Ancient Greece - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Ancient Greece PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 71a882-NTFjY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Ancient Greece

Description:

Greek Advances in Science Thales of Miletus -1st great ... This obviously took advanced mathematics. More Greek Architecture Greek Military inventions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:128
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 61
Provided by: jcol155
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Ancient Greece


1
Ancient Greece
  • 500-323 B.C.E.

2
Question
  • What state in America is about the size of
    Greece?
  • What Geographical term refers to Greece? i.e.
    island, peninsula, strait.

3
How did geography play a part in how Greece
formed its culture?
4
Geography
  • Greece is a peninsula about the size of Louisiana
    in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Its very close to Egypt, the Persian empire
    (includes Turkey) and Rome.

5
Greek geography
  • Greece is mountainous
  • Greek communities often times developed
    independently because of the mountains, thus they
    were diverse
  • As a result, they fought each other a lot.

6
How does this isolation, this rugged geography
lead to the rise of technology?
7
Technology results from necessity
  • Since Greek coastal cities were sandwiched
    between the ocean and the sea, they developed an
    awesome navy for trading and fighting.

8
Technology results from scarcity
  • All cities need fresh water. This is a Greek
    aqueduct, basically a brick water pipe.
  • The first aqueduct was Assyrian, but most ancient
    societies had them.

9
Terracing saves water and soil in mountainous
environments
10
Other Greek Inventions
  • The Greeks invented dice.

11
The Greeks were the original Olympiads. Their
scientists studied the best way to perform
sportsthe first coaches?
12
Greek Invention
  • The Greeks invented the crane.

13
Greek Architecture
  • Greeks invented arches and columns.
  • This obviously took advanced mathematics.

14
More Greek Architecture
15
Greek Military inventions
  • This is a hoplite, a Greek infantry soldier.
  • Hoplites were middle-class freemen who had to pay
    for their own weapon and shield.

16
Greek Military inventions
  • This is a phalanx.
  • Soldiers get in a tight box. They each have a
    large shield and a 9 foot long spear.

17
Greek Military inventions
  • This is a catapult, a Greek invention.
  • The word Catapult comes from the Greek words kata
    and peltes. (Kata means downward and peltes
    describes a small shield ). Catapult means shield
    piercer.
  • It could throw 300 pound stones at walls,
    buildings, and people

18
Using Torque
  • The principle of torsion was probably discovered
    by inventors working in Macedonia under Philip II
    between 353 and 341 BC. There exists no hint of
    torsion catapults before Philip's reign.

19
Alexanders use of technology
  • Alexander the Great used catapults in a
    completely different way -- as covering
    artillery. Alexander's army carried smaller
    prefabricated catapults that weighed only 85
    pounds. Larger machines were dismantled and
    carried along in wagons. Major Greek cities
    adopted the use of catapults.
  • The use of catapults in the field is evidenced in
    one of Alexander's early battles in the Northern
    Marches of Macedon. At Pelion, Alexander, in a
    rare loss of the initiative had to retreat his
    army from a siege position around the town and
    cross a river to a defensive position in the
    foothills. Surrounded, Alexander lulled the
    barbarian army into watching his phalanx and
    cavalry maneuver on the plain outside of the
    city, then in a typical lightening move, he
    forced a crossing of the river creating a
    defensive bridgehead. He then set up some of his
    siege artillery to fire back across the river,
    over the heads of his own troops to cover their
    rear with a curtain of missiles as they crossed
    the river after disengaging with the enemy. This
    is the first reported use of siege artillery in
    the field as an assault weapon (in spite of the
    fact that it was used defensively). Alexander the
    Great and His Army

20
Alexanders close calls
  • In 334 BC Alexander the Great used at the siege
    of Halicarnassus heavy palintona. At Tyre he used
    arrow catapults and palintona against the wall
    fortifications. http//www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-b
    in/ptext?docPerseus3Atext3A1999.04.0009layout
    loc16.10.html
  • At the siege of Gaza in 332 BC. Alexander was
    wounded in the neck by a catapult arrow that had
    pierced both his shield and his breastplate.

21
Flamethrower!!!!!
22
Greek religion was polytheistic.
23
The need to Govern efficientlySo what is the
difference between the democracy of ancient
Athens and that of our democracy here today?
24
Political Athens was the first democracy.
  • Democracy type of government where people vote.
  • Well, actually, Athens was a direct democracy
    where people vote on everything.
  • The U.S. today is a representative democracy,
    where we vote for people to make decisions for
    us.

25
Direct participation was the key to Athenian
democracy. In the Assembly, every male citizen
was not only entitled to attend as often as he
pleased but also had the right to debate, offer
amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had
a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace.
Basically any thing that required a government
decision, all male citizens were allowed to
participate in.
Then again Athens was much smaller than the U.S.
today. Right?
26
Remember! If you think the U.S. is so much
better. . .
  • Some southern states did not let African
    Americans vote until the 1960s (Voting Rights Act
    1965)
  • Women could not vote in the U.S. until 1920 (19th
    Amendment)
  • Eighteen year olds could not vote until the late
    1970s.

27
Political terms
  • All of Greece wasnt a democracy.
  • Most of Greece was a monarchy a type of
    government ruled by a king or queen.
  • At right is Pericles, a good king of Athens.

28
So what kind of government did Sparta have?
29
Spartas type of government
  • Sparta was an isolated city-state that was
    culturally and politically different from Athens.
  • Sparta was an oligarchy, government ruled by a
    few. They had 2 kings.
  • During the Peloponnesian Sparta sacked Athens.

30
Sparta
  • Spartan society was obsessed with war.
  • Boys were sent to military school at a young age.
    Remember how young?
  • Boys who are born deformed are left to die where?

31
Athens
  • Athenians were tough but were encouraged to
    engage in activities like art, philosophy, music.

32
Alexander the Great
  • Alexander was not from Athens, but from?
  • Alexander was a brilliant military strategist.
    What are some specific examples that show this to
    be true?
  • His favorite book to read was?

33
Alexander conquered the Persian empire and
controlled the largest empire the world has ever
seen.
Its hot here
What are you looking here for?
34
What happens when cultures collide?
35
Alexander spread Hellenistic culture throughout
Asia.
  • Hellenistic is a fancy word for Greek-like
  • Alexander spread Greek technology and ideas
    throughout his empire

36
His new cities
  • Modeled on Athens
  • Temples, government buildings, theaters,
    gymnasiums
  • A central Agora
  • Corinthian columns
  • Greek governments, and festivals
  • Blends of local culture with Greek

37
Alexandria
  • He laid out each Alexandria in a specific
    pattern and had it combine architecture from the
    Greek and Persian worlds
  • Sketched it in the sand

Alexandria, Egypt today- note the mosques
38
Influence of Alexandria
  • Vast library- 700,000 volumes
  • Center of learning and culture for many years
  • The great lighthouse called the Pharos- 7th
    wonders of the world

39
The Roman Coliseum has a strong Hellenistic
influence.
40
What is a building in the USA that has a
Hellenistic influence?
41
Lincoln Memorial
42
After Alexanders Death
  • Decline of Athens as most important place
  • Aetolian League and Achaean League unite
  • Hellenistic Art
  • Great demand
  • Mass production of statutes
  • -Hellenistic art differs from the Golden Age
  • Realistic, emotional

43
The Laocoon
  • Hellenistic sculpture
  • Trojan priest and his two sons being attacked by
    a serpent
  • Painful expressions, realistic action and
  • movement

44
Hellenistic religion
  • Rise of foreign religious cults in Greece
  • Influx of Asian ideas
  • Old Greek religion had no moral code, no ideas
    about leading a better life
  • New religions point to more personal question on
    sin, how to get better, how to go to heaven
  • Many Greeks turn to Asian religions that have a
    mystical feel to them

45
Mystical religions
bust of Serapis
  • Many came from areas Alexander conquered
  • From Egypt- goddess Isis (women)
  • From Persia- god Mithras (soldiers)
  • Alexandria- Serapis invented by Ptolemy

Hades and Isis both deal with the afterworld so
this god was acceptable to Egyptians and Greeks
46
Quick review
  • 1. what do you call the merging of Greek and
    Persian cultures?
  • 2. What are three specific examples of how
    Alexander attempted to make a one world
    community in the lands he conquered?

47
Greek Advances in Science
  • Thales of Miletus
  • -1st great philosopher
  • Astronomy, math
  • 365 day calendar adopted from Egypt
  • world formed by natural causes
  • Science of nature- Physics

48
Anaximander
  • -Theory- world formed by large explosion,
    creatures started in ocean and moved to land.
  • -Drew the earliest known map of the world- Greece
    in middle, ocean all around.

49
Democritus- Atomic Theory
  • What is everything made up of?
  • Democritus said
  • tiny particles called
  • atoms

50
Pythagoras
  • -Theory- Pythagorean Theorem-
  • -Theory- Earth is center of the universe.
  • -Created seven note musical scale.

51
Heliocentric Theory
  • Anaxagoras-
  • -moon reflects light from Sun
  • Aristarchus- educated at Aristotles Lyceum
  • Sun the center
  • (not accepted until
  • 16 cent AD)
  • He accurately measured
  • size of sun, moon, and
  • distances from earth
  • The length of a year(only 7 minutes, 16 seconds
    off)

52
Aristotle Theophrastus
  • Supporter of scientific method
  • Ex. Dolphins mammals
  • Classified over 500 animals
  • Theophrastus- worked with Aristotles collections
  • Studied info and collections of Alexanders
    conquests

53
Geography
  • Eratosthenes
  • World is a sphere
  • Hipparchus
  • -created early grid-like patterns that we later
    turn into longitude and latitude lines
  • -charted starts

54
Ptolemy- Astronomy
  • History of early astronomers
  • Said Earth was stationary and center of universe
  • Arranged all known places on Earth with
    longitude and latitude

55
Archimedes
  • 1. Diameter of a circle
  • pi
  • 2. Mass of a body put into water- gold crown
    story
  • 3. Invented the water-screw used to lift water
    (see pg. 204)

56
Story of the Gold Crown
  • Is my crown made of more silver or gold?

57
Hippocrates
  • Looked for physical causes of illnesses- not
    religious reasons
  • Created school of medicine on island of Kos
  • Hippocratic Oath

58
Any questions before the quiz?
59
Greece Quiz
  • 1.What is Greeces political contribution to the
    political world (especially the United States)?
  • 2. How did geography influence Greeces economy
    and military technology?
  • 3. How did Hellenistic ideas spread throughout
    Asia?
  • 4. Describe an example of how necessity brings
    about technological change.
  • 5. Define monarchy
  • 6. Define oligarchy

60
This PowerPoint was kindly donated to
www.worldofteaching.com http//www.worldofteac
hing.com is home to over a thousand Powerpoints
submitted by teachers. This is a completely free
site and requires no registration. Please visit
and I hope it will help in your teaching.
About PowerShow.com