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Ancient Greece Learning Packet

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Title: Ancient Greece Learning Packet


1
Ancient Greece Learning Packet
  • The Rise of Greek Civilization

2
Greek Geography Highlights- page 2
  • Mediterranean Sea- allowed Greece to trade with
    the Eastern Mediterranean.
  • Aegean Sea- separates the Balkan Peninsula from
    Asia Minor.

3
Greek Geography Highlights II
  • Balkan Peninsula- consists of many small
    peninsulas that form the mainland of Greece.
  • Small islands of the Aegean Sea- were considered
    part of Greece.

4
Greek Geography Highlights III
  • Short Mountain Ranges- separated communities and
    prevented them from developing a sense of
    community.
  • No important rivers- like Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  • Mild climate, enough good soil, and sufficient
    rainfall.

5
Key ideas about Greek Geography
  • Because of the climate- The Greeks grew grapes,
    olives, and grains in the small valleys and
    foothills of the mountains.
  • Greeks were unable to grow enough food for a
    growing population- and were forced to trade for
    their food.

6
Key ideas II
  • The invention of coined money in the 500s B.C.-
    stimulated trade and made it easier to buy and
    sell goods.

7
Key ideas III
  • The long, irregular coastline- allowed every part
    of the mainland to be close to the sea with many
    good harbors.
  • Greeks traded throughout the Mediterranean- with
    Egyptians and the Fertile Crescent.

8
Chapter 4 Section 1 Flowchart- page 3
With Fertile Crescent
With the Egyptians
Balkan Peninsula
Trade flourishes
Separate Communities
Coined Money
Mediterranean Sea
Mountain Ranges
Ancient Greece
Geography
9
Ancient Greece
Geography
Agriculture
Grapes, Olives, Grains
Forced to trade for food
Long, irregular coastline
Good harbors
Close to the sea
10
Island of Crete
Capital Knossos
Mainly sailors
Minos- legendary king
Woman equality
Powerful Navy
Minoans
Destroyed by
Ancient Greece
First Civilizations
Volcanic explosion in 1500 B.C.
11
Ancient Greece
Polis
Acropolis
Dorians
Mycenaean
Athens and Sparta
Illiterate
Fortified Cities
Greeces Dark Age
Peloponnesos
Agora
Chera
12
Chapter 4 Section 2 Flowchart- page 4
Age of Kings
Greek government and society
Age of Tyrants
Social Structure
Greek Religion
13
The Iliad about the Trojan War
Homer
Epics
Blind poet
The Odyssey about Mycenaean Life
Long poems about heroes and events
Monarchy
Type of government
Age of Kings
14
Tyrants promised people protection in exchange
for power
Age of Tyrants
They held absolute power
15
Greek religion
Influenced by
Humanlike with strengths and weaknesses
Greek gods
Purpose was to
Egyptians
Persians
Explain things in the world around them
Worshipped in ceremonies (Olympics)
Were spoken to in oracles through priests
Hebrews
16
Believed they descended from Helen of Troy
Spoke the same language
Nobles owned most land
Greeks united because
Social Structure
Popular government created- Democracy
Mountains and valleys
Greeks separated because
Merchants made money by trading with Greek
colonies
Aristocracy were nobles that controlled
city-states
Spirit of independence
Each city-state had its own culture
17
Greek Geography- page 5
  • Black Sea
  • Bosporus
  • Asia Minor
  • Mediterranean Sea (at the very bottom)
  • Crete
  • Aegean Sea

18
Greek Geography II
  • G. Sparta
  • H. Cornith
  • I. Athens
  • J. Thebes
  • K. Delphi
  • L. Mt. Olympus

19
Greek Geography III
  • M. Macedonia
  • N. Thrace
  • O. Peloponnesus
  • P. Ionian Sea
  • Q. Byzantium
  • R. Sea of Marmara
  • Extra Arrow- Dardanelles

20
Todays Assignment- pages 6-9 of your packet.
STOP
Ancient Greece Unit Test- NEXT WEEK
21
Chapter 4 Sections 3 and 4- page 10
  • ATHENS
  • Founded Democracy
  • Were Sea Traders
  • Draco- Harsh Law Code
  • Solon- Outlawed slavery
  • Pisistratus- Exiled Nobles
  • Cleisthenes- Council of 500
  • Direct Democracy
  • Court System
  • 3 Social Classes
  • Citizens
  • Aliens
  • Slaves
  • SPARTA
  • Warlike people
  • Lived in Peloponnesus
  • Took land for the Dorians
  • Helots were farmers
  • Govt control- Ephors
  • Unhealthy babies killed
  • 7 yr. Old boys Military
  • Military service 20-60
  • No advancements
  • 3 Social Classes
  • Dorians- Citizens
  • Neighbors
  • Helots
  • City-State (Polis)
  • Both had
  • Hatred for one another
  • Chora
  • Agora
  • Acropolis

22
Illustration 1- The Greek City-State
  • Greece was never united because of geography,
    _________________ and _______________ created
    barriers between city states. The most important
    democracy appeared in ___________ where laws were
    passed by elected officials and assemblies of
    _________. Most assemblies met _______ and spoke
    freely, showing pride in their __________________
    and independence.

mountains
coastlines
Athens
citizens
in public places
Page 11
freedom
23
Illustration 2- Greek Warfare
  • __________contributed to the beginning of Greek
    democracy. Many lower class men would join
    __________ units to gain power and more say as
    _________________.

Warfare
hoplite
citizens
24
Illustration 3- Greek Democracy?
  • Greek Democracy
  • Direct Democracy- ____ ___________________________
    _________________________________
  • Representative Democracy- ________________________
    ____________________________________

Had slavery- couldnt vote.
Women couldnt vote.
Had to be an adult to vote.
13th-15th Amendment- slavery
19th Amendment- women suffrage
26th Amendment- age 18 to vote.
25
Todays Assignment- Pages 12-15 in packet
STOP
Ancient Greece Unit Test- Next Week
26
Chapter 4 Section 5 Graphic Organizer- page 16
Greek civilization is defended and expands
Age of Pericles
Greatest Athenian ruler
All citizens could hold public office
27
Outnumbered Athenian army drives out Persians
Darius son Xerxes makes a 2nd attempt
Xerxes army of 200,000 defeats Spartans
Persian ruler, Darius invades Greek mainland
Persian Wars
Xerxes army crushed by Athenian navy in the
Strait of Salamis
Greek civilization is defended and expands
Persians invade Greek city-states in Asia Minor
28
Greek civilization is defended and expands
Series of battles between Greek city-states
Peloponnesian War
Plague kills Pericles and Athens surrenders in
404 B.C.
Athens under siege by Spartan army
29
Greek Unity v. Disunity
  • Unity
  • Spartans opposed Greek unity.
  • Delian League united 140 city-states.
  • Every city contributed ships or money.
  • Greek Disunity
  • Sparta in control after Peloponnesian War.
  • Thebes replaces Sparta as a major power.
  • Tyranny is dominant following these wars.

30
Four Main Characteristics of Greek Art- page 17
  • Expressed harmony, balance, and order
  • Glorified humans
  • Symbolized pride of the people
  • Is beautiful and useful

31
Greatest Example of Greek Art
  • The Parthenon
  • Is located in Athens
  • Built during Greeces Golden Age
  • Defining feature is its columns

32
The Parthenon continued
  • Sculptures inside and outside worshipped the
    Greek Goddess Athena
  • Sculptures were also built to honor other Greek
    Gods

33
Greek Gods and Goddesses continued
  • Greek goddess of victory was Nike
  • Most monuments were built in the highest point in
    the town, the Acropolis
  • Why? To be closer to the Gods

34
Greek developments is Science, History, and
Drama- page 18
  • During Greeces Golden Age reforms and new
    developments that are still used today were
    developed. In the boxes below you can see the
    accomplishments of some great Greek reformers and
    historians.

35
Greek Reformers
  • Reformers Name Pythagorean
  • Major Accomplishment Developed the Pythagorean
    theorem (a2 b2 c2)

36
Reformers continued
  • Reformers Name Democritius
  • Major Achievement Developed the idea that Atoms
    compose all matter.

37
More Reformers
  • Reformers Name Hippocrates
  • Made several developments in Medicine. Created
    the Hippocratic Oath (for doctors)

38
Greek Historians
  • Historians Name Herodotus
  • Major Accomplishment Known as the Father of
    History

39
Another Greek Historian
  • Historians Name Thucydides
  • Major Accomplishment Wrote the history of the
    Peloponnesian War.

40
Important Definition
  • Greek Drama were plays containing action or
    dialogue that involves conflict and emotion.
  • Greeks always enjoyed a good Play. They had
    several developments in Greek drama including

41
Types of Greek Drama
  • Tragedy is a play that deals with a struggle
    against fate.
  • Comedies is a play that mocks ideas and people.

42
What is Philosophy? Page 19
  • Study of the most fundamental questions of
    reality and human existence.
  • Another note about Greek Philosophy Is the most
    dominant contribution to Western Civilization.
  • Philosopher is a lover of wisdom. The Three most
    important philosophers came from Greece.

43
Greek Philosophers
  • Socrates beliefs
  • People should think for themselves and acquire
    wisdom by questioning.
  • Ignorance leads to evil.
  • Socratic method- question to find answer.
  • No writings- we know about him through Platos
    works.
  • Put to death for his actions.

44
Platos beliefs (student of Socrates)
  • Wrote dialogues about education, temperance,
    beauty, religion, and other subjects of interest
    to philosophers.
  • The Republic- Platos major political work
    concerning the question of justice.
  • Ideal government is an aristocracy- a government
    ruled by the upper class- not of wealth, but
    education and intelligence

45
Aristotles beliefs (student of Plato)
  • Poetics- the Study of Greek Drama.
  • Developed the basics of Logic.
  • The best government should have a powerful
    leader, aristocratic advisors, and a democratic
    assembly.
  • Developed Ethics- study of right and wrong.

46
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47
Todays Assignment- pages 20-22 of your packet
STOP
Ancient Greece Unit Test- A days- Thurs. and B
days- Friday
48
Alexander the Great- page 23
  • Civilization that unites Greece- Macedonia- a
    mountainous area north of Greece.
  • Ruled by Philip of Macedon- a military leader.

49
Philip of Macedons Achievements
  • Soldiers that were trained and equipped to fight
    on foot was an idea developed by Philip-
    Infantry.
  • Organized into Phalanx which had 16 rows of
    tightly spaced soldiers equipped with lances 21
    feet long.

50
Philip helped spread Greek and Persian Cultures
  • Hellenistic culture- an idea that connect Eastern
    and Western cultures and blend the best features
    of Greek and Persian cultures into one culture.
  • Thebes and Athens defeated at the Battle of
    Chaeronea in 338 BC

51
Philip of Macedons Death
  • Philip is assassinated in 336 B.C.
  • Alexander the Great replaces his father as king.
  • Was educated by the Greek philosopher Aristotle.

52
Alexanders Rise to Power
  • Married the Persian princess Roxana.
  • Conquered Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt,
    Mesopotamia, and the Persian Empire.

53
Alexanders Empire
  • Established an eastern border along the Indus
    River in India.
  • Built the Great Egyptian city of Alexandria.
  • Retreated back to Babylon.

54
Fall of Alexander
  • Alexander died of malaria at age 33, his army
    generals then murdered his family.
  • His empire was divided into 3 parts.
  • Macedonia
  • Egypt
  • Syria

55
Elements of Greek Culture before and after
Alexander page 24
  • GREEK GODS
  • AND
  • GODDESSES
  • DEMOCRACY
  • SOPHISTS
  • IDEALIZED
  • HUMAN FORM
  • IN ART
  • INDEPENDENT
  • CITY-STATES
  • EMPIRES
  • REALISM
  • IN ART
  • LOCAL
  • RELIGIOUS
  • PRACTICES VARY
  • EPICURIANISM
  • AND STOICISM
  • DIVERSITY

HELLENISTIC GREECE
CLASSICAL GREECE
BOTH
  • GREEK LANGUAGE
  • MYTHOLOGY AND HEROES
  • OLYMPIC GAMES
  • SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY
  • DRAMA

56
Greek Culture
  • Early Greek civilizations produced a golden age
    of new innovations in art, philosophy, science,
    theatre, and government that eventually became
    the core of Western Civilization.

57
Alexanders Influence
  • Alexander the Greats empire later spread this
    culture to Three continents. But the process of
    blending diverse elements from individual parts
    of the Hellenistic world changed Greek culture.

58
Hellenistic Culture- page 25
  • Alexander turned back from conquering India
  • Cause Running low on supplies, his troops
    refused to go further east--threatening mutiny.

59
More Hellenistic Culture
  • Alexander encouraged Greeks to settle in all
    parts of his empire
  • Cause Alexander wanted to spread Greek influence
    throughout his empire.

60
Alexander the Greats Empire left lasting
impressions on many parts of the world including
  • The Mediterranean World (Greece, Asia Minor,
    Syria)
  • Nile Valley (Egypt)
  • Middle East (Mesopotamia)
  • India (Indus River Valley)

61
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62
Spread of Hellenistic Culture
  • This helped spread Greek Hellenistic culture to
    these regions. The most important developments
    of Hellenistic culture included advances in
    Philosophy and Science. However, writers made
    lasting impressions that influence Western
    Civilization (Europe, Northern Africa, and the
    Middle East)

63
Economic classes of Hellenistic Greece
  • Very few wealthy aristocrats
  • An expanding middle class had opportunities to
    make money, usually through trade.
  • Poor free laborers did most of the work for the
    aristocrats.
  • Slaves still existed and had no rights.

64
Key ideas
  • Trading became a dominant force in Hellenistic
    society, connecting the Mediterranean World to
    India this helped Hellenistic Culture spread.
  • Largest city in the world Alexandria, built by
    Alexander the Great in Egypt, had a population of
    over one million.

65
Hellenistic Philosophers- pg. 26
  • School of Philosophy- Cynics
  • Founder- Diogenes
  • Beliefs- All people should seek virtue hated
    pleasure and wealth.

66
Hellenistic Philosophers again
  • School of Philosophy- Epicureanism
  • Founder- Epicurius
  • Beliefs- People should seek pleasure (eat, drink,
    and be merry)

67
Another Hellenistic Philosopher
  • School of Philosophy- Stoicism
  • Founder- Zeno
  • Beliefs- People should accept what nature has to
    offer and show little emotion.

68
Mathematics and Physics
  • Euclid- developed many theorems used in Geometry
    today.
  • Archimedes- calculated the value of pi.
  • Aristarchus- developed the idea that the earth
    traveled around the sun.

69
Mathematics and Physics continued
  • Hipparchus- used trigonometry and calculus to
    determine the time of eclipses.
  • Erastosthanes- calculated the earths diameter.

70
Fall of Greek city-states
  • Greek city-states lost their independence.
  • Cause city-states, except Sparta came under
    Macedonian rule when they were defeated at the
    Battle of Chaeronea.

71
Alexanders Rise to Power
  • Alexander became king of Macedon at age 20.
  • Cause His father was assassinated, and his
    rivals for the throne were killed.

72
Alexanders Conquests
  • Alexander destroyed the city of Thebes and sold
    its citizens into slavery.
  • Cause Thebes had rebelled against Alexander
    while he was away fighting and wished to punish
    the city of Thebes as an example for the rest of
    Greece.

73
The Legacy of Greece- page 27
  • Ancient Greece was a small country with limited
    natural resources. Although its military might
    also was limited compared to later empires, the
    people of the Greek city-states produced epic
    poetry, distinctive art forms, architecture,
    philosophy, science, and ideas about government
    that continue to influence the way people think,
    live, and govern themselves today.

74
Greek Civilization Government
  • Direct Democracy citizens rule by majority vote.
  • Written code of laws.
  • Citizens bring charges of wrongdoing trial by
    jury.
  • Expansion of citizenship to all free adult males,
    except foreigners.

75
Greek Civilization Arts
  • Drama and Poetry
  • Sculpture portraying ideals of beauty
  • Painted pottery showing scenes of Greek life
  • Classical architecture like the Old Courthouse

76
Greek Civilization Culture
  • Greek language
  • Slavery becomes an accepted practice.
  • Olympic Games
  • Philosophers search for truth

77
Greek Science and Technology
  • Disagreement whether the sun or earth was at the
    center of the universe.
  • Accurate estimate of the circumference of the
    earth.
  • Little scientific knowledge is applied.
  • Labor saving inventions would only help the
    slavessomething the Greeks did not think was
    necessary.

78
Todays Assignment- pages 28-30
STOP
Ancient Greece Unit Test next class period.
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