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Enlightenment

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Enlightenment England Elizabeth I died childless, so her cousin James from Scotland became king = James I England James I believed in divine right, absolute power ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enlightenment


1
Enlightenment
2
England
  • Elizabeth I died childless, so her cousin James
    from Scotland became king James I

3
England
  • James I believed in divine right, absolute power
    many fights with Parliament over
  • James I was best known for supporting the
    creation of the King James version of the Bible

4
England
  • Charles I succeeded James and also believed in
    divine right
  • He wanted for his wars petition Paliament

5
England
  • Parliament exchanged for Charles I signing the
    Petition of Right
  • The Petition of Right had 4 points
  • King cannot imprison subjects without due cause
  • King could not get taxes without Parliament
  • King could not house soldiers in civilian homes
  • King could not impose martial law in peacetime

6
England
  • Charles dissolved Parliament for 8 years until he
    needed to fight Scotland
  • Parliament tried to limit the kings power king
    arrested members start of English Civil War

7
England
  • Charles (Cavaliers) v Parliament (Roundheads)

8
England
  • Oliver Cromwell led the Parliament forces and
    defeated Charles I
  • He then executed Charles I 1st king executed
  • Cromwell then created the Commonwealth of England
    and became a military dictator

9
England
  • Cromwell outlawed sinful activities
  • After Cromwells death, England wanted the king
    to come back Restoration Charles II takes over

10
England
  • Habeas Corpus a person cannot be held in prison
    for opposing a king

11
England
  • Charles II no children brother James II
    became king
  • James II was Catholic and England was not
  • Whig party did not want James and the Tories did

12
England
  • James II had a son who would be Catholic
    Parliament got rid of James Glorious Revolution
  • Called Glorious Revolution because of no
    bloodshed
  • Jamess daughter and her husband became king and
    queen William and Mary

13
England
  • Parliament created the English Bill of Rights
    limited royal power
  • This turned England into a constitutional
    monarchy (laws limit the kings power)

14
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • Medieval View
  • of Science
  • Unquestioning
  • Based on ancient
  • teachings or The Bible
  • Geocentric Theory of the
  • universe-the Earth was at
  • the center and all the rest
  • revolved around it.

15
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • The Scientific Revolution was a new way of
    looking at the world based on careful observation
    and a questioning of accepted beliefs.

16
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • What brought on the Scientific Revolution?
  • ?New ideas during the Renaissance
  • ?Translation of ancient Muslim manuscripts
    brought new knowledge to Europe
  • ? Exploration brought new knowledge and a
    willingness to accept new truths
  • New advances in math and astronomy
  • associated with exploration

17
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • NEW MODEL OF
  • THE SOLAR SYSTEM
  • Copernicus studied astronomy and realized the sun
    was at the center. He proposed the heliocentric,
    sun centered theory.

18
  • Copernicus Kepler

19
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • A circular path did not fully explain the
    movement of the planets.
  • Johannes Kepler proved mathematically that
    Copernicus was basically correct, but it was an
    elliptical orbit, rather than circular.

20
Scientific Revolution
  • Galileo developed the mathematics of gravity and
    proved that objects fall at a predictable rate.
    He also created a telescope to study the stars
    and planets. He supported Copernicus
    heliocentric model.
  • He came in conflict with the Catholic Church.
  • He was tried by the and forced to Catholic Church
    and forced to say Copernicus was wrong and the
    Church was right.
  • In 1992 Pope John Paul II formally cleared
    Galileo and acknowledged Copernicus was right.

21
Galileo Galilei
22
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • Francis Bacon helped develop the Scientific
    Method by his proposal that scientists should use
    observation rather than relying on old knowledge.

23
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD?

24
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • Rene Decartes helped it along by developing
    analytical geometry that combined algebra and
    geometry. His findings supported the new
    movement known as skepticism.
  • I think, therefore I am.

25
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • SIR ISAAC NEWTON
  • Brought it all together in his universal laws of
    gravitation and motion proving that the earth and
    other planets revolve around the sun.

26
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • BRINGS ADVANCES IN
  • SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
  • Zacharias Jansser, a Dutch eyeglass maker,
    invented a microscope.
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek used the microscope to see
    bacteria and red blood cells for the first time.

27
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • BRINGS ADVANCES IN SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit developed a thermometer
    showing freezing at 32 while Anders Celsius
    created another scale with freezing at 0.

28
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • THE SCIENTIFIC
  • REVOLUTION
  • BRINGS ADVANCES
  • IN MEDICINE
  • Galen, a physician during the Middle Ages,
    believed human anatomy was like a pigs. He
    dissected pigs but not humans.

29
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • In 1543 Andreas Vesalius dissected a human and
    showed actual human anatomy.

30
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • Edward Jenner used cowpox to prevent smallpox,
    thus creating the worlds first vaccine

31
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • Robert Boyle was the founder of modern chemistry.
    He proposed the idea of small particles making up
    matter. He also gave us Boyles Law that explains
    how volume, temperature and pressure of gas
    affect each other.

32
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • Isaac Newton said, If have seen farther than
    others it is because I have stood on the
    shoulders of giants.
  • Who was he talking about?

33
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
  • ENLIGHTENMENT OR AGE OF REASON
  • Scientific Revolution led people to look for laws
    governing all aspects of society including human
    behavior, religion, education, economics and
    government.

34
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
  • TWO THINKERS LEAD THE WAY

Thomas Hobbes John Locke
?People were naturally wicked ? Needed a social contract to provide order ? Needed an absolute ruler ? People could improve themselves ? Favored self-government ? Rulers needed consent of the people ? Believed in natural rights life, liberty and property. ? His ideas influenced the US Constitution and Bill of Rights
35
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
  • The French Philosophes

THINKER IDEA IMPACT
Voltaire a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn. Freedom of thought and expression Used satire Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights
36
Enlightenment
Voltaire
37
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE The French
Philosophes
THINKER IDEA IMPACT
Montesquieu Separation of powers was best way to prevent abuse. Later called checks and balances US Constitution
38
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
THINKER IDEA IMPACT
Rousseau Committed to individual freedom Civilization corrupted peoples natural goodness and forced them to obey unjust laws The only good government was a direct democracy Constitution and Bill of Rights
Man is born free, and everywhere he is in
chains Rousseau
39
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
THINKER IDEA IMPACT
Beccaria Laws were to preserve order not punish crime Against torture and cruel punishment There should be speedy trials Constitution and Bill of Rights
40
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
  • Women and the Enlightenment
  • Most male philosophers took the traditional view
  • Women writers tried to improve the status of
    women
  • Mary Wollstonecraft published an essay
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women in 1792
  • It supported the rights of women especially in
    the area of education, career choice and
    political rights.

41
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
  • Children and the Enlightenment

During the Enlightenment, this idea changed.
People believed children should be educated and
allowed to mature. New toys, such as the rocking
horse, appeared. Children's clothes were made
differently. Childrens literature such as
Mother Goose was printed.
42
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
  • IMPACT OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • Belief in progress in society,
  • government and science
  • Recognition of the importance of
  • the individual
  • More secular (worldly) outlook
  • on life

Chardin
43
Enlighenment
  • Enlightenment ideas spread with the help of women
  • Salons were events held by rich women where
    enlightenment ideas were discussed and sometimes
    financed

44
Enlightenment
  • Denis Diderot received at salons to start his
    project Encyclopedia
  • Salons and the encyclopedias helped spread the
    Enlightenment ideas

45
Enlightenment
  • Art during the Enlightenment was dominated by the
    baroque style
  • Baroque style was grand, ornate style

46
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47
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48
Enlightenment
  • Baroque music played by Johann Sebastian Bach and
    George Handel

49
Enlightenment
  • Baroque style gave way to Neoclassical style
  • Neoclassical music was simple and elegant
  • Great neoclassical composers were Franz Joseph
    Haydn, Wolfgang Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven

50
Enlightenment
  • Novels also became extremely popular
  • Examples Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe, Henry
    Fieldings Tom Jones, and Samuel Richardsons
    Pamela

51
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.3
SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS
  • ENLIGHTENMENT AND MONARCHY

OLD IDEA
The state and the citizens exist to serve the monarch
NEW IDEA
The monarch exists to serve the state and support citizens welfare.
52
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.3
SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS
  • ENLIGHTENMENT AND MONARCHY
  • Enlightened despots accepted the philosophy that
    they
  • should respect the peoples rights.
  • They had no intention of giving up power. They
    were
  • motivated to accept changes because they wanted
    to
  • ? Make their country more powerful
  • ? Make their rule more effective

53
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.3
SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS
Frederick II (the Great)
Wanted his people to be happy and cared about their welfare Ended many abuses Granted many freedoms such as religion, press and education
Did not end serfdom Needed landowner
support Called first servant of the state
54
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.3
SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS
Joseph II
Ruled Austria 1780-1790 Legal reforms and freedom of the press Most radical reformer of the age Abolished serfdom and required cash payment
Landowners hated him Most reforms reversed
after his death
55
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • In 1760, George III
  • became king of England.
  • The colonies were
  • growing and becoming
  • richer. They also expected
  • the same rights as all
  • English subjects.
  • George needed to pay for the
  • French and Indian War.

56
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Navigation Tax (1660s)-colonists could only sell
    to the British and pay high taxes on non-British
    goods.
  • This led to smuggling
  • by the colonists and
  • the anger at the British.

57
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Stamp Act (1765)- a tax had to be paid on all
    documents including wills, newspapers and deeds.
    The outraged colonists boycotted British goods
    and the Act was repealed in 1766.

58
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • The Declaration goes on to list grievances and
    specifically accuses King George III of abusing
    his powers.

59
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • The American Revolution lasted from 1776-1781.
  • The Colonists won because
  • France entered the war and sent
  • Lafayette to help
  • 2. Time was on their side
  • 3. They were defending their
  • homeland
  • 4. British generals made mistakes

60
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Articles of Confederation Create a Weak
    Government
  • The first government was created
  • by the Articles of Confederation.
  • There was no judicial or executive
  • branch, only Congress was created.
  • Each state had one vote. It could
  • not collect taxes or regulate trade.
  • Passing laws was difficult because
  • 9 out of 13 states had to agree.
  • That would be 35 today.

61
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • SHAYS REBELLION
  • When Massachusetts refused
  • to issue paper money so
  • farmers could repay debt,
  • Daniel Shay and others
  • rebelled. It was put down
  • but showed the need for a
  • strong national government.

62
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • THE US CONSTITUTION
  • Many compromises
  • Two houses
  • Continue slavery
  • Slaves are 3/5th of a person
  • Amendments satisfied the
  • Anti-federalists
  • Created a federal system where power is shared
    between the national and state governments

63
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • The Federalists wanted a fiscally and militarily
    strong nation state, and showed little interest
    in states' or individual rights. They did not
    want the freedoms provided by the Bill of Rights.
    Alexander Hamilton and John Jay were the chief
    supporters of this view.

Jay
Hamilton
64
ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Anti-federalist applied to a
  • group that supported a
  • less centralized federal
  • government in which the
  • states and individuals
  • retained more power.
  • They supported the Bill of
  • Rights. Thomas Jefferson
  • believed this.
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