The Enlightenment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Enlightenment PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 67d645-ODA2N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Enlightenment

Description:

Title: Introduction to the Age of the Enlightenment Author: Great Valley High School Last modified by: Kim Barben Created Date: 12/16/2005 4:11:51 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:36
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 15 October 2019
Slides: 148
Provided by: GreatVall63
Learn more at: http://www.gvsd.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Enlightenment


1
The Enlightenment
2
Introduction to the Age of the Enlightenment
  • 18th Century Europe
  • England and France

3
The Enlightenment
The Age of Reason
4
What do you think the lightbulb represents?
5
Defining the Enlightenment
6
  • Age of Reason
  • (18th century Enlightenment)
  • Natural laws apply to government as well as
    science!
  • Rights to Life, Liberty, and Property
  • A FAIR society is based on REASON, not Divine
    Right

REVOLUTION!!!
7
The Age of Reason
  • Scientific Revolution convinced many European
    thinkers about power of reason
  • Scientific method and reason led to discoveries
    about physical world
  • Wondered if reason could be used to study human
    nature, society
  • New generation of philosophers, 1600s
  • Viewed reason as best way to understand truth
  • Concluded reason could be used to solve all human
    problems
  • This time of optimism now called the
    Enlightenment

8
What is the Enlightenment?
  • THE ENLIGHTENMENT OCCURRED B/W 1650 -1789
  • Thinkers believed reason could be used to uncover
    the laws that govern human life
  • Once the laws were known people could make
    society better
  • Believed that reason was a much better guide than
    faith or tradition

Reason is the light that reveals human error
and showed the way to truth
9
Defining the Enlightenment Everything was
Questioned!
  • What society worked best?
  • Why were laws unjust?
  • How did the universe operate?
  • Was there a God?
  • Was the Earth really 4,000 years old?
  • Were there natural laws that governed people?
  • Who had the power to rule?
  • How did the human mind work?

10
Defining The Age of Enlightenment
  • A period of intellectual exchange in Europe
    during the 18th century
  • Belief in the idea of progress
  • A desire for political and social change

11
Defining the Enlightenment
  • These thinkers believed that human reason could
    be used to combat ignorance, superstition, and
    tyranny and to build a better world.

12
Pair-Share
  • For the Symbol Column, what would be THREE
    different ideas for symbols for the
    Enlightenment?
  • Discuss and choose the one you like best.
  • Draw it in.

13
Beliefs of the Enlightenment
14
Beliefs
  • Belief in Progress
  • Through reason a better society was possible
  • through progress we would continue to expand our
    knowledge in the sciences
  • Secular Outlook
  • More worldly view of life
  • church is continuing to lose power
  • questioning of all church beliefs
  • Importance Of the Individual
  • own ability to reason
  • importance of the in society
  • Individual achievement

15
Beliefs
  • Belief in the supremacy of reason over pleasure
    conviction that humans could perfect society
    through the application of the intellect to human
    affairs
  • Science takes its place for the first time

16
Beliefs
  • The intellectuals of the Enlightenment (called
    Philosophes) believed
  • The universe could be understood through reason
  • Everything in nature could be explained by
    natural lawsuniversal truths found through
    observation (Religion is not necessary to
    understand the world)

17
Beliefs
  • The belief in progressthe world can be improved
    upon perfected
  • People have natural rightspersonal freedoms that
    allow people to enjoy liberty (no restrictions on
    speech, religion, or the economy)

18
Central Concepts of the Enlightenment
  • A. The methods of natural science should be used
    to understand all aspects of life - through the
    use of REASON
  • B. Discover the natural laws of human society as
    well as the natural world (social science)
  • C. The idea of progress - The confidence in human
    power, human reason to improve society

19
Central concepts of the Enlightenment cont
Reason
  • D. Rejection of superstition and tradition
  • E. Tolerance and equality
  • F. Deism - God does not intervene in the world
    through miracles he created the world, and then
    removed himself from it

20
Pair Share Activity
  • a period of intellectual growth that led to the
    development of new ideas on society, government,
    philosophy, economics, and religion.
  • marks the beginning of the modern world.
  • Can be captured in the words of Immanuel Kant
    Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own
    understanding is therefore the motto of the
    Enlightenment.
  • Turn to your partner and discuss
  • What do you think this motto means?
  • Does this motto relate to our world today?
  • Why or why not?

21
Why do you think the man is naked, out in nature,
and also working on geometry with the protractor?
22
Knowledge is Power!
  • This year thus far we have learned about how the
    Catholic Church and Absolute Monarchs saw new
    ideas and education as threats to be suppressed.
    WHY?
  • How does this tie in the Enlightenment?

23
Defining The Enlightenment
  • Principal targets Religion and the domination of
    society by hereditary aristocracy.
  • In other words, the church and the state, who
    often worked hand-in-hand.

24
Major Enlightenment Ideas
  • Every social, political and economic problem
    could be solved through the use of reason
  • Governments are created to secure an orderly
    society
  • Separation of powers is the best way to protect
    human liberties
  • All men are created free and equal
  • A free market should be allowed to regulate trade

25
Enlightenment Thinkers
The market price of every particular commodity is
regulated by the proportion between the quantity
which is actually brought to market, and the
demand of those who are willing to pay the
natural price of the commodity or the whole value
of the rent, labor and profit which must be paid
in order to bring it thither.
In republican governments, men are all equal
equal they are also in despotic governments in
the former, because they are everything in the
latter, because they are nothing.
Baron de Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws Bk. VI,
Ch.2
The reason why men enter into society is the
preservation of their property, and putting
themselves under government, is the preservation
of their property.
Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations Vol.I, bk.1,
ch.7
John Locke Second Treatise of Government ChXIX,
Of the Dissolution in Government
26
(No Transcript)
27
Causes/Origins of the Enlightenment
28
Causes and Effects of the EnlightenmentAmerica
Europe
  • Causes
  • Religious Fanaticism
  • Witch trials
  • Beginning of a merchant classaka bourgeoisie
  • Landed Aristocracy
  • Monarchies
  • Church State united
  • Church Truth
  • Effects
  • Deismnatural law
  • Rise of merchant classaka bourgeoisie
  • Science/Logic/Reason Truth
  • Rise of philosophers
  • Revolution x 3
  • The perfect society
  • Separation of Church State
  • Democracy

29
Causes Influence of the Ancients and Medieval
Philosophers
30
Origins of the Enlightenment Background in
Antiquity
  • The application of Aristotelian logic by Thomas
    Aquinas, Scholasticism, in the 13th century set
    the stage for the Enlightenment.

31
Origins of the Enlightenment Ancients Used
Logic to Defend Dogma
  • Aristotles logical procedures were used to
    defend the dogmas of Christianity.
  • Unfortunately for the Catholic Church, the tools
    of logic could not be confined to Church matters.

32
Cause Renaissance
33
Origins of the Enlightenment Renaissance
  • From sciences, ideas of nature surfaced-
  • study not only gravity or the circulatory system,
    but also human behavior
  • New sciences of psychology and politics were
    developed-
  • Social Sciences political science, geography,
    sociology, history, civics, economics, etc
  • Advocates of Enlightenment claim governing laws
    dictate human nature, society and politics

34
The EnlightenmentEarly Forms
  • Renaissance Humanists (14th 15th cent.)
  • Argued that proper worship of God involved
    admiration of his creation, notably His crown of
    creations humanity.
  • Celebrating humans worships God better than
    gloomy priests who preached original sin and
    repentance
  • Galileo Galilei (1632)
  • Used logic and observation to argue that earth
    rotates around sun
  • The Church (possessor of Truth) forced him to
    recant, objecting that Bible clearly stated that
    the sun moved through the sky.
  • Led to the advancement of scienceIsaac Newton

35
Origins of the Enlightenment The Renaissance
Humanists
  • In the 14th and 15th centuries, "humanists
    celebrated the human race and its capacities.
  • They argued they were worshipping God more
    appropriately than the priests and monks who
    harped on original sin and asked people to humble
    themselves.

36
Origins of the Enlightenment Renaissance
Focused on Mans Creativity
  • Some of them claimed that humans were like God,
    created not only in his image, but with a share
    of his creative power. The painter, the
    architect, the musician, and the scholar, by
    exercising their intellectual powers, were
    fulfilling divine purposes.

37
Renaissance Thinker
  • Michel de Montaigne (16th Century)
  • Asked What do I know?
  • We have no right to impose other dogmas which
    rest on cultural habit rather than absolute Truth
  • New World new cultures
  • Morals may be relative
  • If we cannot be certain that our values are
    God-given, then we have no right to impose them
    by force on others
  • Popes and kings had no right to enforce adherence
    to particular religious or philosophical beliefs
  • Doubt is essential to sciencetest, challenge,
    askto get closer to truth. Authority is
    sciences enemy

38
Origins of the Enlightenment Renaissance
Challenged Church Authority
  • In the 16th century, various humanists had begun
    to ask dangerous questions.
  • François Rabelais, a French monk and physician
    influenced by Protestantism, challenged the
    Church's authority, ridiculing many religious
    doctrines as absurd.

39
(No Transcript)
40
Cause Scientific Revolution
41
Origins of the Enlightenment The Scientific
Revolution
If I have seen farther than others, said
Newton, it is because I have stood on the
shoulders of giants. Who were the giants to whom
Newton was referring? Could this be said of any
scientific accomplishment? Explain.
1
Giants were Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Yes,
scientific discoveries give scientists a clearer
understanding of how the world works. New
discoveries lead to further questions for
investigation and more discoveries.
42
(No Transcript)
43
  • During the Scientific Revolution, people began to
    believe that the scientific method allowed them
    to find answers to their questions
  • As a result, new ideas began in areas outside of
    science
  • Especially criticizing absolute monarchy think
    of new ideas about government

44
Scientific Revolution Leads to Enlightenment
  • 1500-1700 European scientists using reason to
    discover laws of nature
  • Very successful Planetary movements, chemistry,
    vaccine for smallpox, etc.
  • Early 1700s If people used reason to find laws
    that governed the physical world, why not use
    reason to discover natural laws?
  • Laws that govern human nature
  • Reformers begin studying human nature and
    societal problems

45
(No Transcript)
46
Cause Economic Changes
47
  • Political Economic Background
  • Wealth from Asia Americas catapulted a new
    class of merchants into prominence, partially
    displacing the aristocracy whose power had been
    rooted in land ownership
  • These bourgeoisie had their own ideas about the
    worldmain agents of change in the arts,
    government, and the economy
  • Naturally convinced that their earnings were
    result of their individual merit and hard work
  • Absolutist kings and dogmatic churches were the
    biggest obstacle to change for the merchant class

48
Origins of the Enlightenment Economic Change
  • During the late Middle Ages, peasants had begun
    to move from rural estates to the towns in
    search of increased freedom and prosperity.

49
Origins of the Enlightenment Economic and
PoliticalChange
  • As trade and communication improved during the
    Renaissance, the ordinary town-dweller began to
    realize that things need not always go on as they
    had for centuries. People could write new
    charters, form new governments, pass new laws,
    begin new businesses.

50
Cause Social Changes
51
Origins of the Enlightenment Economic and Social
Changes
  • Wealth from Asia Americas catapulted a new
    class of merchants into prominence, partially
    displacing the aristocracy whose power had been
    rooted in land ownership
  • These bourgeoisie had their own ideas about the
    worldmain agents of change in the arts,
    government, and the economy
  • Naturally convinced that their earnings were
    result of their individual merit and hard work
  • Absolutist kings and dogmatic churches were the
    biggest obstacle to change for the merchant class

52
Origins of The Enlightenment Social Class
Changes
  • Most important, the middle classesthe
    bourgeoisiewere painfully aware that they were
    paying taxes to support a fabulously expensive
    aristocracy that contributed nothing of value to
    society.

53
Origins of the Enlightenment Social Class
Changes
  • They were naturally convinced that their earnings
    were the result of their individual merit and
    hard work, unlike the inherited wealth of
    aristocrats.
  • The ability of individual effort to transform the
    world became a European dogma, lasting to this
    day.

54
Origins of the Enlightenment Social
ChangesImpoverished Masses
  • They were to find ready allies in France among
    the impoverished masses who realized that they
    were paying higher and higher taxes to support
    the lifestyle of the idle rich at Versailles.

55
Origins of the Enlightenment Social---Role of
the Aristocrats
  • Interestingly, it was among those very idle
    aristocrats that the French Enlightenment
    philosophers were to find some of their earliest
    and most enthusiastic followers.

56
Pair Share Activity
  • For the all the causes covered up to this point,
    review your Powerpoint and Reading Notes and make
    any corrections.
  • Then come up with symbols for each of the causes
    and draw them.

57
Cause Political and Religious Repression and
Persecution
58
(No Transcript)
59
Origins of the Enlightenment Political and
Religious Repression
  • The 17th century was torn by witch-hunts, wars of
    religion, and imperial conquest.

60
Religion Persecution
  • The 17th century scene Dogma Fanaticism
  • Witch-hunts and wars of religion
  • Protestants Catholics denounced each other as
    followers of Satan
  • People imprisoned for attending wrong church
  • All publications censored by church and state
  • Slavery widely practiced, defended by religious
    leaders
  • Despotism of monarchsdivine right of kings
  • Any opposition was imprisoned or executed
  • Reason and Logic had no room for these matters

61
Origins of the Enlightenment Religious
Intolerance
  • Protestants and Catholics denounced each other as
    followers of Satan and people could be imprisoned
    for attending the wrong church or for not
    attending any.

62
Origins of the Enlightenment Censorship
  • All publications, whether pamphlets or scholarly
    volumes, were subject to prior censorship by both
    church and state.

63
Origins of the Enlightenment Despotism
  • The despotism of monarchs exercising far greater
    powers than any medieval king was supported by
    the doctrine of the "divine right of kings," and
    scripture quoted to show that revolution was
    detested by God.

64
Pair Share Activity
  • For under examples, select one of the two
    following primary source quotes to write down and
    analyze with your partner.
  • What is the philosophe saying in modern day
    English?

65
  • The individual who persecutes another because
    he is not of the same opinion is nothing less
    than a monster.
  • Voltaire

66
If mens minds were as easily controlled as
their tongues, every king would sit safely on his
throne, and government by compulsion would cease.
  • Baruch Spinoza
  • 1670

67
Cause Exploration
68
Origins of the Enlightenment Exploration and
Slavery
  • Slavery was widely practiced, especially in the
    colonial plantations of the Western Hemisphere,
    and its cruelties frequently defended by leading
    religious figures..

69
Origins of The Enlightenment Exploration
  • The Impact of Travel Literature
  • Captain James Cook, Travels
  • Literature on China

70
Diderots Views on Mankind
  • Attacked slavery and colonialism- We are a free
    people and now you have planted in our country
    the title deeds of our future slavery. You are
    neither god nor demon who are you, then, to make
    slaves? Orou! You understand the language of
    these men, tell us all, as you have told me, what
    they have written on this sheet of metal 'This
    country is ours.' This country yours? And why?
    Because you have walked thereon? If a Tahitian
    landed one day on your shores, and scratched on
    one of your rocks or on the bark of your trees
    'This country belongs to the people of Tahiti' -
    what would you think?" (from Supplement to
    Bougainville's Voyage)

71
The Age of Enlightenment in Europe
72
Five Key Ideas of the Enlightenment
73
  • Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in
    chains.
  • Rousseau

What are examples of things that are enslaving
uswhat aspects of society according to
Rousseau? Give historical and current examples!
74
Five Key Ideas of the Enlightenment
  • The five important philosophical concepts are
  • Reason
  • Nature
  • Happiness
  • Progress
  • Liberty

75
Five Key Ideas of the Enlightenment
  • Urged the use of
  • Reason absence of intolerance, bigotry or
    prejudice in ones thinking beliefs should be
    rational and free of biases
  • Nature natural laws exist w/out mans creation
    what was natural was good and reasonable God is
    found in nature
  • Happiness a person who lives by natures law
    finds happiness argued against medieval notion
    that people should accept misery as part of
    lifes circle Philosophes believed in well-being
    on earth
  • Progress Philosophes believed individuals could
    seek perfection and in return, society seek
    perfection looked at human being as capable of
    progress, making something better
  • Liberty freedoms should not be merely granted,
    but expected beliefs that we are born with
    liberties in nature

76
Reason
77
Reason
  • Belief in logic and science.
  • Supported the application of the scientific
    method to all aspects of society.
  • Government should be based on reason.
  • It was a period of questioning---led to the
    development of Political Science.
  • Importance of education and knowledge
  • a)an understanding of human nature and how to
    apply that knowledge
  • b)knowledge would conquer fear, superstition,
    and prejudice
  • c)knowledge was key to improving society

78
Reason
  • Truth can be discovered through reason (logical
    thinking).
  • Reason unbiased thinking open to new ideas

79
Reason
  • Enlightenment philosophers combined logic and
    reason
  • Logic formal logic is the process(es) by which
    an argument can be determined as valid or not. An
    argument is valid if the premises are all true,
    then the conclusion must also be true.
  • Example All humans have heart. Tom is a human.
    Therefore, Tom has a heart.
  • Reason Enlightenment thinkers stated that it
    consisted of common sense, observation, and their
    own unacknowledged prejudices in favor of
    skepticism and freedom.

80
Reason Cont.
  • The greatest crimes are perpetuated in the name
    of religion and God.
  • A fair, just, and productive society absolutely
    depends on religious tolerance.
  • This means religious tolerance for all forms of
    Christianity and non-Christian faiths.

81
Reason
  • Issues of the 17th century scene that the idea of
    Reason attacked Dogma Fanaticism
  • Witch-hunts and Wars of Religion
  • Protestants Catholics denounced each other as
    followers of Satan
  • People imprisoned for attending wrong church
  • All publications censored by church and state
  • Slavery widely practiced, defended by religious
    leaders
  • Despotism of monarchsdivine right of kings
  • Any opposition was imprisoned or executed
  • Reason and Logic had no room for these matters

82
(No Transcript)
83
(No Transcript)
84
  • Denis Diderot - Encyclopédie 1766
  • All things must be examined, debated,
    investigated without exception and without regard
    for anyones feelings
  • - Summarize promote knowledge

85
(No Transcript)
86
(No Transcript)
87
Nature
88
Nature
  • The belief that there were natural laws that
    govern the earth as well as man.
  • Focused on the scientific discoveries and use of
    reason to examine the world.
  • Deism---a religious philosophy that developed
    around the following concepts
  • a)an impersonal deity (God)
  • b)God is found in nature. You do not have to
    attend a formal church.
  • c)There is a common morality amongst humans
    that is seen in the similarities between Judaism,
    Christianity, and Islam.
  • d)It is a religion based upon REASON and not
    Faith.

89
Nature Cont.
e)Goal was to humanize religion. f)Rejected
original sin. g)Attacked Christianity for the
persecution of other religions and abuses of
power. h)Believed society should exist without
religious supervision. i)It was their job to
discover how the world God created
worked. j)Rejected traditions and superstitions.
90
Nature
  • What is natural is good and reasonable
  • Natural laws affect economics and politics just
    as natural laws guide science (ex motion).

91
The Social Contract, 1762
How could this fraudulent contract of government
be made legitimate? Man is born free and
everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself
master of others, and still remains a greater
slave than they. How did this change come about?
I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That
question I think I can answer.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778
The General Will
92
Deism/Nature
  • The word "Deism" is derived from the Latin word
    for God "Deus." Deism involves the belief in the
    existence of God, on purely rational grounds,
    without any reliance on revealed religion or
    religious authority.
  • Deists
  • Do not accept the belief of most religions that
    God revealed himself to humanity through the
    writings of the Bible, the Qur'an or other
    religious texts.
  • Disagree with strong Atheists who assert that
    there is no evidence of the existence of God.

93
Deism/Nature
  • Deists regard their faith as a natural religion,
    as contrasted with one that is revealed by a God
    or which is artificially created by humans.
  • They reason that since everything that exists
    has had a creator, then the universe itself must
    have been created by God.
  • Thomas Paine concluded a speech shortly after the
    French Revolution with "God is the power of
    first cause, nature is the law, and matter is the
    subject acted upon.

94
Growth of Deism/Nature
  • Intellectuals believe in God but see him as a
    "watchmaker"
  • Deists skeptical of organized religion
  • Catholic Church was attacked
  • Deists struggle with personal standards
  • Denial of providence (Voltaire) disputed by
    others (Pope, Rousseau)
  • Denial of evil

95
The Wit and Wisdom of Voltaire
I have never made but one prayer to God, a very
short one Oh Lord, make my enemies ridiculous.
And God granted it.
Almost everything that goes beyond the adoration
of a Supreme Being and submission of the heart to
his orders is superstition. One of the most
dangerous is to believe that certain ceremonies
entail the forgiveness of crimes. Do you believe
that God will forget a murder you have committed
if you bathe in a certain river, sacrifice a
black sheep? Do better miserable humans, have
neither murders nor sacrifices of black sheep.
God is a comedian playing to an audience too
afraid to laugh. It is dangerous to be right
when the government is wrong. I may not agree
with what you have to say, but I will defend to
the death your right to say it.
96
Example of Deism
97
Happiness
98
Happiness
  • This was a time period of optimism.
  • Believed every man had the right to develop his
    full potential.
  • Focus on secular issues to make life better on
    earth.

99
Happiness
  • Living by Natures Laws brings happiness.
  • Happiness for all is possible.

100
Liberty
101
Liberty
  • Guaranteed freedoms/rights that everyone should
    have like press, speech, religion.
  • Exploring the issues of equality amongst races
    and gender.
  • Exploring what is the best form of government
    and why.
  • Create a government that will help overcome
    human cruelty and violence by using its power to
    further social improvements.

102
Liberty
  • Envied liberties of English (Glorious Revolution
    Bill of Rights)
  • Society could be set free through reason.

103
(No Transcript)
104
(No Transcript)
105
(No Transcript)
106
(No Transcript)
107
(No Transcript)
108
  • "The good of the people must be the great
    purpose of government. By the laws of nature and
    of reason, the governors are invested with power
    to that end. And the greatest good of the people
    is liberty. It is to the state what health is to
    the individual."
  • - Diderot in L'Encyclopedie Article on
    Government, quoted in Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn
    to Decadence, Perennial, 2000, p370.

109
(No Transcript)
110
(No Transcript)
111
Progress
112
Progress
  • A SCIENTIFIC approach can lead to perfect
    humanity and science.

113
Progress
  • Progress
  • The belief that man can improve and perfect
    society through education and scientific
    advances.
  • Attack existing institutions and concepts of
  • a)absolutism
  • b)Christianity
  • c)views on how the world works
  • Belief in the importance of social reform
  • By mastering both natural and human sciences,
    man can harness the natural world for its own
    benefit and learn to live peacefully with one
    another.

114
(No Transcript)
115
Pair Share Activity
  • Review all the five key ideas of the
    Enlightenment. Make any revisions to your notes.
  • Compare your symbols with your partner and
    explain your choices.
  • Of the five key ideas, which do you each think
    was the most important idea and explain why.

116
Defining Philosophes
117
The Philosophes
  • Bourgeoisie well-educated middle class that
    emerged during era
  • Philosophes writers within this class
  • Advocated reason, science, education to build a
    stable and free society
  • Concerned with solutions to social problems

118
The Philosophes and Their Ideas
  • France was the capital of the Enlightenment.
  • Leaders of the Enlightenment were called
    Philosophes.
  • Writers, professors, journalists, statesmen
    economists and social reformers.
  • Came from both the nobility and middle class.
  • Reason was to be used as a tool.
  • Apply facts to experience to find the best way
    for society to operate.
  • Secular movement focus was not on an afterlife,
    but on this world and how it could be improved
    and enjoyed.
  • Everything should be questioned to determine
    whether it made logical sense and served society.

119
The Philosophes
  • Intellectuals who discussed ideas
  • Used reason to explain their world
  • Believed that reason could improve society
  • Not satisfied with old ideas
  • Believed in tolerance for all religions

120
  • The Philosophes
  • The philosophes were French social critics in the
    mid-1700s.
  • Paris becomes the center of the Enlightenment
    during 1700s.
  • Paris is home to salons gatherings
    wherethinkers (philosophes) meet to discuss
    ideas.
  • They valued reason, nature, happiness, progress,
    liberty.
  • Some philosophes worked to bring attention to
    problems in society.
  • For example, Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria
    worked to reform justice system by calling for
    speedy trials and greater rights for criminal
    defendants.

121
The Enlightened Individual? The Philosophe
  • Not really original thinkers as a whole, but were
    great publicists of the new thinking ? CHANGE
    PROGRESS!
  • They were students of society who analyzed its
    evils and advanced reforms.

122
What did the Philosophers Despise?
  • Absolute Monarchs
  • Land-Owning Nobles
  • The Catholic Churchs Abusesf power

123
(No Transcript)
124
(No Transcript)
125
The Philosophes and Society
1
Thinkers called philosophes believed that the use
of reason could lead to reforms of government,
law, and society.
ROUSSEAU
VOLTAIRE
MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT
Believed that people were basically good.
Argued that government controls should be
minimal and should only be imposed by a freely
elected government. Felt the good of the
community should be placed above individual
interests.
Argued that a woman should be able to decide what
is in her own interest and should not be
completely dependent on her husband. Called for
equal education for girls and boys.
Defended the principle of freedom of
speech. Used wit to expose abuses and
corruption. Opposed the slave trade and
religious prejudice.
126
Political Thinkers of the Enlightenment
1
BARON de MONTESQUIEU
JOHN LOCKE
THOMAS HOBBES
People are naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish.
People entered into a social contract, in order
to live in an organized society. Only an
absolute monarchy can ensure an orderly society.
The separation of powers is the best way to
protect liberty. Each branch of government
should serve as a check on the others.
People are basically reasonable and moral.
People have certain natural rights. A
government has a duty to the people it governs.
If a government fails, the people have the right
to overthrow it.
127
(No Transcript)
128
(No Transcript)
129
(No Transcript)
130
Centers of the Enlightenment
131
Effects of the Enlightenment
132
(No Transcript)
133
The Republic of Letters
  • URBAN -- gathering of elites in the cities
    (salons)
  • B. URBANE -- cosmopolitan, worldly -
    music, art, literature, politics - read
    newspapers the latest books
  • C. POLITENESS -- proper behavior -
    self-governed

134
Reading During the Enlightenment
  • Literacy - 80 for men, 60 women
  • Books were expensive (one days wages)
  • Many readers for each book
  • - novels, plays other literature -
    journals, memoirs, private lives -
    philosophy, history, theology -
    newspapers, political pamphlets
  • - often censored by governments

135
(No Transcript)
136
  • Toleration Religious Minorities
  • out of political necessity, toleration of certain
    creeds began by 17th cent.
  • Louis XIV turned back the clock, persecuting
    Huguenots in the early 18th cent.
  • Austria - Toleration Patent of 1781 recognized
    Catholic public practice granted right to
    private worship for Lutherans, Calvinists,
    Greek Orthodox
  • in all other ways, Austrians were equal
  • Toleration of the Jews
  • remained the despised religious minority of
    Europe
  • largest of Ashkenazic Jews lived in Eastern
    Europe
  • restricted in movement
  • forbidden to own land or hold jobs
  • pay special taxes
  • subject to periodic popular wrath
  • Sephardic Jews - had been expelled from Spain in
    15th cent.
  • settled in Turkish lands, also cities such as
    Amsterdam, Venice, London, Frankfurt where they
    were free to work in banking commercial
    activities
  • many philosophes denounced persecution, but still
    ridiculed Jewish customs
  • Austria eased restrictions on Jews, but still
    own land or worship publicly

137
Impact/ Effects of the Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment birthed two revolutions
    imperative to Western Civilization
  • American Revolution
  • French Revolution
  • The Enlightenment created an outlet for
    intellectuals/educated to openly debate issues
    w/in society
  • This era allowed for a greater sense of
    universalism where peoples did not live for
    their own sake, but sought betterment for others

138
England v. France
  • The English and French Enlightenments exchanged
    influences through many channels.
  • Because England had gotten its revolution out of
    the way early, it was able to proceed more
    smoothly down the road to democracy.
  • But English liberty was dynamite when transported
    to France, where resistance by church and state
    was fierce.

139
Progression Timeline
140
Enlightenment in America
  • Meanwhile, across the Atlantic, many of the
    intellectual leaders of the American colonies
    were drawn to the Enlightenment.
  • Jefferson, Washington, Franklin, and Paine were
    powerfully influenced by Enlightenment thought.
  • The God who underwrites the concept of equality
    in the Declaration of Independence is the same
    Deist God Rousseau worshipped.

141
Why should we care?
  • Because Thomas Jefferson totally ripped off of
    these guys!
  • You remember that little paper he wrote? It was
    called The Declaration of Independence and signed
    on July 4, 1776.
  • This paper summarized how the Enlightenment ideas
    influenced our American forefathers (Thomas
    Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James
    Madison).

142
(No Transcript)
143
American Revolution
  • The language of natural law, of inherent
    freedoms, of self-determination which seeped so
    deeply into the American grain was the language
    of the Enlightenment.
  • Separated geographically from most of the
    aristocrats against whom they were rebelling,
    their revolution was to be far less corrosive
    than that in France.

144
(No Transcript)
145
Montesquieus 3 branches in Action
146
Enlightenment Ideas in America
  • Natural Rights life, liberty, and pursuit of
    happiness
  • Separation of Power legislative, judicial,
    executive branches
  • Social Contract
  • Freedom of speech, press, and religion
  • Purpose of Govt to serve the people
  • System of Checks and Balances
  • Capitalism
  • Importance of Education
  • Belief that science and eventually technology
    will solve most or all problems
  • Idea of Human Rights
  • Helping others---social services, etc.

147
Pair Share Activity
  • Complete the Sum It Up Activity that is the last
    page of the graphic organizer packet.
  • Some pairs will be sharing them as closure to the
    lesson.
About PowerShow.com