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Civil War and Revolution


Civil War and Revolution. Let's Get Started. What issues might divide a nation? The Monarchy ... they had fought the English Civil War to rid themselves of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civil War and Revolution

Section 1
  • Civil War and Revolution

Lets Get Started
  • What issues might divide a nation?

The Monarchy
  • Elizabeth
  • James I
  • Charles I
  • Divine Right
  • Catholic vs. Protestant

Power of Parliament
  • Granted to the monarch
  • Petition of Right
  • King could not tax people without consent of
  • Could not declare martial law
  • Could not board troops in homes during peace
  • Could not imprison a person without specific
  • When Parliament complains he dismisses them

Power of Parliament
  • Charles did not call Parliament into session for
    11 years.
  • People were scared he was going to impose
    absolute rule.

Trouble in Scotland
  • Due to military conflict Charles has to ask
    Parliament for money.
  • Parliament wants to discuss their complaints
    first so Charles dismisses them again.
  • After another defeat Charles has to recall
    Parliament once again.

Trouble in Ireland
  • The King needs a bigger army to help put down an
    Irish rebellion.
  • Parliament does not trust the King with the army
    Parliament wants to control the army the King
    is threatened.
  • King leads troops into the House of Commons.
  • Without either side wanting to compromise, a
    Civil War starts.

English Civil War
  • Cavaliers supporters of the King
  • Roundheads supporters of Parliament
  • Oliver Cromwell leader of the Roundheads
  • Rump Parliament abolishes the monarchy and the
    House of Lords
  • Commonwealth republic
  • Charles I is executed his son flees to the
    continent Cromwell controls England

Question for the Class
  • Do you think the execution of Charles I was
  • Support your answer!!!

  • Cromwell believed that divine providence had
    brought him to power.
  • Cromwell ruled from 1653 1658 as a military
  • Wanted to create a parliamentary republic.
  • Constitution?
  • Protectorate was unpopular in England.
  • Protectorate?

  • Weak leader lost the support of the Army
  • 1660 Parliament invites Charles II to return to
  • 1642 1660 English Revolution
  • Peace returned but there was still discontent
    and quarrelling.

  • Charles II is restored to the throne
  • Charles II made entertainment and the arts more
    available to the people. He was nicknamed the
    Merry Monarch.
  • Charles II learned a great deal from his fathers
    execution and from his time on the continent.

Lets Discuss
  • Why do you think Parliament was willing to accept
    a King again after they had fought the English
    Civil War to rid themselves of the monarchs?
  • Cromwell brought confusion and resentment.
  • People sought refuge in familiarity of monarchy.

Main Point
  • Parliament gradually replaced the monarchy as the
    major source of political power in England.

Other problems of Charles II
  • Great Plague of London (1665) killed 70,000
    people over a 4 month period.
  • Great Fire of London (1666) burned for 5 days
    and destroyed a huge part of the city.

Political Parties Develop
  • Charles II had no kids therefore James II
    would become king, a Catholic king.
  • Tories those who believed that James II had a
    hereditary right to become king.
  • Whigs wanted to deny the throne to a Catholic.
  • James IIs second wife a Catholic had a son
    a Catholic son.
  • Everyone was scared of a long line of Catholic

Glorious Revolution
  • Both Whigs and Tories asked James II to step down
    as King.
  • They invite his Protestant daughter and her
    husband to replace James II on the throne.
  • William and Mary
  • This bloodless transfer of power was called the
    Glorious Revolution - 1688

Maybe Maybe Not
  • James IIs son was born a month early, and though
    there were many witnesses present in the room,
    rumors soon spread that he was not really Marys
    son. Some believed that Mary had never been
    pregnant and that the baby was smuggled into the
    room and passed off as the son of James and Mary.
    Rumors eventually proved to be false and
    probably began due to fear of Catholic succession
    to the English throne.

Thomas Hobbes
  • To avoid violence and danger people would choose
    a leader to rule them otherwise chaos would
  • The people made an unwritten social contract
    giving the leader absolute power.
  • The natural world was a place in which only the
    strong would survive unless order was imposed by
    the greater power of a ruler.
  • The social contract described by Hobbes was based
    on the exchange of individual liberty for group
    safety and social order.

John Locke
  • Blank slate
  • Also believed in social contract but that people
    had given up only some of their individual
  • Kept right to life, liberty, and property.
  • Governments existed for the sole purpose of
    protecting those rights.
  • A ruler who denied people their basic rights was
    a tyrant and could justly be overthrown.

  • Habeas Corpus Act protected individuals against
    unfair arrest and imprisonment.
  • English Bill of Rights Parliament gained a
    great deal of power over the monarch and
    individuals were granted certain freedoms.
  • What aspects of the English Bill of Rights do you
    see in American government?
  • In 1701 Parliament passed the Act of Settlement
    to keep Catholics from the English throne.
  • Act of Union (1707) United England and Scotland
    creating Great Britain.

Parliament is supreme to the Monarchy
  • However, Parliament does not represent most of
    the people of England.
  • Only male property owners 250,000 out of 6
    million 4 could vote.
  • House of Commons were not paid

The Prime Minister Emerges
  • Advisers help the King
  • William III chose his officers of state from
    among leaders of Parliament who were often heads
    of government departments become known as the
  • Cabinet members eventually become only members of
    the majority party of Parliament.
  • Chief minister becomes the Prime Minister, or
    first minister

Line of Succession
  • Elizabeth
  • James I
  • Charles I
  • Cromwell
  • (Richard)
  • Charles II
  • James II

Line of Succession
  • William and Mary
  • Anne
  • (Sophia granddaughter of James I)
  • George I
  • George II
  • George III
  • What is a limited constitutional monarchy?
  • What does the British Constitution consist of?

Section 4 The Enlightenment
  • An old theme challenge the existing order.
  • This time it was the social and political order
    where the small, but privileged class, controlled
    the majority.
  • Enlightenment thinkers examined and challenged
    traditional views.

The Enlightenment
  • The 1700s have been called the Age of
  • Some believed that reason and the scientific
    method could logically explain human nature.
  • Philosophes thinkers of the Enlightenment
  • They were not only philosophers but critics of

The Encyclopedia
  • A sort of handbook describing the ideas of the
    Enlightenment that became the most famous
    publication of the period.
  • Some articles criticized society the church,
    government, slave trade, torture, taxes, and war.
  • The publication was edited by Denis Diderot.
  • He was imprisoned for his work.
  • The publication was very popular in Europe.

  • The philosophers examined the governments of
    their times based on the Greek and Roman models.
  • Criticized the power of kings and the privileges
    of clergy and nobles.

Baron de Montesquieu
  • The Spirit of the Laws (1748) describes the
    perfect government.
  • Says Great Britain had the best govt.
  • Three branches of government provides checks to
    political power.
  • How does this impact our govt?
  • What are the three branches?

  • Great at satire
  • Twice imprisoned in the Bastille
  • Fled to England
  • I may disapprove of what you say, but I will
    defend to the death your right to say it.

  • The Social Contract (1762)
  • People are naturally good but their environment,
    education, and laws corrupt them.
  • Good govt must be based on popular sovereignty.
  • Govt must be created and controlled by the
  • What is enlightened despotism?

  • Argued for the equality of women with men.
  • Women should enjoy the same educational
    opportunities and political rights as men
    including the right to vote.

The role of the wealthy
  • Although the Enlightenment produced ideas that
    could be considered revolutionary for the times,
    the movement did not have an immediate widespread
    impact. In the early years of the Enlightenment,
    the audiences for the philosophers ideas were
    relatively small, since they had to be wealthy
    enough to be invited to the salons or to afford
    the luxury of books. During the Enlightenment
    itself, however, the philosophers and their
    wealthy educated audience remained aloof from the
    common people.

  • Why might it be advantageous for the
    Enlightenment to be initially popular with the
    wealthy and educated?
  • Maybe better than starting with the poor.
    Carried more weight when coming from the rich.
    Rulers might accept ideas of upper class easier.
  • Many Enlightenment beliefs would later be used to
    defend the ideas of democracy and social equality.

Section 5 The American Revolution
  • Geography of the Revolution
  • British colonies along the East Coast
  • French settlements to the North and West
  • Appalachian Mountains (Proc. Line of 1763)
  • Hudson River
  • Theatres of War
  • All that water

French and Indian War
  • Who is fighting?
  • Who wins?
  • How does it start in America?
  • Who pays for the war?
  • How does it affect geography?

No Taxation Without Representation?
  • Stamp Act
  • Tea Tax
  • Boston Tea Party, Sons of Liberty, Intolerable
  • Patriots (1/3), Loyalists (1/3), Neutral (1/3)
  • Lexington and Concord

Declaration of Independence
  • We are INDEPENDENT!!!
  • Power of govt come from the people
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Denounced slavery in 1st draft property
    owners were opposed to this
  • Women and Slaves not included
  • Page 499

Redcoats and Rebels
  • Pros and Cons for Colonists
  • GW, home court advantage, fighting for a cause,
    lack of central power, eventual help of allies,
    lack of strong army, scrappy,
  • Pros and Cons for England
  • Professional army, kick butt navy, long ways from
    home, communication, expenses,

  • Bunker Hill
  • Quebec
  • Trenton
  • Saratoga
  • Kings Mountain
  • Cowpens
  • Yorktown
  • Valley Forge

  • Articles of Confederation
  • Weak central govt
  • No chief executive
  • States rights
  • Federal System of Govt
  • Constitution
  • Bill of Rights