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Enlightenment

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Title: Enlightenment & Revolution Author: JCPS Last modified by: Kenny Created Date: 10/30/2006 11:32:42 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enlightenment


1
Enlightenment Revolution
  • 1550 - 1789

2
Group Work
  • Once you are in groups please work quietly but
    efficiently.
  • Together, make a list of the TOP 5 Most Important
    advancements made in the Medical Science Field
    over the past 30 years.
  • Then make a list of the TOP 5 Most Important
    Discoveries made in Outer Space in the past 30
    years.

3
Scientific Revolution
  • Roots of Modern Science
  • Truth came from the Bible or the Greeks and
    Romans
  • Medieval View
  • Moon, Sun, Planets moved circular paths around
    earth.
  • Known as the geocentric theory
  • Belief that God planned for earth as center of
    the universe
  • A New Way of Thinking
  • 1500s begins the scientific revolution
  • Change in science, mathematic, and astronomy

4
Revolutionary Model of the Universe
  • Nicolas Copernicus believed in the heliocentric
    theory
  • Went against the geocentric theory
  • Did not release his theory until he was on his
    death bed
  • Revolution of Heavenly Bodies
  • Johannes Kepler
  • Helped develop the theory that planets traveled
    in elliptical motion
  • Galileo Galilei
  • Discovered the law of the pendulum (1581)
  • Discovered falling objects fall at a predictable
    rate
  • Built his own telescope (1609)
  • Observed Jupiters four moons
  • Observed rough surface on the moon proved
    Copernicus theory
  • Punished by the church, lived in house arrest
    (1633 1642)

5
Scientific Method
  • Logical theory for gathering and testing ideas
  • Find a problem
  • Create a hypothesis
  • Test hypothesis in experiments
  • Analyze and interpret the data
  • Conclusion
  • Francis Bacon
  • Belief of using experimentsnot just theory

6
Isaac Newton
  • English Scientist
  • Developed the theory of motion
  • Force ruled the motion of planets
  • Every object attracts every object

7
Spread of Scientific Revolution
  • Scientific Instrument
  • First microscope in 1590
  • Used microscope to study bacteria on teeth
  • Mercury Barometer 1643
  • Measured atmospheric pressure and predicts
    weather
  • Mercury Thermometer 1714
  • Medicine
  • 1543 First human bodies dissected
  • 1628 Study of heart and lungs
  • 1700s Smallpox vaccine invented

8
Spread of Scientific Revolution
  • Discoveries in Chemistry
  • Robert Boyle 1661
  • Believed physical world built of small particles
    joined together in different ways
  • Disputed early belief of only four elements
  • Earth
  • Air
  • Fire
  • Water
  • 1779 Discovery of pure oxygen

9
Philosophers of the Enlightenment
  • What is Philosophy?

10
Philosophy
  • Reason
  • Nature
  • Happiness
  • Progress
  • Liberty

11
Enlightened Europe
  • The age of reason
  • Reached height in the mid 1700s
  • Looked at laws governing human behavior
  • Government, Religion, Economics, Education
  • Led to progress, secular outlook, and importance
    of the individual

12
Thomas Hobbes
  • Social Contract called Leviathan
  • Convinced all humans were naturally selfish and
    wicked
  • Without government to keep order, war of every
    man against every man
  • Give up rights to the ruler to escape bleak life
  • Gain law and order (not the T.V. show) in exchange

13
Hobbes (cont)
  • Social Contract ? Agreement by which people
    create government
  • Ruler needs total power to keep people under
    control
  • Best government would have the awesome power of
    the leviathan (Sea Monster)
  • Example Absolute Monarch

14
John Locke
  • Believed people could learn from experience
    improve themselves
  • People have the ability to govern themselves
  • Criticized absolute monarchs
  • All people born free and equal with 3 natural
    rights
  • Life
  • Liberty
  • Property

15
John Locke
  • The purpose of government is to protect natural
    rights
  • If government failsPeople have the right to
    overthrow the government
  • Two Treatises on Government helped overthrow
    James II

16
Philosophers of the Enlightenment
  • Continued

17
Voltaire
  • Published 70 Books
  • Used satire against his opponents
  • Targeted the clergy, aristocrats, government
  • Wrote about freedom of religion speech
  • Humanities Worst Enemy
  • Intolerance
  • Prejudice
  • Superstition
  • Supported freedom of speech religion

18
Baron de Montesquieu
  • Studied Political Liberty
  • Studied Ancient Rome
  • Concluded Rome collapsed due to loss of political
    liberties
  • Believed in three branches of government
  • Executive ? King
  • Legislative ? Parliament
  • Judicial ? English Court
  • Promoted Checks Balances

19
Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • Passionate to Individual Freedom
  • Reason, Science, Art would improve life of people
  • Civilization corrupted peoples natural goodness
  • Born free moved to bondage
  • Believed in a Direct Democracy
  • Wrote the Social Contract

20
Cesare Beccaria
  • Laws existed to preserve social order, not to
    avenge crimes
  • Against abuse of justice
  • Not torture of witnesses, suspects
  • Irregular trial proceedings
  • Arbitrary punishments
  • Abolish Capital Punishment
  • Punishment should fit crime

21
Spread of Ideas The American Revolution
  • Causes

22
Spread of Ideas (Quick Review)
  • Encyclopedias (1751)
  • Denis Diderot
  • Scholarly Articles
  • Circulate new ideas
  • Literature
  • Baroque period ? Grand, ornate style
  • Neoclassical ? New classical
  • Novels developed

23
Enlightenment (cont)
  • Monarchy
  • Rulers respect peoples rights
  • Ruled justly
  • Became known as enlightened despots
  • Relationship between ruler state
  • Old Idea
  • State Citizens exist to serve the monarch
    (Louis XIV)
  • New Idea
  • Monarch exists to serve the state and support the
    citizens welfare

24
American Revolution
  • Britain Its American Colonies
  • King George III ruler in 1760
  • Growing colonies
  • 250,000 in 1700
  • 2,150,000 in 1770
  • 8 fold increase
  • Supported Englands Economy
  • Colonists settled for 150 years
  • 13 colonies with separate governments
  • Ruled by Britain
  • Mercantilist economy

25
American Revolution Causes
  • French Indian War (1763)
  • French Indians vs. Britain Colonies
  • War caused tighter trade laws
  • Mercantilist economics
  • French Indian War caused huge debt for Britain
  • American colonies benefited ? Expected to pay war
    costs
  • Parliament passes the Stamp Act (1765)
  • Pay tax to have official stamp put on wills,
    deeds, newspapers, and other printed materials
  • Colonists believed act was against natural rights
    was taxation without representation
  • Boycott led to repeal of Stamp act in 1766

26
Causes (cont)
  • Boston Tea Party (1773)
  • Tax on imported tea
  • Samuel Adams led raid against 3 British Ships
  • Dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
  • British troops closed the ports and occupied the
    city

27
American Revolution
  • Course Consequence

28
American Revolution Course
  • September 1774
  • Representative gather from every colony except
    Georgia
  • First Continental Congress
  • Held in Philadelphia
  • Formally protested King George III
  • Complaints Ignored
  • Second Continental Congress held with all
    colonies

29
Course (cont)
  • April 19, 1775
  • British soldiers American militiamen trade gun
    fire in Lexington, MA
  • Fight spread to Concord
  • Second Continental Congress voted to raise an
    army
  • George Washington voted as Leader
  • American Revolution had begun

30
American Revolution Consequence
  • Second Continental Congress Issued Declaration of
    Independence (July 1776)
  • Written by Thomas Jefferson
  • Based on the ideas of John Locke
  • Citizens had natural rights
  • Listed abuses by the king

31
Consequence (cont)
  • Reason for Success
  • Motivated fighters
  • Overconfident British made mistakes
  • Americans were at home
  • France entered war in 1778
  • Under King Louis XVI
  • 9,500 Americans 7,800 French trapped Britain
    near Yorktown, VA
  • 1781 Cornwallis surrendered

32
Creating a Republic
33
Americas Republic
  • National Government Needed
  • Colonists wanted a weak national government
  • 1781 all 13 states ratified the 1st constitution
  • Known as the Articles of Confederation
  • Made America a republic
  • Creation of Weak National Government
  • States held all the powers
  • No executive or judiciary

34
Americas Republic
  • Creation of Congress (Under the 1st Constitution)
  • Helped keep states organized
  • 9 of 13 states had to vote to pass laws
  • Congressional Rights
  • Coin Money
  • Declare Treaties
  • Declare War
  • Not extremely effective
  • Debts Caused Problems
  • Farmers were owed money
  • Daniel Shay demanded repayment
  • Shays Rebellion was crushed
  • Called for taxes on states

35
New Constitution
  • Need for Strong National Government
  • Shown by Shays Rebellion
  • February 1787 Congress approved Constitution
    Convention to discuss Articles
  • May 25, 1787 First Session
  • 55 Delegates
  • Utilized theories of Locke, Montesquieu,
    Rousseau

36
Creation of Federal System
  • 3 Branches
  • Executive
  • Enforces laws
  • Legislative
  • Creates laws
  • Judicial
  • Ensures laws are in line with the constitution
  • Checks Balances
  • Sharing Powers
  • Reserved (States)
  • Delegated (States to National)
  • Concurrent (States National)
  • September 17, 1787 Congress Passes Constitution
    Bill of Rights
  • Bill of Rights ? 10 Amendments

37
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38
  • The Colonies have won the American Revolution!!!
    Yay.
  • Now what?
  • What are the first things that need to be done?
  • List as many things that you can
  • What are the responsibilities of the nation?
  • What are the responsibilities of the states?
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