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Ancient Greece

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Title: Ancient Greece


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Ancient Greece
  • Its all Greek to me?

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Greek Contributions
  • Olympics
  • Democracy
  • Trial by Jury
  • Theatre- comedy, tragedy, history
  • Medicine
  • Mythology

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Ancient Olympics
  • 1st recorded Olympic year was in 776 B.C.
  • Started as a religious ceremony honoring the
    Greek God Zeus
  • Held at city-state Olympia
  • Held for about 5 days every 4 years
  • Only Greeks could compete
  • All Wars stopped
  • Events were held in nude after 776

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  • If a person committed a crime they could not
    compete
  • Women had different sites to compete
  • Athletes had to qualify at city-state Elis
  • City-States chose their athletes
  • Day One Footraces
  • Day Two Pentathlon
  • Day Three Boxing
  • Day Four Wrestling
  • Day Five Pancreation
  • Prizes and Closing Ceremonies
  • Winners won wreath of olive leaves
  • Riches awaited the winners win the got back to
    the city state
  • Olympics ended by Romans in 394 A.D.

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ACHILLES
  • SON OF PELEUS A MORTAL KING AND THETIS, A SEA
    NYMPH
  • DIPPED BY THETIS IN THE RIVER STIX MAKING HIM
    INVULNERABLE, EXCEPT HIS HEEL
  • GREATEST WARRIOR OF AGAMENONS ARMY
  • WILL BE KILLED BY PARIS

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TROJAN WARS
  • In Greek mythology, war between Greeks and
    Trojans. The Trojans. The war's final year forms
    the main part of Homer's Iliad. It began when
    Paris abducted Helen, wife of Menelaus.      
    Helen (Helen of Troy) was the daughter of Leda
    and Zeus and was reputed to be the most beautiful
    woman mortal in the world.       The Trojan War
    was a fierce battle in which The Greeks besieged
    Troy for nine years. They finally won when,
    pretending to depart, they left a wooden horse,
    which the Trojans took into the city. Warriors
    hidden in the horse opened the city gates to the
    Greek army, which sacked Troy.
  •       All the men and male children were put to
    death. The females were captured as slaves.      
    The Trojan War probably reflected a real war
    c.1200 B.C. over control of trade in the
    Dardanelles.                  

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Greek Religion
  • The Greeks had many gods in their religion
  • Zeus was the supreme god
  • They all lived on Mt. Olympus
  • Other main gods were Apollo, Athena, Aphrodite,
    Eres, Poseidon, and Hades.
  • All souls went to Hades
  • Some Greeks prayed to local gods rather than Mt.
    Olympus.
  • Greeks were not really united by religion

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  • Aphrodite - Goddess of love, romance, and beauty.
    Her son was Eros, god of Love (though he is not
    an Olympian.)Apollo - Beautiful god of the sun,
    light, medicine, and music.Ares - Dark god of
    war who loves Aphrodite.Artemis - Independent
    goddess of the hunt, the forest, wildlife,
    childbirth, and the moon. Sister to
    Apollo.Athena - Daughter of Zeus and goddess of
    wisdom, war, and crafts. Sometimes spelled
    "Athene".Demeter - Goddess of agriculture and
    mother of Persephone (again, her offspring is not
    considered to be an Olympian.) Hephaestus - Lame
    god of fire and the forge.
  • Sometimes spelled Hephaestus. The Hephaestion
    near the Acropolis is the most beautifully
    preserved ancient temple in Greece. Mated to
    Aphrodite.Hera - Wife of Zeus, protector of
    marriage, familiar with magic.Hermes - The
    speedy messenger of the gods, god of business.
    The Romans called him Mercury.Hestia - Calm
    goddess of home and home life, symbolized by the
    hearth which holds the continually-burning
    flame.Poseidon - God of the sea, horses, and of
    earthquakes.Zeus - Supreme lord of gods, god of
    the sky, symbolized by the thunderbolt

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  • No other city has contributed more to the
    civilization of mankind than Athens. It is the
    place where Socrates was born, Plato, Aeschylus,
    Sophocles, Euripides and many others. It is the
    place that humanism and democracy were born. The
    intellectual light that Athens created will
    always be alive.

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Spartan Training
  • When a child was born it was judged within 3 days
    if it would be healthy or unhealthy
  • If unhealthy baby would be taken to junkyard and
    thrown to wolves
  • At age 7 girls start training at home and boys go
    to Palestra, a community training center.
    Introduced to rigorous training
  • At Age 10 boys began to compete in public. Also
    beating began. Beaten for 5 hours on their
    birthday until 16. If you made any sound you were
    executed on the spot

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Spartan Training
  • Age 12-18 intensive training in running,
    shooting, etc. Hand to hand combat emphasized
  • Age 18 Young Spartans join secret police to kill
    any slaves who might rebel
  • Ages 19-24 Frontline Soldiers
  • If soldier did not bring shield home it was a
    considered a disgrace
  • Age 24-30 Defended Sparta around
    city-state area
  • Ages 30-60 In reserve duty.
    Could be arrested if not in shape
  • 60 Served Spartan government

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Persian Wars
  • The Persians and Greeks were fighting because of
    land expansion
  • Greeks expanding toward Persians and Persians
    expanding toward Greeks
  • There were three different occasions when the
    Persians attacked the Greeks
  • 1st Persian War 492 BC was Darius wanted to
    attack Athens but ½ of his navy went off the
    coast of Thrace. When he demanded bag of water
    and dirt from the city states they ignored him

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  • Persian tactics were to let the enemy get close
    and then bury them with a barrage of arrows
  • Athenians and Spartans favored close quarter
    fighting with long, heavy spears, sword, and
    shield

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Persian Wars
  • 2nd Persian War 490 BC Darius put 48,000 men on
    ships and planned to attack Greece
  • Fighting raged for 8 days, then on the 9th day
  • At the Plains of Marathon 10,000 Athenians met
    him and were outnumbered 2-1, Persians thought
    they were mad
  • In 5 hours the Athenians completely mutilated
    Persians
  • 6400 Dead Persians, only 192 Athenian deaths
  • Sent Pheidippides the greatest runner in Greece
    to run and tell Athens theyd won. He fell dead
    at 26 miles after delivering the message from
    heat exhaustion and fighting.

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Persian Wars
  • 3rd Persian War 480 BC
  • Xerxes, son of Darius, intended to get the larges
    army ever, 250,000 across the sea
  • At Thermopylae a group of Greeks were to hold the
    pass
  • The main part of this alliance was King Leonidus
    and 300 Spartans. After a few days of fighting
    King Leonidus told the other Greeks to leave.
  • They were successful for three days but then
    Xerxes sent his troops through a secret pass to
    surround the Spartans

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Persian Wars
  • The Spartans were finally overtaken
  • This battle destroyed the moral of the Persian
    troops
  • Athens was evacuated to Salamis a nearby island
  • Athens was burned and 2/3 was destroyed
  • Xerxes sent his navy into destroy the Greeks but
    the Greeks had superior boats and destroyed the
    Persian navy.
  • The result of these Wars is that the Greek way of
    life was preserved such as democracy and voting.
    If Persians won our way of life would be
    different.

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Battle of Salamis
  • Greatest naval battle of Persian Wars
  • Greeks lead by Themistocles
  • Persians outnumbered Greeks 3-1
  • Larger Greek ships and close quarter (Greeks
    could swim) fighting would lead to the downfall
    of the Persian fleet as Xerxes watched from a
    nearby hill
  • Xerxes army flees to Plataea and in 479 bc they
    are defeated again and Greece enters its Golden
    Age

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Peloponnesian War
  • ELEPHANT VS. WHALE
  • Sparta vs. Athens lasted for 27 years
  • Best WarriorsSparta
  • Good Warriors and BIG Population Athens
  • Neither side got upper hand until a plague hit
    Athens killing 60 of population
  • Sparta won
  • War ends Greek unity and went back to separate
    and independent city-states

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KNOW THY SELFORACLE AT DELPHI
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Greek Philosopher
  • Socrates
  • 469-399 B.C. Athens
  • Great Teacher and philosopher never took money
    for teachings.
  • Method of teachings was constantly ask questions
    because it stimulates discussion
  • Know thyself was most famous quote
  • He got in trouble for corrupting the people, as
    he constantly questioned traditions and
    criticized Peloponnesian War
  • Trail of Socrates 501 men on jury Found guilty of
    treason and gave him three choices
  • 1 Apologize
  • 2 Move
  • 3 Death by Hemlock he chose this
  • Socrates did not write much so we know him by his
    students

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Greek Philosophers
  • Plato
  • Socrates most famous student wrote The Republic
    ideal world. Wrote down own ideas with Socrates
    influence
  • One of first written works to argue for equal
    rights for women
  • Aristotle
  • Studied under Plato
  • The most divers well rounded of the three
  • Father of Biology
  • Wrote Politics
  • Taught Alexander the Great
  • Patience is virtue Moderation

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Greek Writers
  • Homer
  • Blind and had someone write for him
  • Wrote Illiad and The Odyssey
  • Herodotus
  • Father of History
  • Wrote about 3 Persian Wars biased toward Greeks
  • Thucydidas
  • Wrote about the Peloponnesian War
  • Objective and tried to be accurate

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Famous Greeks
  • Pericles
  • Leader of Athens for 31 years between 460-429 BC
  • Golden Age of Athens
  • Greece was strong and united
  • Philip II of Macedonia 350 BC
  • Attacked Persia and brought Greek city-states
    under his control. Took 1/3 of them
  • Alexander the Great
  • 256-323 BCMacedonian
  • Finished fathers job and conquered Greece and
    Persia
  • Died at age of 33 from malaria
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