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Start of WWII: America

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Start of WWII: America s Involvement Objective: Analyze America s involvement in WWII Standard 11.7.1/11.7.4 4 Freedoms Speech Proposed four fundamental freedoms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Start of WWII: America


1
Start of WWII Americas Involvement
  • Objective
  • Analyze Americas involvement in WWII
  • Standard 11.7.1/11.7.4

2
Prior Knowledge
3
Importance
  • Prior to United States entry into World War II,
    Congress passed the Cash-and-Carry Act of 1939
    and the Lend-Lease Act of 1941. These foreign
    policy actions showed that the United States
  • gave equal support to both the Allied and Axis
    Powers
  • attempted to contain the spread of communism
  • maintained a strict policy of isolationism
  • became increasingly drawn into the war in Europe

4
Germany
  • Objective
  • Analyze Americas involvement in WWII

5
Post WWI - Germany
  • crushed due to war and to the Treaty of
    Versailles
  • Made Germany weak
  • Lost Colonies
  • Lost industrial centers
  • Lost Army
  • Must accept the blame for WWI
  • Fined Germany 6 billion over a 50 year period
  • For a total of 60 billion.

Germany
Treaty of Versailles
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8
"Only National Socialism will free Germany from
the lie of sole guilt!"
The negative influence of the Treaty of
Versailles can be seen clearly in the first three
points of the NAZI Party Platform 1. We demand
the union of all Germans in a Great Germany on
the basis of the principle of self-determination
of all peoples. (Refer to the map) 2. We demand
that the German people have rights equal to those
of other nations and that the Peace Treaties of
Versailles and St. Germain shall be abrogated
(ended). 3. We demand land and territory
(colonies) for the maintenance of our people and
the settlement of our surplus population.
9
The Nazis and Adolf Hitler use the common
disgust over the Treaty and poor economic
conditions in Germany to build up support of
their party
Old Imperial Cross incorporated into the new Nazi
German flag. This was supposed to remind Germans
of the past when they were strong.
10
The Nazis Begin to Rebuild the German Empire
  • Rhineland, March, 1936
  • Germany and Austria united, March, 1938
  • Anschluss
  • Sudentenland annexed (added) to Germany, October,
    1938
  • Czechoslovakia, March, 1939

11
Appeasement and the Munich Conference
  • Britain and France were preparing for war
  • Mussolini called for a meeting to settle the
    issue
  • Britain, France, Italy and Germany met in Munich
    to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia
  • the Czechs were not invited
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
  • believed that by giving in to Hitler, War would
    be avoided
  • this policy is called appeasement
  • Hitler promised to be satisfied with the
    Sudetenland
  • In less than six months, Hitler occupied the rest
    of Czechoslovakia

British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain
12
Nazis and Soviets at Peace?
  • In August of 1939, Hitler and Stalin signed a
    public 10 year Nonaggression Pact promising not
    to attack one another.
  • Secretly
  • Poland was divided between the two.
  • Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland are given
    to the Soviet Union for future conquest
  • Now Germany only has to worry about a single
    front (the West)
  • Germany invaded Poland one week later. France and
    England declared war on Germany two days after
    that (Sept. 3, 1941)

13
The Blitz Continues
  • Germany invaded Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg
    in April, 1940
  • The French relied on the strong Maginot Line in
    its center and right flank
  • An 87 mile long series of forts with tank traps,
    barbed wire, 10 ft thick concrete walls, huge gun
    towers, underground bunkers
  • The British Army helped out in the West

14
Italy
  • Objective
  • Analyze Americas involvement in WWII

15
Italy Expands
  • Jealous that Hitler has gain so much without
    firing a shot
  • Kicked out King Zog of Albania (one of the
    poorest nations in Europe), became a part of
    Italy

16
Mussolini attacks Ethiopia, 1935-36
  • Ethiopian army was no match for Italian tanks,
    airplanes and poison gas
  • Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, asks League
    of Nations for help
  • League (League of Nations) does next to nothing,
    Selassie warns It is us today. It will be you
    tomorrow.

17
Japan
  • Objective
  • Analyze Americas involvement in WWII

18
Japans Democracy Fails
  • 1920s Japans signed agreements to not use war as
    a policy tool
  • But Japans Government had little control over
    the military
  • Government was blamed for depression and military
    leaders took control of the nation
  • Many Japanese wanted control to go back to their
    Emperor

Emperor Hirohito
19
Japan 1930s
  • Ultra-Nationalistic
  • Militaristic
  • Wanted to conquer neighbors (China) to end
    economic crisis
  • Wanted room for the Japanese people at the
    expense of others
  • Asia for Asians

20
Japan Expands
  • Invaded Manchuria and set up a Puppet Government,
    1932
  • Rich in Coal and Iron
  • League of Nations protested this violation of
    international peace but did nothing to stop Japan
  • 1933 Japan withdrawals from the League of Nations

21
Japanese Aggression
  • Manchuria, Northern China, 1932
  • China, 1936-1937
  • South Asia, 1942

22
The Rape of Nanking
  • Japan absolutely brutalized China
  • 10s of thousands of women raped and mutilated
  • Japanese officers had beheading contests
  • Mass executions
  • Hundreds of thousands of dead within a year
  • Dont look at the following slides if you are
    squeamish

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29
America
  • Objective
  • Analyze Americas involvement in WWII

30
  • Americans did not want anything to do with
    European wars.
  • Great Depression caused own own problems
  • Believed in Isolationism

31
Steps to War
  • In the late 1930s, the U.S. passed three
    Neutrality Acts
  • 1st NA, banned weapons sales to fighting nations
  • 2nd NA, banned loans to fighting nations
  • 3rd NA, permitted trade in nonmilitary goods as
    long as the nations paid cash and transported
    them
  • Congress passes 4th Neutrality Act
  • Repeals arms embargo against France England

32
Steps to War
  • This Act was later amended to allow U.S. ships to
    take the goods to Europe
  • Loans and credit were still illegal
  • In Sept 1940, the U.S. traded 50 old destroyers
    to Britain in exchange for permission to build
    bases on British territory in the Western
    Hemisphere

33
Steps to War
  • That same month (Sept 1940), Congress passed the
    first peacetime draft in the nations history
  • In January 1941, FDR proposed to provide war
    supplies to Great Britain without any payment in
    return Lend-Lease
  • Later on, significant aid to Russia was also given

If your neighbors house is on fire, you dont
sell him a hose. You lend it to him and take it
back after the fire is out.
34
4 Freedoms Speech
  • Proposed four fundamental freedoms that people
    "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy
  • Freedom of speech and expression
  • Freedom of religion
  • Freedom from want
  • Freedom from fear

35
Japans Gamble Pearl Harbor
  • US stated that Japan must withdraw from China or
    risk war
  • US cuts off all supplies of resources (tin,
    rubber, oil) to Japan and encouraged other
    countries to do the same
  • Japan was unwilling to give up land that it had
    conquered in the past 4 years, decided to attack
    the US first
  • Most experts believed that the attack would be
    centered at the Philippines.
  • Japan sent 60 ships, including 6 aircraft
    carriers, and 360 airplanes, 3,000 miles to
    attack Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

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37
A day that will live in infamy
  • Early December 7th, 1941 a surprise Japanese
    attack struck the US Pacific Fleet anchored in
    Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
  • Two waves of Japanese planes wreaked havoc and
    sunk or damaged 18 ships (including 8
    battleships), 188 airplanes and killed 2,400
    sailors and wounding over 1,100
  • Luckily, the aircraft carriers were out on
    maneuvers and were not hit
  • Roosevelt then asked Congress to declare war on
    Japan. Germany was Japans partner, so now the
    U.S. was also at war with Germany.

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41
Closure
  • Which of the following events during World War II
    brought the United States into the war?
  • The D-Day invasion of Normandy.
  • Germany's invasion of Poland.
  • Japan's bombing of Pearl Harbor.
  • Nazi Germany's treatment of the Jewish people.

42
Closure
  • The actions of which country finally forced the
    United States to enter the war?
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Germany
  • The Soviet Union

43
Closure
  • Which of the following statements most accurately
    reflects Roosevelt's feelings toward joining the
    war?
  • He agreed with the isolationists and promoted an
    isolationist policy.
  • He wanted to help the Allies but had to appease
    U.S. citizens who opposed entering the war.
  • He wanted to avoid the war because he did not see
    it as a threat to the United States.
  • He did not understand the position of
    isolationists and was eager to join the war.

44
Closure
  • Which statement best describes the relationship
    between the United States and Japan at the time
    of the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941?
  • Their ships had engaged in several naval battles
    in the Pacific.
  • They did not have diplomatic relations and had
    not formally talked for several years.
  • They shared control of military bases on the
    island of Midway.
  • Diplomats on both sides had agreed to talk to
    avoid conflict.

45
Importance
  • Prior to United States entry into World War II,
    Congress passed the Cash-and-Carry Act of 1939
    and the Lend-Lease Act of 1941. These foreign
    policy actions showed that the United States
  • gave equal support to both the Allied and Axis
    Powers
  • attempted to contain the spread of communism
  • maintained a strict policy of isolationism
  • became increasingly drawn into the war in Europe

46
Closure
  • President Roosevelt is telling the free world
    that America
  • will enter the war.
  • stay out of the war until they are attacked.
  • will provide the weapons to protect freedom and
    democracy.
  • remain completely isolated from WWII.

47
Closure
  • Why was the United States called the arsenal of
    democracy in 1940?
  • The leaders in the democratic nations of Europe
    were educated in the United States.
  • Most of the battles to defend worldwide democracy
    took place on American soil.
  • The United States supervised elections in
    European nations before the war.
  • The United States provided much of the weaponry
    needed to fight the Axis powers.

48
Closure
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelt's goal in
    supporting the Lend-Lease Act of 1941 was to
  • encourage Japanese Americans to relocate
    voluntarily.
  • use foreign investment as a way of stimulating
    the American economy.
  • assist Britain's war effort without violating
    United States neutrality laws.
  • maintain an isolationist stance by providing only
    limited aid to both sides in the European
    conflict.
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