West where the standard of
    living was much higher and freedoms greater.
  • The West Germans called it Schandmaur, the "Wall
    of Shame." Over the years, it was rebuilt three
    times. Each version of the wall was more higher,
    stronger, repressive, and impregnable. Towers
    and guards with machine guns and dogs stood watch
    over a barren no man's land. Forbidden zones,
    miles wide, were created behind the wall. No one
    was allowed to enter the zones. Anyone trying to
    escape was shot on sight.

Berlin Wall
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Wall torn down in 1989.
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • 1949, eleven western nations formed North
    Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO to
    co-ordinate their defense against USSR
  • Would attack with armed force
  • It originally consisted of
  • America Belgium
  • Britain Canada
  • Denmark France
  • Holland Italy
  • Luxembourg Norway
  • Portugal
  • Since the fall of the Soviet Union in
  • 1991,some former Soviet republics have applied
    for membership to NATO.

NATO flag
Warsaw Pact
  • Warsaw Pact organization of communist states in
    Central Eastern Europe.
  • Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland
  • USSR established it in response to NATO treaty
  • Founding members
  • Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Hungary
  • Poland
  • Romania
  • USSR
  • East Germany (1956)

Greatest extent of Warsaw Pact
Senator Joe McCarthy (1908-1957)
  • McCarthy, a Republican senator from Wisconsin,
    did the most to whip up anti- communism during
    the 50s.
  • On February 9, 1950, he gave a speech claiming
    to have a list of 205 Communists in the State
  • No one in the press actually saw the names on
    the list.
  • McCarthy continued to repeat his groundless
    charges, changing the number from speech to
  • During this time, one state required pro
    wrestlers to take a loyalty oath before
    stepping into the ring.
  • In Indiana, a group of anti-communists indicted
    Robin Hood (and its vaguely socialistic message
    that the book's hero had a right to rob from
    the rich and give to the poor) and forced
    librarians to pull the book from the shelves.
  • Baseball's Cincinnati Reds renamed themselves
    the "Redlegs."

McCarthys Downfall
  • In the spring of 1954, the tables turned on
    McCarthy when he charged that the Army had
    promoted a dentist accused of being a Communist.
  • For the first time, a television broadcast
    allowed the public to see the Senator as a
    blustering bully and his investigations as
    little more than a witch hunt.
  • In December 1954, the Senate voted to censure
    him for his conduct and to strip him of his
  • McCarthy died three years later from alcoholism.
  • The term "McCarthyism" lives on to describe
    anti- Communist fervor, reckless accusations, and
    guilt by association.

Arms Race
Improve your knowledge
  • The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was
    expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid
    Russian development of nuclear technology, helped
    by the work of the atom spies was a
    shock.Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared
    war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945
    and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a
    position for the post-war settlement. This helped
    make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts
    more likely.

Nuclear Missiles!
Space Race
  • April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin became first human
    in space first to orbit Earth.
  • US felt a loss of prestige ? increased funding
    for space programs
  • May 25,1961, President John F. Kennedy (JFK)
    wanted to land man on the moon
  • Apollo 11 landed on the moon on July 16, 1969.

  • It was more than just poodle skirts and rock n


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The Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasion ? failed attempt by
    US- backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the
    government dictator, Fidel Castro
  • President Eisenhower breaks off diplomatic
    relations with Cuba in January 1961
  • The invasion plan was
  • approved by Eisenhower's
  • successor, John F.
  • Kennedy ? but refused to
  • send US planes for support
  • Castro conquers Cuba
  • US humiliated

The Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • On April 17, 1961 about 1300 exiles, armed with
    US weapons, landed at the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay
    of Pigs) on the southern coast of Cuba hoping for
    support from locals.
  • From the start, the exiles were likely to lose.
    Kennedy had the option of using the Air Force
    against the Cubans but decided against it.
  • Consequently, the invasion was stopped by
    Castro's army. The failure of the invasion
    seriously embarrassed the Kennedy administration.
  • Some critics blamed Kennedy for not giving it
    adequate support
  • Others blamed Kennedy for allowing it to take
    place at all.
  • Additionally, the invasion made Castro wary of
    the US He was convinced that the Americans
    would try to take over the Cuba again.

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Bay of Pigs failed ? new Soviet leader, Nikita
    Khrushchev said US wouldnt interfere in
    takeover of Latin America
  • July 1962, built 42 secret missile sites in Cuba
    as a plan of deterrence ? American spy plane
    discovered it
  • JFK said it was a threat mobilized troops to
    Florida to prepare for war against Cuba
  • Khrushchev removed them in exchange for US
    promise to not invade Cuba
  • Closest world ever came to nuclear war

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Civil War in China
  • North China/Mainland
  • Communist leader Mao Zedong (Tse-tung) Red
  • Named Peoples Republic of China
  • Small part of South China/Island of Taiwan
  • Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi (aka Chiang
  • US sent aid to nationalists, but Mao Communists
    won ? signed treaty with Soviet Union worried US
  • Decided to divide Korea

A Divided Korea
  • North Communist South Non-Communist
  • North invades South in 1950, so Pres. Truman
    sends in US forces to aid the South
  • 1953, both sides sign armistice (cease-fire)
    country divided along 38th parallel ? still
    divided today
  • US considers it a victory
  • 1950 - 1953

Breaking for Freedom
  • Vietnam was a French colony, known as
  • French Indochina (along with Cambodia
  • Laos)
  • Began to fight for independence from France
  • during WW II
  • Vietnamese revolutionary leader,
  • Ho Chi Minh (Communist),
  • wanted to be leader of
  • independent, communist
  • Vietnam Ho received support
  • from both USSR Red China

A Divided Vietnam
  • Communists go to war with France at Dien Bien Phu
    ? Communists win
  • Vietnam divided North/South
  • North Communist ? Ho Chi Minh (Soviet support)
  • South Nationalist? Ngo Dinh Diem (US/France

Vietnam War Begins
  • War started under Eisenhower (Ike), went on
    through JFK, and intensified under Lyndon B.
    Johnson (LBJ)
  • Congress approved sending in over 500,000
    soldiers in to help South Vietnam (after Gulf of
    Tonkin Incident), but US never actually declared
    war on Vietnam

Vietnam, 1968
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VIDEO CBS captures real time platoon under fire
Seeing this on TV led to a loss of support at
Vietnam War was a Conflict, Not a War
  • 500,000 U.S. soldiers sent to Vietnam
  • But BIG protests against this decision in the
  • President Richard Nixon under pressure to bring
    troops home ? 1969 started Vietnamization
  • Allowed troops to gradually pull out while S.
    Vietnamese increased their combat role ? Last
    forces left in 1973
  • 1975, North Vietnamese forces waited until U.S.
    troops were out of Vietnam, moved in ?
    successful Vietnam Communist today
  • Vietnam War is longest conflict in historynot
    actually a war!
  • Fall of Saigon and mass evacuation video ?

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A New United Vietnam
  • Within 2 years later, new Communist Vietnam named
    new capital of South Ho Chi Minh City in honor of
    their dead leader
  • Communists still govern Vietnam, but they welcome
    foreign investment, mostly from US ? America
    lifted trade embargo in 1994 moving toward
    official recognition of the country

A New Leader for Soviet Union
  • Stalin died March 5, 1953, Nikita Khrushchev,
    became new Soviet leader.
  • Started policy of destalinization ? purging the
    country of Stalins memory
  • New reforms didnt go to satellite nations led
    to uprisings/protests, which Soviets stopped
  • Khrushchev lost support after
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • But next couple of leaders ruled like a dictator

Split With China
  • 1950 - Mao Zedong Stalin signed 30-year treaty
    of friendship ? but Soviets thought Chinese would
    follow their leadership
  • Chinese resent following Soviets
  • footsteps started to pull away
  • 1959 Khrushchev punished Chinese by refusing to
    share nuclear secrets

US Soviet Union Lower Tensions
  • 1970s US SU stop brinkmanship move toward
    lowered tensions
  • JFK assassinated in 1963, Lyndon B.
  • Johnson became president ?
  • committed to stopping spread of
  • communism
  • LBJ decided to escalate involvement in Vietnam
    War ? very unpopular move

  • US embraced policy of détente ?
  • lessening of Cold War tensions under Pres.
    Richard Nixon
  • Grew out of policy called realpolitik ? dealing
    w/ other nations in practical flexible manner

President Richard Nixon
  • Nixon 1st American president after
  • WWII to visit Communist China
  • Feb. 1972, Nixon also 1st president since
    beginning of Cold War to visit Soviet Union
  • 1975, 33 nations joined US SU in signing a
    commitment to détente cooperation, called
    Helsinki Accords

The Slow Thaw
  • In 1969 Nixon began negotiations with USSR on
    SALT I, common name for the Strategic Arms
    Limitation Treaty Agreement.
  • SALT I froze the number of ballistic missile
    launchers at existing levels, and provided for
    the addition of submarine-launched ballistic
    missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same
    number of intercontinental ballistic missile
    (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.
  • It was the first effort between US/USSR to stop
    increase nuclear weapons.
  • SALT II was a second round of US/USSR talks
    (1972-1979), which sought to reduce manufacture
    of nuclear weapons. SALT II was the first nuclear
    treaty seeking real reductions in strategic
    forces to 2,250 of all categories on both sides.

Nixon and Brezhnev toast the SALT I treaty.
Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT II treaty.
Star Wars
  • Presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald
    Reagan, all had to deal w/ continuing tensions w/
    Soviet Union
  • Ronald Reagan took office in 1981 announced
    program to protect against enemy missiles called
    Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) ? named
    program Star Wars, after the popular movie, but
    never done

Reagans Star Wars Interrupts Thaw
  • The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a
    proposal by President Reagan on in 1983 to use
    ground and space-based systems to protect the US
    from attack by nuclear ballistic missiles. It
    focused on strategic defense rather than
    doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD).
  • It was quickly nicknamed Star Wars.
  • Criticism of SDI
  • It would require the US to change, withdraw
    from, or break earlier treaties.
  • The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which requires
    "States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to
    place in orbit around the Earth any objects
    carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of
    weapons of mass destruction, install such
    weapons on celestial bodies, or station such
    weapons in outer space in any other manner" and
    would forbid the US from pre-positioning in Earth
    orbit any devices powered by nuclear weapons and
    any devices capable of "mass destruction.
  • The program proposed to use unproven technology.
  • The program would cost many billions of dollars.
  • It would start a new arms race with the Soviets.

Artist rendering of satellites and lasers to be
used in SDI
Cold War Thaw Continues
  • Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Soviet premier
    understands Soviet economy cannot compete with
    West increasing tensions
  • He tries to reform USSR with glasnost
    (openness think glass because you can see
    through it) and perestroika (restructuring
    think structure/stroika)
  • Gorbachev further pressured to reform USSR when
    Reagan gives his speech in Germany challenging
    Gorbachev to tear down this wall

The Wall Falls, 1989
  • A wave of rebellion against Soviet influence
    occurs throughout its European allies.
  • Polands movement breaks Soviet hold
  • Hungary removed border restrictions w/ Austria
  • Riots and protests break out in East Germany.
  • East Germans storm the wall. Confused and
    outnumbered, border guards do not fight back
  • The wall is breached
  • Eventually East and West Germany are reunited
    in 1990

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Collapse of the Soviet Union
  • For 1st time in decades, Soviet people free to
    make choices about government
  • More than 100 ethnic groups lived in Soviet
    Union, w/ Russians being largest group
    non-Russians forming majority in 14 Republics
  • Gorbachev not supporting Soviet Union
  • split, so people looking to vote in a new
  • leader, Boris Yeltsin (former mayor of
  • Moscow) ? Russian Republics 1st
  • directly elected pres.

A New Set of Countries
  • Yeltsin met w/ leaders of 15
  • republics signed Commonwealth
  • of Independent States (CIS) ?loose confederation
    of former Soviet territories (death of Soviet
  • Included Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia,
    Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,
    Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, with
    majority of what used to be Soviet Union turning
    back to name Russia ? Baltic countries not
  • Christmas Day 1991, Gorbachev announced
    resignation as president of Soviet Union, a
    country that no longer exists

The USSR Dissolves Cold War Ends

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