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Ancient Greece

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Ancient Greece. Greek Civilization. Many consider as foundation of Western Civilization ... Invasion of mainland Greece by the Persians in 490 BC Darius I ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Greece


1
Ancient Greece
2
Greek Civilization
  • Many consider as foundation of Western
    Civilization
  • Powerful influence on Roman Empire European
    Culture
  • Influenced language, politics, history,
    educational, philosophy, medicine, drama, art and
    architecture of the modern world
  • Shared common traditions language
  • Biases of Greek Writers
  • Arrogant, Athenian Male

3
The Mediterranean World
4
The Greek World
  • Mountainous terrain
  • Many islands
  • Asia Minor (Ionia)
  • No city-state could rule all
  • Each very independent
  • Colonies spread
    throughout Mediterranean
  • Common Hellenic Culture

5
Greece Chronology
  • Mycenaean Civilization 2000-1100 BC
  • Dark Ages 1100-900 BC
  • Geometric Period 900-700 BC
  • Archaic Period 700-480 BC
  • Classical Period 480-323 BC
  • Hellenistic Period 323- 31 BC
  • Roman Period in Greece 31 BC 323 AD
  • Byzantine Period in Greece 323 1453 AD

6
Mycenaean Civilization
  • Bronze Age Greece
  • Indo-European Greek Speakers
  • Settled around 2000 BC
  • Wealthy, hierarchal society
  • Powerful kings
  • Agamemnon of Mycenae
  • Trade throughout Mediterranean
  • Very warlike
  • Writing system Linear B
  • Adopted from Minoans

7
Greek Alphabet
  • Used to write the Greek language since about the
    9th century BC
  • First to use separate symbols for each vowel and
    consonant
  • Modification of the Phoenician alphabet
  • Gave rise to Latin alphabet

8
Greek Ideal The Hero
  • Arete highest virtue
  • Manliness, courage excellence
  • Man of action
  • Pursuit of life of glory
  • Seize power glory for oneself
  • Images and depictions found everywhere in Greek
    art, literature and mythology
  • Herakles, Theseus, Odysseus

9
The Trojan War c. 1250 BC
  • Homers poem The Iliad
  • Historical memory
  • Political economic competition in the Aegean
    Sea
  • Stories believed to be authentic history by
    Greeks
  • Part of common Greek heritage identity
  • Tremendous impact on Greek culture
  • Personalities in literature, art philosophy
  • Discovery of Troy
  • Heinrich Schliemann - 1871

10
Homer
  • Legendary early Greek poet
  • Credited with the composition of the Iliad and
    the Odyssey
  • Assumed 8th century BC - Ionia
  • Debate Real person or name given to one or more
    oral poets who sang traditional epic material
  • Name means hostage
  • Homeric poems are the product of an oral
    tradition
  • Iliad and Odyssey underwent standardization and
    refinement out of older material beginning in the
    8th century BC
  • Production of a canonical written text.

11
Dark Ages 1100-900 BC
  • Fall of Mycenaean Civilization
  • General disruption throughout Mediterranean
  • Invaders from north Dorian Greeks
  • Cities abandoned
  • No writing from time

12
Geometric Period 900-700 B.C.
  • Greek polis "city-state" develops
  • Athens, Corinth, and Sparta
  • Expansion into Ionia
  • Artistic output - painted pottery
  • Rise of trade
  • Olive oil, wine, pottery
  • Colonies established in Italy, Sicily
    elsewhere
  • Development of Greek writing
  • Greek alphabet adapted from Phoenician
  • Homer Iliad Odyssey
  • Become widely circulated

13
Polis (Poleis)
  • Independent City-State
  • Intense loyalty of citizens
  • Develop autonomous traditions
  • Own form of government
  • Artistic styles
  • Founding myths
  • Acropolis fortified high ground
  • Agora marketplace
  • Temple

14
The Archaic Period 700-480 BC
  • Individual city-states and their colonies prosper
  • Development of centers of political, religious,
    philosophic and artistic achievement
  • Many cities ruled by tyrants
  • strong-willed men who rule, not by constitutional
    authority, but by popular support
  • Monumental sculpture, stone temple architecture,
    civic building programs

15
Olympics
  • Share common culture
  • Founded in 776 BC at Olympia in southern Greece
  • Pan-Hellenic contests every four years
  • Opportunity to display heroic qualities civic
    pride
  • Contests- running, chariot racing, boxing,
    wrestling
  • Laurel wreath to the victor
  • As many as 40,000 gather at games from throughout
    Greece

16
Greek Colonies
  • Population grew beyond the capacity of its
    limited arable land
  • About 750 BC began 250 years of expansion
  • Independent city-states found colonies
  • Colonies not politically controlled by founding
    cities
  • Often retained religious and commercial links
  • Aegean coast of Asia Minor colonized first
  • Albania, Sicily,southern Italy,south coast of
    France, Corsica, northeastern Spain
  • Colonies were founded in Egypt, Libya and the
    Ukraine
  • Polis became the basic unit of government
  • All aspects of Greek culture continued

17
Greek Colonies
18
Warfare
  • City-States constantly at war with each other
  • Hoplites
  • Army of infantrymen
  • Citizen soldiers for Polis
  • Supplied own weapons 60-70 pounds
  • Fought in phalanx - impenetrable
  • Surrounded by family friends
  • Strict rules of warfare - honor
  • War defined as challenge between two armies
  • Quick decisive battles
  • Exchange of dead after battle
  • Winner annexes land

19
Sparta
  • Militaristic state totalitarian
  • Opposite of Athens
  • Ruthless expansionists
  • Conquered all surrounding areas
  • Practiced selective breeding
  • Brought up from birth to be soldiers
  • Lives structured around discipline and war
  • Barracks center of life for men
  • Few possessions except for weapons
  • Spartans were forbidden non-military pursuits and
    occupations
  • Wealth derived from property
  • Periokoi conquered peoples of region
  • Worked as traders, craftsmen, artists
  • Helots serfs worked the land
  • Required to pay half of output to owner

20
The Persian Wars 490 480 BC
  • Invasion of mainland Greece by the Persians in
    490 BC Darius I
  • Battle of Marathon Victory led by Athens
  • 480 BC - Xerxes I sent more powerful force by
    land
  • Battle of Thermopylae
  • Delayed by Spartans
  • Athens captured burned
  • Battle of Salamis
  • Athenian leader Themistocles
  • Persians defeated by Athens navy
  • Persian army defeated at Plataea

21
Classical Period 480-323 BC
  • Period of greatest cultural achievement
  • Literature, drama, philosophy arts flourish
    throughout the Greek world
  • Period of wealth power for Athens naval power
  • Trireme
  • Statesmen Pericles leads Athens to glory
  • Empire through Delian League
  • Democratic reforms
  • Great building program
  • Parthenon Acropolis rebuilt

22
Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
  • War between Athens and Sparta their allies
  • Lasted 27 years
  • Very destructive brutal
  • Chronicled by Thucydides
  • Cause - resentment of Sparta and its allies at
    the dominance of Athens over Greek affairs
  • Athens naval power
  • Sparta land power
  • War of attrition
  • Athens retreated behind long walls
  • Sparta ravages country-side
  • Both side win battles
  • Athens defeated by Sparta in 404 BC
  • Term of defeat - Athens lost her city walls, her
    fleet, and all of her overseas possessions

23
Greek Religion
  • Tolerance for religious diversity
  • No "dogma" or "theology" in the Greek tradition
  • No single truth or code
  • Produced no sacred, written text like the Bible
    or the Quran
  • Different cities worshipped different deities
  • Many cult centers
  • No single true way to live in dealing with the
    gods
  • Individuals had a great deal of autonomy in
    dealing with the gods
  • Unclear lines between divinity and humanity
  • Religious ideas continued to develop over this
    time

24
Greek Religion
  • Virtues fostered by Greek religion were chiefly
    respect for the gods
  • Seek to understand their will
  • Temples were home of the diety
  • Cult image revered
  • Variety of rituals and local festivals
  • Must be performed correctly
  • Most widespread public act of worship was
    sacrifice
  • Grain or animal offered
  • Votive gifts were offered to the gods by
    worshippers
  • Temples become treasurers

25
Greek Mythology
  • Mythology formed a central reference point in
    Greek society
  • Interwoven with ritual and other aspects of
    social existence
  • Stories about the origins and actions of Greek
    divinities varied widely
  • Depended on where the tale appeared
  • comedy, tragedy or epic poem
  • Greek gods resembled human beings in their form
    and in their emotions
  • Lived in a society that resembled human society
    in its levels of authority and power
  • Crucial difference existed between gods and human
    beings Humans died, and gods were immortal
  • Heroes also played an important role
  • Stories about them conveyed serious themes
  • Felt connected to human heroes from the past

26
Purposes of Greek Myths
  • 1. Explained the world
  • Lent structure and order to the world
  • Origin of current state of things
  • Pandora released diseases miseries upon world
  • Origin of rituals - Prometheus outwits Zeus in
    first sacrifice
  • 2. Exploration of human emotions and moral
    behavior
  • Examining contradictions and ambiguities
  • Explore social questions by placing them, in
    extreme and exaggerated form

27
Purposes of Greek Myths
  • 3. Provided authority and legitimacy
  • Myths were regarded as history rather than
    allegory
  • Gave authority to a claim, an action, or a
    relationship
  • City-states and aristocratic families often
    traced their ancestry back to the heroes or gods
  • Validation of the identity and culture of
    individual communities
  • 4. Provided entertainment
  • Public performances of drama were hugely popular

28
Delphi
  • Dates to 1400 BC one of oldest sites in Greece
  • Phythia - Oracle of Apollo
  • Gave advice on decisions from personal problems
    to fates of cities
  • Visitors required to pay a fee based on the
    importance of the question
  • Inquire on what course of action should be taken
  • Obscure answers very difficult to interpret
  • Sacred spring at site
  • Hugely popular appeal for its beauty
  • became extremely rich

29
Athenian Democracy
  • Democracy - rule by the people
  • Solon reformer
  • start of 6th cen.
  • Sought to limit oppression of poorest Athenians
  • Abolished debt and debt slavery
  • Ended aristocracys monopoly on public affairs
  • Gave all citizens right to appeal decisions of
    judicial officials

30
Athenian Democracy
  • 508 BC revolt against oppression of tyrant by
    ordinary people
  • Cleisthenes called from exile asked to build
    government
  • Established worlds first democracy
  • Gave citizens say in government
  • Designated citizens assembly
  • Assembly to meet every nine days
  • Instituted simple vote yes or no
  • Organized citizens into ten tribes
  • Created new Council of 500
  • People to decide on all issues
  • Ordinary Greeks could be heroes in politics

31
Athenian Democracy
  • Reforms of Ephialtes 462 461 BC
  • Curbed power of Areopagus ancient aristocratic
    council (ex-Archons)
  • transferred powers to Court, Council of 500
    Assembly
  • Archonship Highest office
  • Extended to more citizens
  • 9 appointed each year
  • Council of 500 chosen by lot from all citizens
    over 30 years old
  • Sets agenda for Assembly
  • 50 from each tribal unit
  • Assembly Ecclesia all adult male citizens
  • Votes on legislature presented by Council
  • Peoples Court of Appeal
  • Selected by lot

32
Athenian Democracy
  • Ostracism
  • Once a year - vote to expel one person who was
    seen as threat
  • Themisticles - regarded as having gained too much
    power after war with Persia
  • Citizenship
  • Males only
  • Required land ownership
  • Large number of small farmers each had a
    limited voice in public affairs
  • Not extended to foreigners, women or slaves
  • Hoplites citizen soldiers
  • Required to serve in military

33
Judicial System in Athens
  • Communities established system of impartial
    judges to keep vendettas from developing
  • Armed men ready to defend their honor
  • Trivial quarrels turn violent lead to more
    blood
  • Third parties need to resolve disputes to stop
    cycle
  • By early 6th cen. BC citizens chosen by lot
    sworn to render impartial verdicts
  • Jurors sat in panels of 500, 1000, 1500, even
    6,000 once
  • Called dikastai or judges
  • Collective opinion was final
  • Jurors sworn en masse once a year
  • Jurors voted after listening to both prosecution
    defense
  • Simple majority determined verdict tie to the
    defendant

34
Judicial System in Athens
  • More formal system enacted in early 4th cen. BC
  • Eligibility requirements male, at least 30,
    free of public debt
  • Jury divided into sections and given
    identification tags
  • Jurors swore oath
  • Efforts to prevent corruption in courts
  • Random selection based on name tags
  • Elaborate precautions to safeguard fairness
  • Assigned seating
  • Even representation of tribes
  • Trials could last no longer than a day
  • Water clock monitored length of time prosecution,
    defense, witnesses and accused could speak
  • Jurors voted with disks either for acquittal or
    conviction at end of day
  • No deliberation among jurors

35
Women in Greek Society
  • Society dominated by men
  • Few opportunities outside home
  • Wife's duty to bear legitimate children and
    manage the household
  • Expected to remain inside her home except for
    rare occasions
  • Athenian philosophers believed that women had
    strong emotions and weak minds 
  • Had to be protected from themselves 
  • Pandora
  • Could not own property
  • Guardianship system
  • Kyrios (guardian) - either her closest male
    birth-relative or her husband
  • Controlled everything about her life

36
Women in Greek Society
  • Marriage
  • Management preservation of property
  • Production of children as future care-givers
    heirs
  • Arranged by families based on dowry
  • Unveiling of the bride at wedding
  • Men around age 30
  • Girls around age 14-15
  • Want to ensure virginity
  • Unlikely to produce deep love
  • Husbands could pursue relationships outside of
    home
  • Wives expected to remain completely faithful

37
Women in Greek Society
  • Religion - only way of influencing public affairs
    by wives of citizens
  • Could attend festivals of specific cults that
    were open to woman - Maenids
  • Important priestesses goddess cults
  • Priestess of Athena Oracle of Delphi could
    influence public affairs
  • Courtesans - hetaera
  • Most privileged women - very accepted
  • Could attend male parties symposium
  • Often of foreign origin
  • Sparta - Women were more independent than in
    other Greek societies

38
Sappho- Poetress from Lesbos
  • 7th cen. BC
  • Aristocratic background
  • Island of Lesbos
  • Reputation for excessive sexual behavior
  • Came to denote female homosexuality
  • Taught circle of girls
  • Wrote love poetry to women
  • Writes of love lost

39
Homosexuality
  • Men expected to spend most of time with other men
    because of defined roles
  • Bisexuality accepted
  • Men expected to have successful heterosexual
    lives
  • Excessiveness effeminacy discouraged
  • Homosexual relationships mainly Pederastic boy
    older man
  • Encouraged, ritualized facilitated by gathering
    places like the gymnasium
  • Relationship last from age 12 to 20
  • Arranged by male friends
  • Generally with one mentor
  • About initiation and domination
  • Mature into life-long useful friendships
  • Adult male relationships rare
  • Seen as rebellion against society
  • Gods have homosexual relations
  • Apollo has 19 males lovers
  • Zeus Ganymede

40
Slavery
  • Property of their masters rather than citizens of
    Greece
  • Major role in ancient Greek civilization
  • domestic servants
  • factory workers
  • shopkeepers
  • mineworkers
  • farm workers
  • ship's crewmembers
  • police force
  • clerks at the treasury office
  • Different ways to become a slave
  • born into slavery
  • taken prisoner in war
  • sell family member
  • Treated differently depending upon what their
    purpose was

41
History
  • Herodotus of Halicarnassus - 480-429 BC
  • World's first true historian Chronicled Persian
    War
  • Insatiable curiosity Traveled throughout the
    world interviewing people about current recent
    events
  • Attached great importance to truthfulness
  • Blended oral and written styles in his history
  • Showed curiosity, consideration and respect for
    other cultures
  • Contains ethnographic descriptions of peoples,
    fairy tales, gossip legends
  • Thucydides 460-395 BC, former Athenian general
  • History of the Peloponnesian War
  • Offers an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms of
    war
  • Tries to remain objective, but cant hide
    personal judgment
  • Xenophon - 430-354 BC, Athenian historian
  • Takes up where Thucydides left off
  • Lacks objectivity and veracity often in question

42
Philosophers
  • Thales of Miletus (6th cen. BC)
  • Provide give rational explanations for physical
    phenomena
  • Idea to look for deeper causes was the true
    beginning of philosophy and science
  • Socrates
  • Leader in revolution in thinking
  • Spent life questioning assumptions
  • Rejected conventional wisdom
  • Examine all issues rationally through dialogue
  • Search for universal truths
  • Use reason and logic to study people
  • Group of youthful followers Plato, Xenophon
  • Tired executed (d. 399 BC)
  • Charged with undermining youth and corrupting
    public morals
  • Becomes great hero after death

43
Philosophers
  • Plato (427347 BC)
  • Writer of philosophical dialogues - Socrates'
    point of view
  • Founder of the Academy in Athens
  • Lectured on politics, ethics, metaphysics,
    epistemology
  • Themes in dialogues
  • best possible form of government
  • role of heredity the environment on human
    intelligence personality
  • distinction between knowledge and true belief
  • Aristotle (384 BC 322 BC)
  • Student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the
    Great
  • Wrote books on physics, poetry, zoology, logic,
    rhetoric, politics,
    government and biology
  • One of the few figures in history who studied
    almost every
    subject possible at the time

44
Medicine
  • Greek physcians first to separate medicine from
    supernatural
  • Diseases have natural causes which can be known
  • First known medical school opened in Cnido in 700
    BC
  • Practice of observing patients first established
  • Alcmaeon, author of the first anatomical work
  • Hippocrates, c.460-377 BC
  • Father of modern medicine
  • Established his own medical school at Cos
  • Emphasized four main aspects of medical care
  • observation, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment
  • Hippocratic Corpus contains the core medical
    texts of school
  • Hippocratic Oath implies that a group of
    professional physicians are bound by a strict
    ethical code.
  • Asclepius - God of healing
  • Asclepieion Healing sanctuaries all over Greek
    world

45
Theater
  • Theater in every major Greek city
  • Home of popular entertainment
  • Drama starts during Athens age of tyrants
  • Encourage Athenian patriotism
  • Contest for reciting famous stories at
    Pan-Athenaic festival
  • First theatrical productions - Athens Dionysus
    festival
  • Athens Theater of Dionysus built about 500 BC
  • Initially a single actor accompanied by a chorus
    of singers
  • All wore masks allowed actors to play multiple
    roles
  • All male cast played female roles
  • 472 BC oldest play The Persians by Aeschylus
  • Aeschylus added second actor
  • Sophocles added third actor
  • Plays sponsored by wealthy patrons
  • Very noisy audiences

46
Theater
  • Tragedy
  • stories of great men falling from heights
  • Athenians invented an art form that
    confronts unpleasant truths head-on
  • Played out such deadly myths as the
    Trojan War, murder among families,
    and Oedipus
  • Tragedies concerned with social and political
    problems raise important civic questions
  • What makes a good leader?
  • Should citizens resist illegitimate authority?
  • How can a society develop fair laws and
    administer justice equitably?
  • How should society treat women, slaves, and
    immigrants?
  • What can we learn from the excesses and failures
    of others?
  • Comedy look at the lighter side of life

47
Pottery
  • The Vase - great artistic legacy
  • Pottery made for everyday use, not for display -
    drinking storage
  • Freshness naturalness to art
  • Potters not a respected profession
  • factories in Athens prostitute district
  • tried to outdo each other other
  • Corinth Athens dominate trade
  • Pottery exported all over the Greek world
  • Many mass-produced low quality
  • Greek pottery frequently signed by the potter,
    not artist

48
Pottery
  • Pottery Types
  • amphorae
  • kraters (bowls for mixing wine water)
  • hydria (water jars)
  • Kylix wine cup
  • libation bowls, jugs
  • Historical styles
  • Protogeometric from about 1050 BC
  • Geometric from about 900 BC
  • decorated with abstract designs
  • Black Figure from tearly 7th century BC
  • red and white details and incising for outlines
    and details
  • Red Figure from about 530 BC
  • pots being painted black the figures painted in
    red

49
Sculpture
  • Marble Bronze
  • Human form the most important subject for
    artistic endeavour
  • Gods in human form
  • No distinction between the sacred secular in
    art
  • Immensely influential on Western art
  • Renaissance
  • Classical revival
  • Little has survived, mostly in Roman copies
  • Sculpture not merely for artistic display
  • Public memorials, temples, grave markers,
    decorative friezes

50
Sculpture
  • Archaic Period
  • Most important sculptural form was the kouros
  • Standing male nude
  • Very stiff in posture
  • Classical Period
  • Revolution in statuary
  • Poses more naturalistic
  • Technical skill greatly increases
  • 500 BC - statues began to depict real people
  • Funeral statuary - highly personal family groups
  • Know names of individual sculptors
  • Phidias (Parthenon), Praxiteles

51
Architecture
  • Doric order
  • Western Greece
  • Simplest, with plain,
    round capitals
  • Ionic order
  • Eastern Greece
  • Slender, fluted pillars
  • Two opposed volutes (scrolls)
    on capital
  • Corinthian order
  • Most ornate of the Greek orders
  • Slender fluted column
  • Capital carved with two rows of leaves and four
    scrolls
  • Designed by Callimachus 5th cen BC

52
Architecture
  • Parthenon
  • Greek for "Virgin Temple"
  • Athens Acropolis
  • Extraordinarily expensive
  • Represent grandeur
  • Paid for by tribute from
    Delian League
  • 20,000 tons of marble
  • Architects and sculptors from all over Greece
  • Phidias designer
  • 15 years to complete
  • 40 foot high statue of Athena
  • 500 foot long frieze celebration
    of Athenian values
  • Elgin Marbles in British Museum
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