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Ancient Civilizations


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Title: Ancient Civilizations

Ancient Civilizations Rome2010
  • Gloucester Township Public Schools
  • Submitted by
  • C. Stephen Ingraham

  • Social Studies Block ___ Name
  • Ms. Holmes Mr. Ingraham
    Date _______
  • Ancient Rome Table of Contents
  • The Rome Song
  • Peninsula of Italy
  • Monarchy to Republic
  • The Path of Roman Conquest
  • Republic to Dictatorship
  • Rome Becomes an Empire
  • The Age of Augustus
  • Pride in Rome
  • Religion and the Roman Empire
  • The Rise of Christianity
  • Rome Reacts to the New Religion
  • The Decline of Rome

The Patricians founded Rome along the Tiber
river on the Italian peninsula. They elected
Senators Who elected two consuls And in case of
emergency And appointed a dictator for everyone
to see. Chorus Oh Roman artists copy
Greek Philosophy, writing, and art The Greek
and the Roman gods you cant tell them
apart. Gladiators fight to the death while
all the Romans cheer. Aqueducts will bring in
water if no waters near. The Patricians
excluded the Plebeians, but after they threaten
to leave, the Plebeians elected ten tribunes, who
had the veto power. Julius Caesar tried to help
the poor, but the Senate stabbed him in the
back. Even his best friend, Oh what do you think
of that?
The Rome Song By Mr. Ingraham Sung to Jingle
Octavian and Mark Anthony Divide up the Roman
empire, but Cleopatra loved Mark Anthony and they
decided to set up their own kingdom. Octavian
became Augustus after defeating them. He was
Romes first Emperor, but the citizens still
thought they had a Republic. Chorus Oh Roman
artists copy Greek Philosophy, writing, and art
The Greek and the Roman gods you cant tell
them apart. Gladiators fight to the
death while all the Romans cheer. Aqueducts
will bring in water if no waters near. Some
Hebrews thought that Jesus was the messiah. He
said he was Gods son His kingdom it would
come. The twelve apostles and St. Paul spread the
good news He had to say. Constantine painted
crosses on his shields and Christianity saved the
The Rome Song By Mr. Ingraham Sung to
Jingle Bells
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Performance Assessment
Romes Lasting Influence Students will research
and present a project on one of the many
contributions of ancient Rome. Some examples
include Roman Numerals, Tools, Trade,
Entertainment (Circus, Theater, Chariot Racing,
Gladiatorial Games, etc.), Public Baths,
Education, Foods, Housing, Legions, and Roads
etc. This project may be presented in a variety
of formats such as a PowerPoint, poster,
commercial, video, game, brochure, newspaper, or
other form approved by the teacher. The research
should include background information and make
connections to todays society. This project
should demonstrate how Rome has had a lasting
influence in the world. Additionally, students
will present their research to the class and
evaluate how the classroom projects show Romes
lasting influences.
Roman Vocabulary Governmental Terms
King- a ruler of a monarchy Patricians- the
social class of people who were the descendants
of Romes earliest settlers. Republic a type
of government when citizens elect leaders to make
all the decisions. Senate a council of
representatives elected to make laws. Consuls
two members of the senate elected to run the
daily affairs of Rome. Dictator a person
appointed in an emergency to rule with absolute
authority for six months. Plebeians the
social class of people made up of farmers,
workers, merchants, and craftworkers, whose
families came to Rome later. Tribunes- ten
special officials elected by the plebeians, who
could veto any law they didnt agree
with. Veto the right to refuse to
approve. Emperor- an absolute ruler of many
conquered lands and peoples. Provinces self
governing regions ruled by a Roman governor.
Roman Vocabulary 2
Forum - a public square Policies - the plans or
ideas of a leader. census a count of the people
of a country or empire. legions a large group
of well-trained soldiers (as many as 6,000
men). basilicas huge marble government
buildings. gladiators a slave or prisoner who
was forced to fight, often to the death. aqueduct
a stone bridge like canal which the Romans used
to carry water from far off rivers. messiah- a
wise, Jewish leader who would establish gods
kingdom on earth. crucifixion a type of
execution involving being nailed to a cross and
left to die. apostles- the twelve trusted
followers of Jesus. Gospels the good news
about Jesuss life written by his followers
after his death. Christianity the
religion of the followers of Jesus who believed
he was the messiah. Old Testament the first
part of the Bible and the same as the Jewish
Bible. New Testament the second part of the
Christian Bible telling of Jesuss teachings
and about his followers. martyrs people who
suffer or die for their beliefs.
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I. The Roman Republic
  • The Peninsula of Italy
  • 1. The Italian Peninsula looks like a long,
    high-heeled boot.
  • 2. It is less than 100 miles from _________ ___
  • 3. Halfway up the peninsula is the ___________
    flowing East to West
  • 4. Greater travel, trade, and communication
    within the peninsula is
  • possible, because _______________________
    ________________ .
  • 5. The peninsula has fertile soil, but few good
    _________, which
  • makes overseas trade and travel
  • 6. The ____________ mountains in the North
    isolates the peninsula
  • from the rest of Europe and the
    __________ mountain range in
  • the Northeast.
  • B. The Founding of Rome
  • 1. Around 1000 B.C.E. a people known as the
  • 2. They built villages along the _________
  • 3. Among seven hills a small farming village
    known as
  • ____________ developed.
  • a) physical features good soil rolling
  • b) natural resources stone wood
  • 4. The legend of the founding of Rome.

I. The Roman Republic
C. From Monarchy to Republic 1. In about 600
B.C. a neighboring trading people,
the____________ took control of Rome
and introduced Greek customs and ideas. 2. After
100 years the Romans rebelled against their
King Tarquin the Proud and started a new
type of government called a
___________________, where citizens elect leaders
to make all government decisions. 3.
The Romans called this council of representatives
called the ____________________. 4.
Two members of the Senate called
_______________ran the daily affairs of
Rome on behalf of the citizens. 5. In an
emergency a ________________ could be appointed
for six months, who had absolute
authority. 6. Roman society had two groups
a) ____________ were the descendents of Romes
earliest settlers b) _______________ were
the farmers, workers, merchants, and
craftworkers, whose families came to Rome later.
7. In 494 after the plebeians rebelled and
threatened to leave, They were allowed
to elect ten ________________ who had the right
to refuse to approve, or __________ any
law they did not agree with. 8. In 451 and 450
B.C. the Roman government began recording
its laws in a document called the ________
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I. The Roman Republic
D. The Path of Roman Conquest 1. By 274 B.C. the
Romans had conquered their neighbors and the
Italian peninsula was theirs. 2. Rome fought
three wars with ____________________
which are called the Punic Wars fought over sea
trade. a) Rome won the first Punic War. b)
Hannibal with soldiers and war elephants
attacked Rome, but a Roman general
__________________ attacked Carthage in
North Africa and forced Hannibal to
return. The 2nd war was a draw. c) In 146 B.C.
the 3rd war left Carthage in ruins and
its citizens were sold as ________________. 3.
Now Greece, Macedonia, and parts of Southwest
Asia were under ________________ control.
This area was divided into self-governing
regions called ________________.
I. The Roman Republic
E. From Republic to Dictatorship 1. Taxes from
the provinces and slaves made the
patricians richer, but the _________________
poorer. 2. Conflicts arose and after a civil
war, in 82 B.C. Lucius Sulla became a
_______________________. He ruled for three
years, not six months. 3. The Office of Consul
was restored, but in 59 B.C. one consul,
_________________________, formed an
army and captured Gaul (France). a) He became
governor of the province of Gaul. b) In 49 B.C.
he march upon Rome with his army. c) In 45
B.C. he declared himself _______ of all
Rome. d) He immediately made changes creating
laws to help the poor and gave
___________ to more people. e) In 44 B.C. on
March 15th he was stabbed to death
in the Roman Senate.
The End of the Roman Republic THE FIRST
TRIUMVIRATE 60 B.C.E. Formed by three important
politicians and generals, Pompey, Crassus,
Julius Caesar 53 B.C.E. Crassus killed (Battle of
Carrhae) 48 B.C.E. Pompey killed in Egypt (Battle
of Pharsalus) 46-44 B.C.E. Caesar becomes
dictator of Rome. THE SECOND TRIUMVIRATE 43
B.C.E. Formed by three important politicians and
generals, Marc Anthony, Lepidus, Octavian
Caesar 36 B.C.E. Lepidus accused of usurping
power rebellion. He is forced into
exile. 31 B.C.E. Marc Anthony Cleopatra VII of
Egypt defeated (the battles of Actium
Alexandria) They commit suicide. 27 B.C.E.
Augustus (Octavian) becomes emperor of Rome. The
Roman Republic has Ended.
II. The Roman Empire
A. Rome Becomes An Empire 1. With no real leader
Romans gathered daily in Romes
______________, or public Square, and listened to
the plans, or ________________ of people
wanting to be the leader. 2. Octavian
and Mark Anthony divide up the Roman lands. 3.
Mark Anthony falls in love with an Egyptian
Queen, __________, and they plan to set
up their own kingdom. 4. In 31 B.C. Octavian
defeats them in a great sea battle and he
gains absolute leadership of all Roman lands. 5.
In 27 B.C. the Roman Senate names him Augustus
or _______________________________________
_______. 6. Augustus Caesar becomes Romes
first ______________________, but he
made sure his government still seemed
to be a representative republic.
Roman Dictatorship Citizens Julius
Caesar and later emperors sieze control and
rule with absolute power
Emperor or Dictator
Roman Senate carried out the wishes of the
About 500 BCE The Romans Overthrew their
Etruscan Kings And set up a Republic
II. The Roman Empire
B. The Age of Augustus 1. Augustus was such a
strong leader that it brought about 200
years of peace known as ________________. a)
The empire grew two and a half million sq.
miles. b) He choose the people for top
government jobs. c) He made more men eligible
for _________________. d) He created laws that
were more equal and fair. (All are innocent
till proven guilty and people could not be
forced to speak in court against themselves.) 2.
The Romans created the idea of a count of a
countrys people or a
____________________ for tax purposes. 3. The
Romans also created a ______________, or armies
of 6,000 well trained men. a) keep out
enemy invaders b) to keep peace among
citizens. c) to build roads.
II. The Roman Empire
C. Pride in Rome 1. Augustus wanted the city of
Rome to be greater. So he had built in the
center of Rome huge government buildings called
_______________________. 2 New temples and
building arose and the influence of
____________ culture could be seen in every
building. a) straight columns and beams b)
arches they borrowed from the ________________.
3. The largest entertainment arena was the
___________ where as many as 50,000 Romans
could watch slaves and prisoners, or
___________________, fight to the death. 4.
The Romans also built bridges and canals called
_______________ to carry water from distance
rivers. D. Literature, Arts, and Language 1.
Rome was the Leader, but Romans looked to
_____________for cultural ideas and copied
its art, writing styles, and philosophy. 2.
Augustus asked Roman artists and writers to
create works that would bring out
____________ feelings and glorify Rome. a) the
Poet Virgil wrote the Aeneid an early story of
Rome. b) The language of _____________ became
used in all the Roman province for
government and education.
III. The Beginnings of Christianity
A. Religion and the Roman Empire 1. Augustus
Caesar was not only a ruler of an empire, but
a leader of religion. They worshipped many
gods. a) ____________ was the oldest. b)
____________ the god of war c) ____________ The
goddess of harvest farming. d) ____________
The god of beginnings endings. 2. The Romans
accepted the beliefs of other peoples. Often
only the names were changed. Greek Goddess Hera
becomes ____________. Greek God Zeus becomes
__________________. 3. The Romans believed that
harm would come to the empire if people did
not respect the Roman gods. 4. The Romans
allowed the ___________ people in the
providence of Judaea to follow their own
religious leaders, laws, and teachers.
III. The Beginnings of Christianity
B. The Rise of Christianity 1. Judaism
believed that a ___________________, or wise
leader would come to establish gods
kingdom on earth. 2. During King Herods time
it was reported that a Jewish teacher
Jesus, who claimed to be Gods son was performing
miracles. 3. Roman and Jewish leaders began to
worry when some of Jesus followers thought
he was the messiah. 4. In about 30 A.D. Jesus
was executed by ____________, or being
nailed to a cross and left to die. 5. Twelve
trusted followers, or _____________________,
claimed that Jesus rose after being dead
3 days. They spread the belief of this
resurrection throughout the Roman Empire. 6.
This new religion became _____________________.
The life of Jesus Christus was written
in the _______________________. 7. In the New
Testament Jesuss life and actions are called the
good news, or ________________, and
were written by his followers Matthew,
Mark, Luke, and John. 8. This was added to the
Jewish first part of the Bible called the
III. The Beginnings of Christianity
C. Rome Reacts To The New Religion 1. The
Roman officials feared the growth of Christianity
a threat. 2. They arrested, persecuted, or
mistreated Christians who refused to
worship Roman gods. 3. Many early Christians
became _________________, or people who
suffer or die for their beliefs. 4. Romans are
impressed by their sacrifice and become
__________. D. Constantine Accepts Christianity
1. As Christianity was growing stronger,
_______________ ___________________________
was growing weaker. 2. The empire is expensive
and increased taxes causes hardships. 3.
Outsiders attacked the empire. a) invaders
attacked from the north. b) Persians tried to
seize Roman lands in ________________. c) The
_______________ raided Roman lands in North
Africa. 4. Emperors governed badly and lose
the citizens respect. 5. Many citizens had
never been to Rome and even the soldiers felt
little loyalty to Rome. Instead they were
loyal to their ___________. 6. In 312 A.D. two
Roman generals wanted to be emperor. 7.
Constantine was not a Christian, but he had a
vision. He had crosses painted on his
soldiers shields and won the battle.
Christianity becomes accepted.
III. The Beginnings of Christianity
E. The Decline Of Rome 1. Constantine felt
that Rome as a capital was too far from the
center of things and unsafe. 2. He choose a new
capital Byzantium which was renamed
_____________________________, or city of
Constantine in 330 A.D. 3. In 410 A.D. the
___________________ crossed the Alps and
attacked the city of Rome. 4. Rome was a capital
no longer, but it was the headquarters
of the ________________ ____________. 5. The
Roman Empire split apart. a) The eastern part
of the former empire would keep Roman ways
alive for centuries. b) The western part broke
into small _____________.
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II. Life in the Roman Republic
A. Education 1.Before the age of seven,
mothers taught their sons and daughters.
After seven the girls were taught to spin,
weave, and sew. 2. After seven the boys came
under the control of their fathers. The
father decided what their son needed to know
to be successful in life. a) Roman law,
history, and customs. b) physical training c)
preparation for war d) reverence for the
gods. 3. Boys learned by example and accompanied
their father on all important
occasions. 4. Only the wealthy families could
afford a fully bi-lingual education. Their
sons had to learn Greek because it was
the International language.
II. Life in the Roman Republic
B. Housing in Rome 1.Before the Roman Empire
expanded to the East private houses, or
domus were small simple designs. 2. The
Patricians became wealthier as money poured into
Rome as the Empire grew. a) their house
became immense adorned with columns,
painting, and statues. b) slave quarters were
added or expanded 3. The Plebeians became poorer
as the number of slaves in Rome
increased. Many were forced to live in
insulas or apartment houses owned by
Patrician landlords. a. Three stories high
around an open courtyard. b. built originally
of timber mud brick, but later fired brick
and concrete. c. Apartments outnumber domus
style houses 25 to 1.
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