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The term Ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca. 1100 BC and the Dorian invasion, to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the battle of Corinth.

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Title: The term Ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca. 1100 BC and the Dorian invasion, to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the battle of Corinth.


1
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The term Ancient Greece refers to the period of
    Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages
    ca. 1100 BC and the Dorian invasion, to 146 BC
    and the Roman conquest of Greece after the battle
    of Corinth.
  • It is generally considered to be the seminal
    culture which provided the foundation of Western
    civilization. Greek culture had a powerful
    influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a
    version of it to many parts of Europe.
  • 3) The civilization of the ancient
    Greeks has been immensely influential on the
    language, politics, educational systems,
    philosophy, science, and arts, giving rise to the
    Renaissance in Western Europe and again resurgent
    during various neo-Classical revivals in 18th and
    19th century Europe and the Americas.

2
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Important Types of Greek Construction/Terms
  • 1) Shaft
  • 2) Lintel/Architrave
  • 3) Column
  • 4) Capitol
  • 5) Entablature
  • 6) Frieze
  • 7) Cornice
  • 8) Pediment
  • 9) Stylobate
  • 10) Ranking Cornice

3
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The Three Orders of Decorative
    Style

4
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The Three Orders of Decorative Style
  • The Doric Order
  • The principle feature is a simple, heavy column
    without a base, topped by a broad, plain capitol.
  • a) The Parthenon was built using
    this style.

5
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The Three Orders of Decorative Style
  • The Ionic Order These columns had an elaborate
    base and a capitol carved into double scrolls
    that looked like the horns of a ram.
  • a)This style was more elegant than the Doric
    order.
  • b)This style was suitable from small temples.
  • c)Was later used on lager structures EX.
    Erechtheum-which is located near the Parthenon
    and contained the famous porch, Porch of
    Maidens
  • d) Temple of Athena Nike was built using this
    style.

6
Art of Ancient Greece
7
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The Corinthian Order
  • This style of capitol is elongated and decorated
    with leaves.
  • a) Most elaborate of a 3 orders
  • b) This style was originally used on only
    columns inside of a building, but later was used
    on the outside as well.
  • c)The Monument of Lysicrates is a great example
    of this style.

8
Art of Ancient Greece
9
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Famous Greek Architecture
  • The Acropolis

10
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Famous Greek Architecture The Acropolis
  • Is a mass of rock that rises abruptly 500ft above
    the city.
  • 2) This erected city on the hill was
    like a giant pedestal that symbolized the glory
    of Athens.
  • The Acropolis is made up of several buildings
    that included temples, statues, massive flights
    of stairs.
  • The western border is where the huge statue of
    Athena is located. Her spear served as a signal
    to ships at sea.
  • The statue of Athena was created by the famous
    sculptor Phidias.
  • 6) The Acropolis, though mostly in
    ruins, still stands today and is a great reminder
    of a great civilization.

11
Art of Ancient Greece
  • http//www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece/video
    sdeconstructing-history-the-acropolis

12
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Famous Greek Architecture
  • The Parthenon

13
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Famous Greek Architecture
  • The
    Parthenon
  • 1. Pericles, the Athenian leader, used funds from
    the treasury of the Delian League to build the
    Parthenon.
  • 2. It took 10 years to complete the Parthenon.
  • 3. This structure represented the Greek
    Architecture to the fullest with the use of a)
    post-and-lintel construction
  • b) Sloping or gabled roof
  • c) Colonnade
  • 4. Its a simple rectangular building placed on a
    3 stepped platform.
  • 5. It contained 2 rooms 1)Had the Treasury of
    the Delian League (smaller room), 2) Contained a
    large gold/ivory statue of Athena (larger room).

14
Art of Ancient Greece

  • Famous Greek Architecture

  • The Parthenon
  • 6) Religious ceremonies were held outside in
    front of the Parthenon by the people of Athens.
  • 7) Not many people were allowed in the
    Parthenon, so because of this, there was NO need
    for windows or interior decorations.
  • 8.) All the attention was placed on the exterior
    of the building
  • a) Bright colors were used to paint the
    structure.
  • b) Blues, reds, greens and yellows were used.
  • c) Gold was used for detailed purposes.
  • 9) Much of the exterior decorations have since
    worn away due to weather exposure.

15
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Famous Greek Architecture
  • Temple of
    Athena Nike

16
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Famous Greek Architecture
  • Erechtheum
  • Porch of the Maidens

17
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Famous Greek Architecture
  • Temple of Athena Nike
  • Built on the Acropolis between 427-424 BC
  • It was a place of worship.
  • It was much smaller then many of the other
    buildings on the Acropolis.
  • Nike means Victory and the Greeks worshipped
    Athena as the goddess of wisdom.
  • 5) Its style was Ionic and a four column
    structure.

18
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Famous Greek Architecture
  • Erechtheum
  • Its a temple located directly opposite the
    Parthenon.
  • Erechtheus was a legendary king of Athens who was
    supposedly the foster son of Athena.
  • This building was unique because it had two
    porches, one larger than the other.
  • One of these porches is known as the Porch of
    the Maidens
  • The roof of the Porch of the Maidens is
    supported by six caryatids or columns carved to
    look like female figures.

19
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Four Major Greek Styles
  • Geometric Style(900-700 BCE) Vases, etc. were
    decorated in Geometric style exhibit painted
    horizontal bands filled with patterns bands
    covering the entire vase or object usually had
    triple lines dividing patterned zones at regular
    intervals.

20
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Archaic Style(700-625 BCE) Greek artists try to
    achieve realistic likeness in picturing the human
    figure, and the statues are a far cry from the
    extremely abstract figures of the geometric style
    which preceded. In fact, the statues show the
    influence of Egyptian art in its stiffness,
    gracefulness, and idealization.

21
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Classical Style(480-325 BCE) Is characterized by
    a joyous freedom of movement, freedom of
    expression, and it celebrates mankind as an
    independent entity. Artists worked in expressing
    the human figure in a more naturalistic manner.

22
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Hellenistic Style(325-30 BCE) This era
    expanded its formal horizons with dramatic
    posing, sweeping lines, and high contrast of
    light, shadow and emotions. The conventions and
    rules of the classical period gave way to the
    experimentation and a sense of freedom that
    allowed the artist to explore his subjects from
    different unique points of view.

23
Art of Ancient Greece
  • GEOMETRIC PERIOD
  • Votive offerings of bronze and terracotta, and
    painted scenes on monumental vessels attest to a
    renewed interest in figural imagery that focuses
    on funerary rituals and the heroic world of
    aristocratic warriors and their equipment.
  • The armed warrior, the chariot, and the horse are
    the most familiar symbols of the Geometric
    period.
  • Surviving material shows a mastery of the major
    mediaturning, decorating, and firing terracotta
    vases casting and coldworking bronze engraving
    gems and working gold.

24
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The only significant medium that had not yet
    evolved was that of monumental stone
    sculpturelarge-scale cult images most likely
    were constructed of a perishable material such as
    wood.
  • Instead, powerful bronze figurines and monumental
    clay vases manifest the clarity and order that
    are, perhaps, the most salient characteristics of
    Greek art.

25
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Archaic Style
  • GREEK VASE WORK
  • Vases during this period started out as being
    decorated with bands of simple geometric patterns
    which included triangles, lines and simple stick
    figures. (Geometric Period)
  • Many of the vases were used in much the same way
    as tombstones are used today as grave markers.

26
Art of Ancient Greece
  • In pottery, the Archaic period sees the
    development of the Orientalizing style , which
    signals a shift from the Geometric Style of the
    later Dark Ages.
  • Later on, many of the figures were added to these
    vases. Many of the figures appear on either side
    that represents the deceased.
  • 5) Over time, these vases became more life
    like and began to tell stories.
  • EXAMPLE Vase with Ajax and Achilles Playing
    Dice
  • This vase was created by the artist Exekias

27
Art of Ancient Greece
Vase with Ajax and Achilles
Playing Dice 1) This particular vase was created
by the artist Exekias. 2) Its an image of 2
Greek generals playing a board game. 3) They
story is set up like a modern day comic
strip. 4) They are having a verbal conversation
between each other. 5) They are so immersed in
their game, for a brief moment they have
forgotten they are at war and they are two
ordinary people lost in a friendly board game.
28
Art of Ancient Greece

  • Exekias Use of Realism
  • Exekias wanted to make his vase design (Ajax and
    Achilles) seem as realistic as possible.
  • 2) He carefully drew in the facial features,
    hands and feet, even though the eyes have an
    Egyptian art feel to them.
  • 3) His particular design and layout complements
    the vase he painted it on
  • Example 1 The curved backs of the figures
    follow the curves of the vase.
  • Example 2 The lines of the spears continue the
    lines of the two handles and then carry the
    viewers eye to the board game.
  • 4) The board game is the Focal Point (or)
    Emphasis of the art piece.
  • 5) During this time artists used less and less of
    the once popular Geometric Style and also artists
    began signing their work.
  • This showed their pride for their work.

29
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Vase with Ajax and Achilles Playing
    Dice

30
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Learning the Importance of Greek sculptures WHY
    and HOW they were created
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v88gXWW3qN7o

31
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Archaic Period Sculpture
  • 1) Sculpture in limestone and marble, terra
    cotta, bronze, wood and rarer metals was used to
    adorn temples and funerary monuments both
    free-standing and in relief. The themes were
    mythical or from daily life. Life-size statues
    began suddenly at about 650 BC.
  • 2) During the period, the major sculptural
    forms were the kouros and its female equivalent
    the kore.

32
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Greek Sculptures Archaic Period
  • 1) Sculptors during this period concentrated on
    carving large, freestanding figures known as
    a) Kouroi-Plural form of Kouros meaning youth.
  • b) Korai- Plural form of Kore
    meaning maiden.

33
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Greek Sculptures Archaic Period

34
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Kouros
    Sculpture
  • 1) This was a sculpture of a male youth who was
    either a god or an athlete.
  • 2) It resembles Egyptian sculptures in that it
    has a stiff and stright pose.
  • For Example Both legs are flat on the ground.
  • 3) Sculptors later learned how to fix this pose
    to look more natural and relaxed by bending and
    twisting their figures.
  • 4) Details of hair, eyes, mouth and chest are
    exactly alike on both sides which is another
    similar feature to Egyptian art.

35
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Kouros
    Sculpture
  • 5) A Greek style incorporated is the separation
    of the arms from the body and the open space
    between the legs.
  • 6) There is a debate that this sculpture
    represents the sun god Apollo (or) he is a great
    athlete.
  • 7) His facial features are unusual to Greek
    sculpture in that theres the appearance of A)
    bulging eyes, B) square chin and C) a mouth with
    slightly up turned corners.
  • 8) Sculptors during this time, wanted their
    sculptures to look more natural and THE USE OF A
    SMILE WAS A STEP IN THAT DIRECTION!

36
Art of Ancient Greece
37
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Hera of
    Samos
  • The Hera of Samos was a female sculpture which is
    also known as a Korai.
  • Korai were clothed women, often goddesses that
    were carved during the Archaic Period.
  • She looks like a stone cylinder and she has the
    same stiff pose as the Kouros. BUT the one arm is
    held lightly against the body and the feet are
    placed very close together.
  • There are NO open spaces or separation like the
    Kouros, BUT there is the use of a surface pattern
    (lines) which adds textural interest.
  • The folds in the garment gently follows the
    subtle curves of the figure.
  • This statue is roughly 6 ft in height and was an
    impressive symbol of authority and dignity.

38
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Hera of Samos

39
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The Classical Period
  • Art Historians today divide this
    period into three phases, based on the formal
    qualities of the art
  • 1) Early Classical Period (480-450 BCE)
  • 2) Mature Classical Period (450-400BCE)
  • 3) Late Classical Period (400-325 BCE)

40
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The Classical Period
  • 1) The Early Classical period is deemed to
    have begun after Athens double defeat of the
    Persian invaders in 490 and 479 BC but a new
    feeling of self-confidence was already in the air
    about 500 BC, possibly as a result of the firm
    establishment of democracy in Athens 10 years
    earlier.
  • 2) By now the Archaic color and pattern were
    gone from vase painting, to be replaced by
    sobriety and dignity....
  • This brief period is more than a mere
    transition from Archaic to Classical in the
    figurative arts a distinctive style developed, in
    some respects representing as much of a contrast
    with what came afterward as with what went
    before.
  • 3) Its nameSevere styleis in part an
    indication that the prettiness of Archaic art,
    with its patterns of drapery and its decisive
    action,...

41
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Early Classical Period Art
    (Sculpture)

42
Art of Ancient Greece
  • GREEK VASE
    WORK
  • 1) Geometric Style 2) Archaic Style
  • 3) Classical Style 4) Hellenistic Style
  • Focused more on sculptures and
  • steered away from the vase
    paintings.

43
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Greek Sculpture Classical
    Period
  • During this period, sculptors became more BOLD
    and SKILLFUL in that they did away with straight,
    stiff poses and made their figures appear to move
    in space.
  • Myrons Discus Thrower is a perfect
    example of this.

44
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Myrons Discus Thrower
  • 1) Another name for this sculpture is
    Discobolus which was created by the sculptor
    Myron.
  • Myron did a wonderful job of doing away with the
    old blocky and rigid poses and replaced it with a
    athletic action.
  • Myron was known for creating his sculptures out
    of bronze and he NEVER worked with marble,
    although most of his art pieces are marble
    reproductions produced during Roman times.
  • Most of the ancient Greeks sculptures were
    either destroyed, melted down, lost or ruined so
    the sculptures you see today were made later on
    by the Romans.

45
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Sculptures from the Acropolis
  • Phidias was responsible for many of the Greek
    sculptures you see today. He was one of the
    greatest Greek sculptors and creator of the 2nd
    sculpture to be discussed Athena Parthenos
  • Phidias also took part in creating other
    decorations for the Parthenon, in the form of a
    frieze, which included 350 people and 125 horses
    in relief sculpture form. It was in honor of the
    parade they held every 4 years to celebrate
    Athena.
  • a) Procession of Horsemen is a small example of
    Phidias relief sculptures.
  • b) This work is a great example of movement
    because of Phidias use of light and shadow
    carved into the drapery and negative space.

46
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Athena
    Parthenos
  • It stood at 42 feet.
  • Her skin was made of the whitest ivory
  • One ton of gold was used to fashion her armor and
    garments
  • Precious stones were used for eyes and as other
    decorations.
  • A full scale re-creation is located Nashville,
    TN.

47
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Nike
    Fastening her Sandal
  • This is a relief sculpture found in the Temple of
    Athena Nike.
  • It was created by an unknown sculptor.
  • She is bending down to fasten her sandal.
  • Another great example of movement is strongly
    shown in the carved drapery.
  • You can CLEARLY see the amazing strides Greek
    sculptors have made within 150 year period when
    comparing this sculpture with Hera of Samos.

48
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Nike Fastening her Sandal

49
Art of Ancient Greece

  • Polyclituss Spear Bearer
  • Polyclitus was another famous Greek Sculptor from
    the Classical Period.
  • He was famous for introducing the form called
    Contrapposto. (pg. 183)
  • He specialized in creating sculptures of youthful
    athletes.
  • EX. DoryphorosSpear Bearer.
  • This sculptor is a great example of Contrapposto
    because
  • a) The left leg is bent and the toes lightly
    touch the ground.
  • b) The body is slightly turned to show movement
    so it looks more life like.
  • c) The right hip and left shoulder are raised.
  • d) The head is tipped forward and turns to the
    right.
  • e) Action is kept to a minimum but the sculpture
    exudes
  • athletic strength.

50
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Polyclituss Spear Bearer

51
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Hellenistic Period
    Sculptures
  • 1) This was a period when Greek culture and
    non-Greek cultures were blended with the help of
    Alexander the Great because he admired Greek
    culture so much he wanted to spread the culture
    world wide.
  • Sculptors during this period were extremely
    skillful and confident.
  • They created dramatic and often violent
    sculptures made of bronze and marble.
  • Sculptors were very interested in faces because
    they can hold so much emotion.
  • Emotional expression was more important than
    beauty. Whereas Classical sculpture focused on
    balance and harmony.
  • A great example of this new style is the
    sculpture A Dying Gaul

52
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The
    Dying Gaul
  • 1)This sculpture was originally made from bronze.
  • 2) It was created as a celebratory monument of a
    victory over the Gauls which were fierce
    warriors from the north.
  • 3) This sculpture is the is the final moments of
    a Gaul who was fatally wounded in battle.
  • 4) The sculptor goes to great lengths to
    incorporate details which include flowing blood,
    open wound, pain in the face through distorted
    features.
  • 5) As a viewer, you are meant to become involved
    in the drama of a dying Gaul. The sculptor wants
    you to share and feel his pain and loneliness
    right before he dies.

53
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The
    Dying Gaul

54
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Nike of
    Samothrace
  • This sculpture was created to celebrate a naval
    victory.
  • Its a sculpture of a winged Nikegoddess of
    victory.
  • The way it was created gave it a look as if it
    were part of the bow of a ship.
  • The details in her garments portray (or) imply
    the ocean breeze is whipping through her
    garments.
  • This immense detail implies movement-as if she
    were really standing on the front of the ship.
  • It was discovered in 1875 on a hillside in
    Samothrace with NO head or arms and in 118 pieces.

55
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Nike of
    Samothrace

56
Art of Ancient Greece
  • The
    Seated Boxer
  • This is a bronze sculpture that was discovered on
    Rome.
  • This is a sculpture of a young but mature athlete
    (a boxer) resting after suffering a brutal loss.
  • The details of the swollen nose, battered checks,
    scratches and sweat are very apparent and really
    shows the skill(s) of the artist.
  • Theres no mistake that the joyless expression on
    his face shows he infact, lost.

57
Art of Ancient Greece
58
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Drastic Changes in Greek
    Sculptures
  • The growth of Greek sculpture can be traced
    through an examination of the gods, goddesses and
    athletes created from the Archaic period to the
    Hellenistic.
  • 1) Sculptured figures produced during the Archaic
    Period were solid and stiff. Ex. Kouros and Korai.

59
Art of Ancient Greece
  • Drastic Changes in Greek
    Sculptures
  • 2) During the Classical Period, sculptors had
    achieved near perfection in balance, proportion
    and sense of movement.
  • Ex. The Discus Thrower
  • A later Classical work, The Spear
    Bearer, is a great example of balance, harmony
    and beauty.
  • 3) The Hellenistic Period brought sculptures that
    reflected very dramatic and emotional art pieces.
  • Ex. The Seated Boxer

60
Art of Ancient Greece
  • http//www.history.com/videos/greek-gods?cmpidMRS
    S_Bing_HISgreek-gods
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