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State Building and the


Chapter 15 State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century Social Crises, War, and Rebellions Economic Contraction Import of silver from Americas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: State Building and the

Chapter 15
  • State Building and the
  • Search for Order in the
  • Seventeenth Century

Social Crises, War, and Rebellions
  • Economic Contraction
  • Import of silver from Americas declined
  • Economic recession intensified
  • Population Changes
  • 16th century saw growth
  • First population recovery since the Black Death
  • 17th century leveled off declined
  • Population growth leveled off by 1620 and
    declined slightly by 1750
  • Population fluctuated narrowly for the rest of
    the 17th century
  • Reasons war, famine, and plague along with a
    little ice age which affected harvests

Possible Test Question
  • Seventeenth-century European population
  • Increased dramatically due to greater food
  • Decreased dramatically due to disease and war.
  • Experienced great fluctuations as European
    nations established colonies.
  • Fluctuated narrowly, constrained by famines and
  • A and C.

  • The Witchcraft Craze
  • Witchcraft existed for centuries as a traditional
    village culture
  • Medieval church connected witchcraft to the
    devil, making it an act of heresy
  • Establishment of the Inquisition in the 13th
    century, increased prosecutions and executions
  • Accusations against witches
  • Allegiance to the devil
  • Attended sabbats
  • Use of evil incantations or potions

  • Reasons for witchcraft prosecutions
  • Religious uncertainty (areas of strife between
    Protestants Catholics)
  • Social conditions old single women cut off from
    charity by the new emphasis on capitalism over
    communal interests became the scapegoats when
    problems arose
  • Women as primary victims
  • Most theologians, lawyers, philosophers
    believed women were inferior to men more
    susceptible to witchcraft
  • Begins to subside by mid-seventeenth century
  • Fewer judges were willing to prosecute accused
  • A more educated populous questioned the old view
    of a world haunted by spirits

Possible Test Question
  • The witch hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth
  • Came out of the social unrest deriving from the
    shift from individualism to communalism.
  • were often directed against old single women.
  • Were generally directed only at people who denied
    that they were religious.
  • Were primarily restricted to rural areas.
  • Were minimal in comparison to the late Middle

The Thirty Years War (1618 1648)
  • Background
  • Religious conflict (militant Catholicism
    militant Calvinism)
  • Secular, dynastic-nationalist considerations were
    more important
  • Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Most of the fighting took place in Germany, but
    it was a Europe wide struggle
  • Conflict for European leadership
  • Between Bourbon dynasty of France vs.
  • Habsburg dynasty of Spain Holy Roman
  • Posturing for war (think alliance system)
  • Frederick IV of Palatinate (Calvinist) formed the
    Protestant Union
  • Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (Catholic) formed the
    Catholic League of German States
  • Germany divided into two armed alliances along
    religious lines
  • Holy Roman Emperors looked to relatives in Spain
    to help consolidate their authority in the German
  • German princes looked to Spains enemy France for

The Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
  • Bohemian estates accepted Habsburg Archduke
    Ferdinand as their king
  • Ferdinand set about re-catholicizing Bohemia
  • Protestants rebelled in 1618, deposing Ferdinand
    electing Protestant ruler Frederick V of
    Palatinate (head of Protestant Union)
  • Ferdinand is elected Holy Roman Emperor
    returned with the help of Maximilian of Bavaria
    the Catholic League
  • Imperial forces Spanish retook Bohemia
    captured Palatinate by 1622

The Danish Phase (1625 1629)
  • King Christian IV of Denmark intervened on the
    Protestant side
  • Formed alliances with United Provinces England
  • Christian IVs forces were defeated, ending
    Danish supremacy in the Baltic Sea
  • Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of
    Restitution (1629)
  • Prohibited Calvinist worship
  • Restored property to the Catholic church

The Swedish Phase (1630 1635)
  • Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden enters the war
  • Gustavuss army defeated imperial forces moved
    into central Germany
  • Imperial forces defeat the Swedes at the battle
    of Nordlingen, ensuring that southern Germany
    would remain Catholic
  • The emperor tried to use this victory to make
    peace by annulling the Edict of Restitution of
  • The peace failed because the Swedes wished to
    continue fighting the French Catholics under
    Cardinal Richelieu were about to enter the war on
    the Protestant side

The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 1648)
  • Battle of Rocroi (1643) French defeat Spanish
    troops, ending Spains military greatness
  • French defeat Bavarian Imperialist armies in
    Southern Germany
  • War in Germany ends in 1648 but continues between
    the French Spanish until 1659

Possible Test Question
  • The Thirty Years War
  • Eventually involved every country in Europe and
  • Is considered by most to be the first modern
  • Is considered by most to be part of the larger
    Bourbon-Habsburg struggle.
  • Was primarily fought in Spain.
  • Was exclusively caused by religious differences.

Possible Test Question
  • The event that sparked the Thirty Years War was
  • A rebellion of Protestant nobles against the
    Catholic ruler Ferdinand in Bohemia.
  • The invasion of France by Frederick IV.
  • The Spanish conquest of the Netherlands and
    subsequent local enforcement of the bloody
  • The overthrow of Spanish rule in Mesoamerica by
    Dutch pirates and privateers.
  • Englands victory over the Spanish Armada.

Outcomes of the 30 year war
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • All German states were free to determine their
    own religion
  • France Sweden gained territory
  • Holy Roman emperor reduced to a figurehead
  • Made clear that religion politics were now
  • Social and economic effects
  • Decline in German Population
  • Some areas of Germany were devastated, others
    were untouched experienced economic growth
  • Most destructive European war to date

Possible Test Question
  • As a result of the Peace of Westphalia of 1648
  • The German population was to be converted to
  • All German states could choose their own
    religions, except for Calvinism.
  • German states were allowed to determine their
  • The institution of the Holy Roman Empire was to
    be the ruling force in Germany for the next 100
  • The Holy Roman Empire was dismembered.

Outcomes continued
  • Peace of Pyrenees (1659)
  • Ends the conflict between France Spain
  • Spain becomes a 2nd class power
  • France emerges as the dominant European nation
  • Some historians feel the 30 years (1618-1648)
    should actually be called the 50 years war
    (1609-1659) stretching from the formation of the
    Protestant Union Catholic League to the Peace
    of Pyrenees

Map 15.1 The Thirty Years War
A Military Revolution?
  • War and Politics in Seventeenth-Century Europe
    made it essential that a ruler had a powerful
  • New Tactics
  • Battalions of infantry armed with pikes became
    superior to cavalry
  • Gustavus Adolphus employed a standing army
    (conscripts) instead of mercenaries
  • Mixed musketeers with pikemen effectively (volley
    of shots followed by a rush)
  • Adolphus used a similar strategy with cavalry
  • New Technologies
  • Firearms, cannons, standing armies, mobile
  • The Cost of a Modern Military
  • Heavier taxes making war an economic burden
  • State bureaucracy grew and so did the power of
    state government

Possible Test Question
  • The military revolution, or changes in the
    science and practice of warfare between 1550 and
    1650, saw armies
  • Become more disciplined but less flexible.
  • Align in units of blocks rather than lines.
  • Abandon the use of cavalry.
  • Change from mercenaries to conscripts for
  • Change from conscripts to more reliable mercenary

  • Peasant Revolts (1590 1640)
  • France, Austria, Hungary, Portugal and Catalonia
    experienced Peasant revolts
  • France also had nobles revolt 1648 to 1652
  • Russia (1641, 1645 and 1648)
  • Peasant revolts in the cities
  • Sweden, Denmark United Provinces
  • Revolts involving clergy, nobles, workers
  • Most revolts were due to the 30 Years War and
    discontent over government

Absolute Monarchy in France
  • Absolutism sovereign power or ultimate
    authority in the state rested in the hands of a
    king who claimed to rule by divine right
  • Foundations of French Absolutism
  • Political Theorist Jean Bodin defined sovereign
    power as authority to
  • Make laws, tax, administer justice, control the
    state determine foreign policy
  • Bishop Jacques Bossuet wrote
  • Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy
    Scripture God established kings so their rule
    was divine

Possible Test Question
  • Absolutism means
  • The real power in any state must be religious and
    exercised by the church.
  • Ultimate authority rests solely in the hands of a
    king who rules by divine right.
  • Subordinate powers have an absolute right to
    advise the king on conducting the affairs of
  • No matter how humble, male citizens have an
    absolute right to participate in politics.
  • Rule by a secular dictator, justifying his/her
    authority by supposedly serving the people.

Cardinal Richelieu (1624 1642)
  • Cardinal Richelieu (1624 1642)
  • Louis XIIIs chief advisor
  • Initiated policies that strengthened the monarchy
  • Eliminated political military rights of
    Huguenots (French Calvinists) but preserved their
    religious ones
  • Transformed the Huguenots into more reliable
  • Eliminated noble threats to the crown
  • Sent out royal officials (intendants) to reform
    strengthen the central government
  • Richelieu ran the crown into debt
  • Mismanagement of funds 30 Years War

Possible Test Question
  • As Louis XIIIs chief minister, Cardinal
    Richelieu was most successful in
  • Evicting the Huguenot presence from France after
    the La Rochelle rebellion.
  • Expanding the political and social rights of the
  • Creating a reservoir of funds for the treasury.
  • Emerging victorious from the Fronde revolts of
    the nobility.
  • Strengthening the central role of the monarchy in
    domestic and foreign policy.

Cardinal Mazarin (1642 1661)
  • Cardinal Mazarin (1642 1661)
  • Richelieus successor
  • Louis the XIII died a few months later
  • Louis the XIV inherited the crown at the age of 4
  • Mazarin was Italian born, so he was resented
  • The Fronde-Noble Revolt
  • Nobles sided with Parlement of Paris-both opposed
    taxes levied to pay for 30 Years War
  • 1st Fronde- Nobles of the robe (lawyers
    administrators) ended in compromise
  • 2nd Fronde Nobles of the sword, (medieval
    nobles) was crushed as nobles began fighting
    amongst themselves
  • After the Fronde ended, the people of France
    looked to the crown to provide stability

Possible Test Question
  • The series of noble revolts known as the Fronde
    resulted in
  • The assassination of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661.
  • Renewed power for the Parlement of Paris.
  • A unified noble army securing and increasing its
    own power.
  • French citizens looking to the monarchy for
  • The reappearance of the Estates General as
    Frances law-making body.

The Reign of Louis XIV (1643 1715)
  • Louis XIV took control of France at the age of 23
  • Administration of the Government
  • Domination and bribery
  • Dominated the actions of ministers and
  • Stacked the royal council with loyal followers
    from new aristocratic families
  • Issued bribes to control provinces and the people
    who ran them
  • Religious Policy One King, one law, one faith
  • Edict of Fontainebleau (1685)
  • Revoked the Edict of Nantes (1598)
  • Destruction of Huguenot churches closing of
    Protestant schools
  • Over 200k Huguenots left France, weakening the
    economy strengthening Protestant opposition to
    Louis in other countries

Possible Test Question
  • Louis XIV restructured the policy-making
    machinery of the French government by
  • Personally dominating the actions of his
    ministers and secretaries.
  • Stacking the royal council with loyal followers
    from relatively new aristocratic families.
  • Selecting his ministers from established
    aristocratic families.
  • All of the above.
  • A and B.

Possible Test Question
  • Louis XIVs Edict of Fontainbleau
  • Created new ranks of intendants to govern various
    regions of France.
  • Revoked the earlier Edict of Nantes, curtailed
    the rights of French Protestants, and caused
    thousands of highly skill Huguenots to flee the
  • Established new standards of court etiquette and
    was intended to diminish the power of great
  • Removed most French bishops from their sees and
    replaced them with nobles to strengthen Louis
    control of the French Catholic Church.
  • Moved the Estates General from Paris to

  • Financial Issues
  • Jean Baptist Colbert (1619 1683) (controller
    general of finances)
  • Helped Louis avoid economic disaster
  • Followed mercantilist approach decrease
    imports, increase exports
  • Raised tariffs on imports causing tension with
    neighboring countries
  • Tax burden still fell on the peasants

Possible Test Question
  • The economic policies of jean-Baptiste Colbert,
    Louis XIVs controller general of finances
  • Were noted for their innovation and originality.
  • Used new accounting practices to take the tax
    burden off the peasants.
  • Were based on the economic theory of mercantilism
    that stressed government regulation of economic
    affairs to benefit the state.
  • Gave Louis the large surplus in the treasury
    needed to carry out his wars.
  • Could best be described as laissez-faire.

Palace at Versailles
  • Daily Life at Versailles
  • Purposes of Versailles
  • Intended to overawe subjects impress foreign
  • Housed royal officials princes
  • Court life and etiquette
  • Set the standard for European monarchies
  • Princes nobles were arranged according to
  • Real purpose was to exclude them from power by
    including them in the life of the king at

Possible Test Question
  • The costly palace built by Louis XIV, that became
    the envy of all European monarchs, was
  • Fontainebleau.
  • Versailles.
  • Aix-la-Chapelle.
  • Avignon.
  • Mont St. Michele.

The Wars of Louis XIV
  • The Wars of Louis XIV
  • Professional army 100,000 men in peacetime
    400,000 in wartime
  • Louis XIV waged war to insure French dominance in
    Europe and preserve the Bourbon dynasty
  • Four wars between 1667 1713
  • Invasion of Spanish Netherlands (1667-1668)
  • Triple Alliance (English, Dutch Swedes) forced
    Louis to sue for peace (received a few towns in
    the Spanish Netherlands)
  • Dutch War (1672-1678)
  • Louis invaded the United Provinces leading
    Brandenburg, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire to
    form a coalition to stop him
  • Received Franche-Comte from Spain
  • Annexation of Alsace and Lorraine, occupation of
    Strasbourg (1679) led to new opposition.

Louiss Wars
  • War of the League of Augsburg (1689 1697)
  • Spain, The Holy Roman Empire, the United
    Provinces, Sweden, England formed the League of
  • Caused economic depression and famine in France
  • Treaty of Ryswick ended the war causing Louis to
    give up most of the territory he had previously

Louiss Wars
  • War of the Spanish Succession (1702 1713)
  • Louiss grandson was set to inherit the Spanish
    throne, (Phillip V) scaring neighboring countries
    about a united Spain France
  • Coalition of England, United Provinces, Habsburg
    Austria, the German states opposed France
  • Peace of Utrecht (1713)
  • Confirmed Phillip V as ruler of Spain
  • Affirmed thrones would remain separate
  • Coalition gained French Spanish territory
  • England emerges as a strong naval force, gaining
    territory in America from France
  • Louis XIV died 2 years later, leaving France
    broke and surrounded by enemies.

Map 15.2 The Wars of Louis XIV
Possible Test Question
  • The War of the Spanish Succession was effectively
    concluded with the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 which
  • Gave the French king control of Spanish
  • Gave France control over the Spanish Netherlands,
    Naples, and Milan.
  • Greatly benefited England, by then a strong naval
  • Destroyed the European balance of power.
  • Ended the independence of Spain, which was now
    under Bourbon rule.

The Decline of Spain
  • Bankruptcies in 1596 and in 1607
  • Phillip II
  • Spent money on war
  • Philip III (1598 1621)
  • Spent money on court luxuries
  • Allowed nobles to run the country (widespread
  • Philip IV (1621 1665)
  • Chief minister Gaspar de Guzman attempts reform
  • Aimed at curtailing power of the Catholic Church
    and the aristocracy
  • The Thirty Years War
  • Expensive military campaigns
  • Civil War
  • The Netherlands lost

Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
  • The German States
  • The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia
  • The Hohenzollern Dynasty
  • Frederick William the Great Elector (1640 1688)
  • Army (standing army of 40K men)
  • General War Commissariat to levy taxes
  • Evolved into an agency for civil government
  • Reinforced serfdom through concessions to the
  • Used Mercantilist Policies
  • High tariffs, subsidies, monopolies
  • Frederick III (1688 1713)
  • Aided Holy Roman Empire in the War of Spanish
  • In return, he was granted the title King of
    Prussia (1701)

Possible Test Question
  • Frederick William the Elector built
    Brandenburg-Prussia into a significant European
    power by
  • Establishing religious uniformity in his kingdom,
    as evidenced in his eviction of the Huguenots.
  • Freeing the peasants from the dominion of the
  • Using his army whenever possible to gain his
  • Making the General War Commissariat the
    bureaucratic machine of his state.
  • Allying Prussia with England and Russia against
    France and the Holy Roman Empire.

The Emergence of Austria
  • Habsburgs
  • Gave up hope of a German empire, turned to
    Eastern Europe
  • Leopold I (1658 1705)
  • Expands eastward
  • Conflicts with the Turks
  • Siege of Vienna (1683)
  • Defeated Turks (1687) gained Hungary,
    Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia
  • Gained Spanish territory in Netherlands and
    Northern Italy from the War of Spanish Succession
  • Austria did not have a centralized government
    controlled by the monarchy. Instead they relied
    on loyalty from regional nobility.

Possible Test Question
  • The Austrian Empire in the seventeenth century
  • Was unified by linguistic and ethnic ties.
  • Was defeated at Vienna by a Turkish army in 1687.
  • Was a highly centralized, absolutist state under
    Leopold I.
  • Lost a German empire, but gained one in eastern
    and southeastern Europe.
  • Successfully expanded into Western Europe.

Italy From Spanish to Austrian Rule
  • Defeat of the French in Italy by Charles V (1530)
  • Allowed Italian rulers to stay in power as long
    as they acknowledged Spanish superiority
  • Spanish Presence (1559 1713)
  • Tightened control under Phillip IIs reign
  • Consequences of the War of the Spanish Succession
  • Austria gained Spanish possessions and began to
    influence Italy

Possible Test Question
  • Which of the following exerted the most influence
    on Italy by the eighteenth century?
  • France
  • England
  • Spain
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • Austria

Russia From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
  • Ivan IV the Terrible (1533 1584)
  • First Tsar
  • Expanded territory eastward
  • Extended autocracy of Tsar by crushing Russian
    nobility (boyars)
  • Romanov Dynasty (1613 1917)
  • National Assembly chose Michael Romanov as the
    new Tsar
  • Stratified Society
  • Tsar
  • Landed aristocrats bind peasants to the land
  • Surplus of land, shortage of workers
  • Peasants and townspeople
  • Tied to their land and businesses (highly
    repressive system of serfdom)
  • Led to peasant revolts

Possible Test Question
  • Russian society in the seventeenth century
  • Witnessed the reign of Ivan the Terrible.
  • Witnessed profound religious reforms in the
    Russian Orthodox church.
  • Was characterized by a highly oppressive system
    of serfdom.
  • Saw the rise of the merchant class to power.
  • Saw the end of serfdom and the emergence of a
    prosperous free peasantry.

The Reign of Peter the Great (1689 1725)
  • Visits the West (1697 1698)
  • Seeks to modernize Russia
  • Mostly technical
  • Reorganizes armed forces
  • Modernized military standing army of 210,000
  • Created a navy
  • Reorganizes central government
  • Divides Russia into provinces
  • Seeks control of the Russian Church
  • Introduces Western Customs
  • No spitting on floor or scratching oneself at
  • Cutting off beards and coats

The Reign of Peter the Great
  • Positive Impact of Reforms on Women
  • Upper class women were encouraged to mingle with
  • Women could choose who they wanted to marry
  • Open a window to the West
  • A port easily accessible to Europe
  • Attacks Sweden
  • Battle of Narva (1700)
  • 8,000 Swedes defeat 40,000 Russians
  • Great Northern War (1701 1721)
  • Battle of Poltava (1709)
  • Russian army defeats Swedish army
  • Peace of Nystadt (1721)
  • Russia gains control of Estonia, Livonia and
  • St. Petersburg
  • Window to the West (port in the Baltic Sea)
  • New Russian capital

Possible Test Question
  • Peter the Greats foreign policy had as its
    primary goal
  • Opening of a port easily accessible to Europe.
  • Destruction of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Capture of the Scandinavian countries.
  • Control of Constantinople and the Dardanelles.
  • Conquest of Siberia.

The Winter Palace St. Petersburg, Russia
Map 15.5 Russia From Principality to
The Great Northern States
  • Denmark
  • Military losses
  • 30 Years War Northern War with Sweden
  • Bloodless revolution of 1660 (Denmarks Estates)
  • Limited power of nobility
  • Reestablished hereditary monarchy

The Great Northern States
  • Sweden
  • Christina (1633 1654)
  • More interested in philosophy religion
  • Abdicated the throne so she could become Catholic
  • Charles XI (1660 1697)
  • Defused potential peasant revolt against nobility
  • Built Swedish monarchy into an absolute monarchy
  • Charles XII (1697-1718)
  • Brilliant general who got Sweden into to many
  • Lost most of Swedens northern empire to Russia
  • Sweden became a 2nd rate power after the Great
    Northern War

Possible Test Question
  • Scandinavia in the seventeenth and eighteenth
    centuries witnessed
  • Denmark expand so as to dominate the Baltic.
  • Sweden become a second-rate power after the Great
    Northern War.
  • Sweden and Denmark join forces to defeat and
    occupy Poland in 1660.
  • The economic dominance of Sweden over the rest of
    northern Europe.
  • The conquest of Sweden by Norway.

The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 1566)
  • Attacks against Europe
  • Pushed as far west as Vienna
  • Advances in the Mediterranean
  • Controlled most of the Mediterranean Sea until
    the Spanish navy defeated them at the battle of
  • Ottomans viewed as a European Power
  • Capital city of Constantinople was the most
    populous European city
  • New Offensives in the second half of the 17th
  • Ottoman Empire was viewed as the sleeping giant
    of Eastern Europe

Map 15.6 The Ottoman Empire
Limits of Absolutism
  • The Limits of Absolutism
  • Power of rulers not absolute
  • Local institutions still had power
  • Power of the aristocracy
  • Limited Monarchy and Republics
  • Poland, the Dutch Republic and England
  • Poland - ruled by Sejm (two chamber assembly)
  • Controlled by nobles who elected the king
  • Poland lacked a strong central government
  • weakened by warfare nobles protecting their own

Possible Test Question
  • The political institution known as the Sejm made
    seventeenth-century Poland
  • An absolutist, monarchical state dominated by
    King Sigismund III.
  • A powerful militaristic machine threatening its
  • A land without powerful nobles.
  • An impotent, decentralized state.
  • A republic.

Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
  • The United Provinces
  • Officially recognized by the Peace of Westphalia
  • Internal Dissension
  • The House of Orange and the Stadholders
  • The States General opposes the House of Orange
  • Weakened calls for republican government until
    death of William III
  • William III (1672 1702)
  • Established a monarchy but it collapsed upon his
    death due to the fact that he didnt produce a
    male heir to the throne
  • Involved in wars
  • Undermined Dutch strength in trade
  • Experienced a serious economic decline by 1715
  • Life in 17th century Amsterdam
  • Financial center of Europe
  • City built up to accommodate the population
  • Huge profits as an arms provider for foreign wars

Possible Test Question
  • The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic in the
    seventeenth century witnessed
  • William of Orange become king in 1672.
  • The economic prosperity of the United Provinces
    ruined by a series of wars late in the century.
  • The temporary weakening of the States General.
  • A and C.
  • All of the above.

England Constitutional Monarchy
  • James I (1603 1625) and the House of Stuart
  • Took over after Elizabeths death
  • Claimed he ruled by Divine Right of Kings
  • Parliament and the power of the purse
  • Religious policies
  • The Puritans controlled most of the lower House
    of Commons
  • Charles I (1625 1649)
  • Petition of Right
  • Prevented any taxation without Parliaments
  • Personal Rule (1629 1640) Parliament does
    not meet
  • Charles I tries to collect taxes without
  • Forced to call Parliament to raise tax money to
    fight Scottish rebellion
  • Religious policy angers Puritans
  • Charles I married a Catholic (Louis XIIIs sister
  • Charles I calls Parliament and the members make
    changes to limit royal authority
  • Charles I arrests radical members of Parliament
    and Parliament rebels starting the English Civil

Possible Test Question
  • The Petition of Right (1628), among other things,
  • Stated that the King of England was elected.
  • Maintained that the King could pass no new tax
    without the consent of Parliament.
  • Restored order in the English military.
  • Made the English monarchy purely ceremonial.
  • Made the Anglican Church the established church.

Civil War (1642 1648)
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • New Model Army effective against Royalists
  • Extreme Puritans who believed they were fighting
    for God
  • 1st phase
  • Charles I is captured after 1st Phase of Civil
    War (1646)
  • Charles I escaped and got the Scotts to help
    invade England
  • Charles I is captured, tried, executed (Jan.
    30, 1649)
  • Parliament abolishes the monarchy
  • Cromwell dissolves Parliament (April 1653)
  • Cromwell divides country into 11 regions ruled by
  • Cromwell dies (1658)
  • Army reestablishes the monarchy, Charles II

Restoration a Glorious Revolution
  • Charles II (1660 1685)
  • Reestablished Anglican church
  • Parliament suspected he was Catholic because his
    brother James was
  • Charles II passed Declaration of Indulgence
  • Suspended laws passed by Parliament against
    Catholics and Puritans
  • Parliament passed Test Act (1673) Only
    Anglicans could hold military and civil offices
  • James II (1685 1688)
  • Devout Catholic
  • Issued new Declaration of Indulgence (1687)
  • Protestant daughters Mary and Anne
  • Catholic son born in 1688
  • Parliament invites Mary and her husband, William
    of Orange, to invade England
  • James II, wife and son flee to France

  • Mary and William of Orange offered throne (1689)
  • Bill of Rights
  • Affirmed Parliaments right to make laws tax
  • laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy
  • The Toleration Act of 1689
  • Granted Puritans right to free public worship
  • Ironically the Toleration Act still didnt
    tolerate Catholics

Possible Test Question
  • The Glorious Revolution in 1688 in England was
    significant for
  • Restoring Charles II and the Stuart dynasty to
  • Bloodlessly deposing James II in favor of William
    of Orange.
  • Returning England to a Catholic commonwealth.
  • Parliaments establishment of a new monarch
    through a series of bloody wars.
  • The abolishment of the monarchy in favor of a
    republican commonwealth.

Possible Test Question
  • The incident that prompted the nobles to depose
    James II was
  • His marriage to the Duchess of Orange.
  • The death of his first wife.
  • The birth of a Catholic son.
  • A religious alliance with France.
  • Economic collapse caused by the South Sea

Responses to the Revolution
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588 1679)
  • Leviathan (1651)
  • People form a commonwealth for protection
  • People have no right to rebel
  • Believed in strong government to maintain social
  • John Locke (1632 1704)
  • Two Treatises of Government
  • Inalienable Rights Life, Liberty and Property
  • People form a government to protect their rights
  • If government does not fulfill their social
    contract with the people, the people have the
    right to revolt

Possible Test Question
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • Felt that man was suited best to be in a pristine
    state of nature, without government interference.
  • Stated that mankind was animalistic, and needed a
    strong government to maintain social order.
  • Was a firm believer in democracy.
  • Said that the best form of government was a
  • Argued in favor of revolution when the ruler
    broke the social contract.

Possible Test Question
  • John Locke was responsible for
  • Synthesizing previous doctrines on international
  • The idea of society as being in a constant state
    of war.
  • Advocating political democracy for the entire
  • Emphasizing the social contract between the
    people and government.
  • Disestablishing the Church of England.

Flourishing European Culture
  • The Changing Faces of Art
  • Mannerism
  • Early 16th century
  • Broke away from balance and harmony of High
  • Art characterized by elongated human forms,
    suffering yearning for a religious experience
  • El Greco was the most famous Mannerism artist
  • Greek artist who studied in Italy painted
    churches in Spain

Laocoon by El Greco
Possible Test Question
  • The artistic movement Mannerism reached its peak
    with the work of
  • Fra Angelico.
  • Bernini.
  • Peter Paul Rubens.
  • El Greco.
  • Rembrandt.

  • Baroque
  • Replaced Mannerism, embraced by Catholic reform
  • Used classical ideals of Renaissance to invoke an
    emotional response
  • Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
  • Used violent motion, heavily fleshed nudes,
    dramatic light and shadows intense emotion in
    his paintings
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 1680)
  • Architect sculptor
  • Greatest figure of Baroque art
  • Completed Saint Peters Basilica
  • French Classicism and Dutch Realism
  • French classicism emphasized clarity, simplicity,
    balance and harmony of design and rejected
    emotionalism of Baroque art
  • Dutch Realism realistic portrayals of secular,
    everyday life
  • Rembrandt van Rijn (1606 1699)

Possible Test Question
  • The Baroque painter who used violent motion,
    heavily fleshed nudes, and dramatic use of light
    and shadow, and rich sensuous pigments in his
    paintings was
  • Rembrandt van Rijn.
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
  • El Greco.
  • Artemisia Gentileschi.
  • Peter Paul Rubens.

Possible Test Question
  • The greatest figure of Baroque art was
  • Rembrandt van Rijn.
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
  • El Greco.
  • Nicholas Poussin.
  • David Caspar Friedrich.

The Baroque Trevi Fountain in Rome
A Wondrous Age of Theater
  • Golden Age of Elizabethan Literature (1580
  • William Shakespeare (1564 1614)
  • The Globe Theater
  • Lord Chamberlains Company
  • Spanish Theater
  • Lope de Vega (1562 1635)
  • Wrote 1500 plays about 1/3 survive
  • French Theater (1630s to 1680s)
  • Jean Baptiste Molière (1622 1673)
  • The Misanthrope
  • Tartuffe
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