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US Post WWII

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Truman and Eisenhower Harry S. Truman 1945-1953 After WWII, a fear of the return of the Great Depression was around http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xyoviiavusk – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: US Post WWII


1
US Post WWII
  • Truman and Eisenhower
  • Harry S. Truman 1945-1953
  • After WWII, a fear of the return of the Great
    Depression was around
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vXyoviiavusk
  • Marshall Plan was created to help stop the
    depression from returning

2
Harry S. Truman 1945-1953
  • Another action to help stave off another
    depression was to give the jobs back to the
    returning soldiers.
  • GI Bill of Rights helped soldiers pay for
    employment, vocational, technical, and a college
    education, and medical care (13.5 Billion was
    put into the economy for veteran education and
    training alone.)
  • This allowed higher education for all rather than
    a few as it had been prior to the GI Bill of
    Rights
  • Veterans Administration guaranteed home loans
    and purchase of houses with no money down which
    stimulated a postwar housing boom.
  • Because of pent up demand from the depression and
    wartime shortages, inflation, not depression was
    the result
  • After wartime restrictions were lifted, in 1946,
    prices rose an average of 25

3
Harry S. Truman 1945-1953
  • After the death of FDR in April 1945, Harry S.
    Truman became President
  • He was not seen as the strong leader that FDR
    was.
  • In the off year Congressional elections of 1946
    the Republicans used American anxieties about the
    postwar world, and Trumans ability to handle
    them and won majorities in both houses of
    Congress for the 1st time since 1930
  • Republicans proposed program did little more than
    try to reverse the reforms of the New Deal and
    turn down Trumans Fair Deal

4
Trumans Fair Deal
  • In June 1945 Truman witnessed the signing of the
    charter of the United Nations, hopefully
    established to preserve peace.
  • Thus far, he had followed his predecessor's
    policies, but he soon developed his own. He
    presented to Congress a 21-point program,
    proposing the expansion of Social Security, a
    full-employment program, a permanent Fair
    Employment Practices Act, and public housing and
    slum clearance. The program, Truman wrote,
    "symbolizes for me my assumption of the office of
    President in my own right." It became known as
    the Fair Deal.
  • http//www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ht33.
    html

5
Trumans Fair Deal
  • Truman vetoed 80 Republican bills that attacked
    the New Deal and sent many proposals to Congress,
    many of which were shot down
  • He did get an increase in the minimum wage and he
    brought 10 million more under Social Security
  • Trumans actions assured reelection in 1948.

6
Unions under Truman
  • A result of WWII was the reemergence of business
    influence and a decrease in support of labor
    unions.
  • Conservatives did not like the strength of
    organized labor therefore, they passed the
    Taft-Hartley Act (over Trumans veto) which
    outlawed closed (all union) shop, made unions
    liable for damages from jurisdictional disputes
    and required unions to take non-Communist oaths
  • Union membership peaked in the 1950s then
    steadily declined.

7
Minorities under Truman
  • 1st president to actively advocate the end of
    discrimination against American blacks.
  • An executive order banned racial discrimination
    in the military, civil service and in companies
    that did business with the govt
  • It was the Korean War that effectively integrated
    troops
  • Trumans Civil Rights Policies insured the
    Democratic Party the black vote

8
Election of 1948
  • Democrats Truman
  • Southern Branch of Democrats Dixiecrat Party
    Strom Thurmond
  • Progressive Party Henry Wallace
  • Republicans Thomas Dewey
  • Would the splits hurt Truman? NO!
  • Southern walkout assured Truman the southern
    black urban vote
  • Truman campaigned against the do nothing
    eightieth Congress (mostly Republican)
  • Most predicted a Republican victory

9
Election of 1948
  • Truman received 24.1 million popular votes to 22
    million for Dewey and 303 electoral votes against
    Deweys 189.
  • Truman won for 2 reasons 1. coalition of
    Democratic blacks, union members and northern
    urban ethnics 2. Republicans were so confident
    of victory many did not vote

10
Communist Scare
  • The Truman Doctrine, 1947
  • Policy of containment of Communism
  • The Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe, the
    Chinese Communist victory in China, the invasion
    of South Korea by the North Koreans, and the
    Soviet explosion of an atomic bomb in 1949
    confused and frightened the American public.
  • This helped Trumans policy of scaring the hell
    out of people so they would accept his
    containment policy

11
Communist Scare
  • When the foreign factors along with politicians
    who were willing to take advantage for their own
    gain came together, it created a great fear of
    subversion and communism
  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of
    sharing secrets of atomic weapons with the
    Soviets and were executed in 1953.
  • Wisconsin Senator Joseph R. McCarthy became
    famous for his Communist accusations
  • He was supported by Republicans of the time
    because it was a way to combat against the
    Democrats who held office for a long time.

12
Communist Scare
  • For a while an attack on McCarthy was an attack
    on the American way of life
  • When 2 Democrats opposed McCarthy on the Senate
    floor and lost their next elections many began to
    fear McCarthy.
  • McCarthy and McCarthyism are products of American
    party politics
  • Because no one in either party attacked him
  • Many careers and lives were ruined because of
    accusations and innuendo
  • Black Lists were created in education,
    entertainment, business and govt.
  • The House Un-American Activities Committee
    called 100s of witnesses , there was no
    distinction between Communism and traditional
    right of dissent

13
McCarthy under Eisenhower
  • 1952 election saw Dwight Eisenhower become
    president.
  • McCarthy became an embarrassment to the
    Republican party
  • Army-McCarthy Hearings April-June 1954
  • McCarthy accused the military of harboring
    Communists and Eisenhower of not doing enough to
    combat against it.
  • This caused his downfall and he was eventually
    censured by the Senate for breaking Senate rules
    for a refusal to appear before a Senate
    subcommittee and answer questions
  • The real issue of McCarthyism and Americas
    second Red Scare was civil liberties in a time of
    crisis. Propaganda - McCarthysim

14
1950s
  • Eisenhower was the first Republican president
    since the New Deal
  • His acceptance of New Deal programs legitimized
    them
  • Eisenhower emphasized dynamic conservatism
  • Caution in financial and economic matters, but
    with attention to social welfare.
  • Under Eisenhower the St. Lawrence Seaway and
    Interstate Highways were built.
  • The Agricultural Trade and Development and
    Assistance Act (1954) was designed to solve 2
    problems 1. help the American farmer by getting
    rid of surplus food 2. use the food as an
    instrument of foreign policy

15
1950s
  • The 1950s were an age of unprecedented wealth
    and prosperity (although maldistributed)
  • What made people wealthier if there were still
    many poor around?
  • Discretionary income income people had left
    over after paying for necessities
  • Social developments
  • TV 1950 9 homes had a tv 1955 64.5 1970s
    more tvs than refrigerators, bathtubs, or
    toilets
  • Impact less reading? Creation of a mass culture?
  • Growth of national franchise companies

16
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vbAyPqy0wUug
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