Post-WWII American Culture, Cold War under Ike - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Post-WWII American Culture, Cold War under Ike

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... USSR A lot of jobs and money to be made Post-Word War II Consumption American _____ doubled in the 25 years after WWII ... 1960 -- 60,000,000 2 ... Eisenhower ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Post-WWII American Culture, Cold War under Ike


1
Post-WWII American Culture, Cold War under Ike
  • Chapter 14

2
Economic Problems Under Truman
  • Reconversion transition from ____________________
    ______________ economy.
  • ____ million on active duty in 1945, reduced to
    ________million in 1947.
  • Massive layoffs due to _________________________
    left ___unemployed.

3
GI BILL OF RIGHTS
  • GI Bill provided 6 benefits
  • education and training
  • Loans for a home, farm, or business
  • unemployment pay of 20 a week for 52 weeks
  • job-finding assistance
  • .
  • Program ended July 25, 1956
  • Of the 15,440,000 veterans, some 7.8 million were
    trained.
  • 2,230,000 in college
  • 3,480,000 in other schools
  • 1,400,000 in on-job training
  • 690,000 in farm training

Total cost of the World War II education program
was 14.5 billion.
4
Post-war ________________
  • ________________________ set prices in an attempt
    to cap inflation during World War II
  • Ended in 1946
  • _______________________ immediately goes up
  • 1946 2.7 million workers unemployed
  • ______________________ declined after the war
  • ______________________ membership grows
  • 4.6 million people go on ______________ in 1946
  • Truman disliked strikes and threatened to
    ________________ strikers while economy was
    struggling

5
_________________ of 1946
  • Truman asks Congress to pass legislation
    guaranteeing ______ Americans jobs, decent
    housing, education opportunities
  • Would also have higher __________________,
    unemployment and housing compensation
  • Conservative Congress cuts to bits
  • Congress responds with _____________ cuts
  • Truman __________ tax cuts
  • Congress __________________ the veto

6
________________ Act (1947)
  • Would limit power of ________________
  • Outlawed ________________ shops
  • President could order 80-day cooling off period
    in strikes that affect national security
  • Members of unions had to sign a _________________
    oath in order to use federal government machinery
  • Truman vetoes this act
  • Congress overrides the veto

7
Election of 1948
  • Truman ran for Dems.
  • Truman supported ________________.
  • Southern Dems. Run separate candidate
    __________________
  • Southern Dems known as ________________

8
Election cont.
  • ___________________ ran for Repubs.
  • Trumans failures and split in Democratic Party
    made Dewey favorite.
  • Truman wins despite early forecasts.

9
TRUMANS SECOND TERM
  • Trumans _____________ program
  • Trumans plan, similar to _______________, to
    help with the ________________________
  • 1. called for improved housing
  • 2. full employment for all Americans
  • 3. a higher minimum wage
  • 4. better farm price supports
  • 5. extension of Social Security.
  • 6. financial support of poor
  • keep underprivileged peoples from becoming
    __________________________________________________
    .
  • Failed largely due to the fact it was too
    __________________________________________________

10
Election of 1952
  • ________________
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) elected.
  • ____________ his VP.
  • Republicans accused Democrats of being soft on
    ___________
  • Nixon gave __________ Speech

11
Modern Republicanism
  • Ike wanted to limit ________________ role
  • __________________ federal government
  • Conservative in economics
  • _________ taxes and government spending
  • Liberal when it comes to people
  • Left _____________________________ alone
  • Focused on ___________________________________

12
Economic Boom
  • After a slow start economy took off!
  • Solidifies U.S. as _______________country
  • 60 of families part of __________________ class
    by end of 1950s
  • People amassed over ______________ in savings
    during World War II
  • Cold War fears meant a lot of government
    contracts to keep up with USSR
  • A lot of jobs and money to be made

13
Post-Word War II Consumption
  • American _____________________ doubled in the 25
    years after WWII
  • Increased buying on ______________
  • Billions spend each year on ____________
    activities

14
  • Suburban Living

________, NY. The American Dream
1949 à William Levitt produced _____
houses per week.
7,990 or 60/month with no down payment.
15
Corporations
  • With Cold War, defense spending increases
  • 1947 ______________ billion (20 of GNP)
  • Influenced great economic growth
  • U.S. becoming more __________________
  • Number of factory workers fell by 4 from 1947-57
  • Wages ______________________________

16
Women in the Work Place
  • _____ million new jobs created after 1950
  • _____ million were clerical or service work
  • Women made up a majority of these

17
  • Baby Boom

It seems to me that every other young housewife I
see is pregnant. -- British visitor to
America, 1958
1957 ? 1 baby born every __________
18
The Culture of the Car

Car registrations 1945 --gt 25,000,000
1960 --gt
60,000,000 2-family cars doubles from 1951-1958
1956 --gt ___________________ Act --gt largest
public works project in American history!
Cost 32 billion 41,000 miles of
new highways built
19
The Culture of the Car
Franchises, Hotels and Drive-Ins
First McDonalds (1955)
Drive-In Movies
Howard Johnsons
20
The Culture of the Car
  • The U. S. population was on the move in the
    1950s.
  • NE Mid-W ---gt S SW (________ states)

21
Television in the 1950s
_________ sets sold in 1946 Some famous shows of
the 1950s
22
Leisure in the 1950s
  • People working 40-hour weeks
  • 1953 ________billion on leisure goods and
    activities.
  • Increased consumption ________________ by 1958

23
  • Consumerism

Americans were becoming a consumer
society..Buying whatever new product that came
out that would make their lives comfortable.
24
Consensus and Conformity
  • Ideal American portrayed in TV, movies
  • Fear of _____________________caused this to grow.
  • ___________ membership doubled between 1945-1970.
  • Rev. Billy Graham
  • __________________________________________ added
    to and Pledge.

25
Religious Revival
Hollywood apex of the biblical epics.
The Robe The Ten Commandments Ben
Hur 1953 1956
1959
Its un-American to be un-religious!
-- The Christian Century, 1954
26
Teen Culture
  • In the 1950s ? the word ________ entered
    the American language.
  • By 1956 ? 13 mil. teens with 7 bil. to spend
    a year.

1951 ? race music ? ROCK N ROLL
____________ ? The King
27
Teen Culture
The _____________ Generation Jack
Kerouac --gt On The Road Allen Ginsberg
--gt poem, Howl Neal Cassady
William S. Burroughs
  • Jack Kerouac is said to have respondedWere a
    beat generation!
  • Against __________________________values of the
    Great Depressions and WWII generation (their
    parents)
  • Would influence the __________________ of the
    1960s

28
  • New Soviet leader after ________s death in 1953
    to 1965.
  • Not as harsh as Stalin
  • Believed US and Soviet Union could
    ________________ with one another but the
    Soviet Union had to be as strong militarily as
    the US.

29
USSR passing USA?
  • Atomic Anxieties
  • _____________________ Generation
  • ______________________ Bomb
  • U.S. tested in Nov. 52
  • 67 times more powerful than A-Bomb
  • USSR tested H-Bomb 9 months later

Americans began building underground ____________
and cities had underground fallout shelters.
30
Massive Retaliation
  • Massive Retaliation
  • No middle ground
  • Tried to scare USSR into not attacking others
  • Brinksmanship
  • Added to fear in the United States

John Foster Dulles and MacArthur in Korea, 1950
31
____________
  • On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union launches
    ______________, the first man-made satellite to
    orbit the Earth.
  • In 1958, the U.S. creates the ______, and the
    space race is in full gear.
  • Caused panic in the USA

32
1960 - The ____ Affair
  • On May 1, an American U-2 spy plane is shot down
    on a mission over the Soviet Union.
  • After the Soviets announce the capture of pilot
    Francis Gary Powers.
  • Powers is sentenced to 10 years in USSR prison
  • Ike denied Powers was ________ that it was on a
    weather study flight
  • ________________ demanded an apology and Ike to
    admit U.S. was spying

33
The U-2 Affair
  • Suffering major embarrassment, Eisenhower was
    forced to admit the truth behind the mission and
    the U-2 program,
  • He refused to publicly apologize to Khrushchev.
  • This refusal caused the Paris Summit to collapse
    when Khrushchev stormed out of negotiations.
  • Powers served less than two years and was
    released in 1962 in exchange for Soviet spy
    Rudolf Abel.
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