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Traditional Actors and Other Actors

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Title: Traditional Actors and Other Actors


1
Traditional Actors and Other Actors
  • Lsns 7, 8, and 9

2
Agenda
  • Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • Post- World War II International System
    (1946-1991)
  • Post- Cold War International System (1992-present)

3
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • Zealous efforts of the Catholic Church to stamp
    out Protestantism led to bitter religious wars in
    the late 16th and early 17th Centuries
  • The growing tensions erupted in the Thirty Years
    War (1618-1648) which eventually involved every
    major European power and expanded from a
    religious to a political character

Ferdinand II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
4
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • The war was the most destructive European
    conflict prior to the 20th Century
  • Undisciplined soldiers committed acts of violence
    and brutality
  • Economic and social life was disrupted
  • One-third of the German population was killed
  • In an effort to avoid tearing their societies
    apart, the European powers ended the war with the
    Peace of Westphalia in 1648

5
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • The Peace of Westphalia
  • Laid the foundations for a system of independent,
    competing states
  • European states would henceforth regard each
    other as sovereign and equal
  • Each state had the right to organize its own
    domestic and religious affairs
  • Political and diplomatic affairs would be
    conducted by states acting in their own interests

6
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • Sovereignty does not necessarily mean that the
    state is able to control all the actions of its
    members at all times
  • It does mean the state internally can claim a
    monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force
    as a possible tool in seeking to compel obedience
    and externally can claim a monopoly right to act
    vis-à-vis other states

Max Weber famously defined the state as that
organization that claims a monopoly over the
legitimate use of violence
7
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • With the Peace of Westphalia, nation-states
    emerged as the worlds primary political
    organizations
  • Nation-states have a single central government
    exercising sovereignty over a relatively fixed
    population within a relatively defined territory
  • A nation refers to a a cultural or social
    entity whose members have some sense of a shared
    historical experience as well as shared destiny
  • State and nation-state have come to be used
    interchangeably

The former state of Yugoslavia has divided into
several new states that reflect the national
identities of their members
8
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • During the classical era of international
    relations there were a relatively small number of
    actors involved in international politics
  • Royal families of the European nation-states
    along with their aristocratic elites

King Louis XIV is credited with saying, L'État,
c'est moi (I am the State).
9
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • While other nation-states existed, international
    politics was essentially European politics
  • Power distributed among England, France, Austria,
    Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and later Prussia and
    Russia
  • Aggressively minded states were deterred from
    seeking hegemony by the balance of power
    represented by the prospect of coming up against
    a coalition of states having equal or superior
    power
  • France was often perceived as the major threat to
    the systems stability with England serving as
    the chief balancer

10
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • The first half of the 17th Century ushered in the
    age of absolutism in which ultimate authority
    rested in the hands of a monarch who claimed to
    rule by divine right and was therefore
    responsible only to God
  • The fact that decision-making rested in the hands
    of a few rulers who did not have any vast
    ideological cleavages (all were conservative and
    many were related by marriage) helped maintain
    stability
  • A minimum number of minimally different
    nation-states

11
Classical International System (1648-1789)
  • The combination of multiple power systems and
    flexibility of alignments made for a multipolar
    environment
  • The classical era was not an era of peace, but
    one in which the violent international conflicts
    that did occur were relatively small affairs
    between monarchs rather than the total wars
    between societies that would follow in subsequent
    eras

12
Case Study
  • Seven Years War

13
Seven Years War Causes
  • After the explorations of the 15th, 16th, and
    17th Centuries, the European powers protected
    their interests by building a series of fortified
    trading posts throughout the maritime regions
  • Boundaries in the new colonies were disputed
  • Commercial competition ultimately generated
    violence
  • In 1746 French forces seized the English trading
    post at Madras, India
  • In the Caribbean English pirates attacked Spanish
    vessels and French and English forces fought over
    the sugar islands
  • The violence culminated in the Seven Years War
    (1756-1763)

14
Seven Years War Causes
  • A global war
  • In Europe, Britain and Prussia fought against
    France, Austria, and Russia
  • In India, British and French allied with local
    rulers and fought each other
  • In the Caribbean, the Spanish and French fought
    the British
  • In North America, the Seven Years War merged
    with the on-going French and Indian War
    (1754-1763) which pitted the British and French
    against each other

15
Seven Years War Frederick the Great
  • Became king of Prussia in 1740 when he was 28
  • Had spent much of his life training as a soldier,
    visiting battlefields, and studying political
    history and politics
  • Believed every man had an obligation to serve his
    state and that it was the kings particular duty
    to develop policies that increased the power and
    standing of the state
  • Strong lust for military glory
  • His success lay in his purposeful use of
    authority and unwavering determination to make
    Prussia a European power

16
Seven Years War Frederick the Great
  • Frederick used the period of peace after the War
    of Austrian Succession to prepare his country and
    army for another war
  • In August 1756, Frederick launched a preemptive
    attack against Saxony and Austria, hoping to
    force them to sue for peace before another
    country could intervene
  • Was unable to achieve a quick, decisive victory
    and was now faced with fighting a coalition of
    powerful states
  • French, Russian, and Austria forces began
    converging on Prussia

17
Seven Years War Frederick the Great
  • Frederick used his central position to defeat
    French, German, and Austrian armies in his
    Nov-Dec 1757 Rossbach-Leuthen campaign, secure
    Prussias boundaries of 1756, and gain a
    satisfactory negotiated peace
  • In the process, he benefited greatly from
    Britains ability to support Prussia by defeating
    the French at sea and overseas

18
Seven Years War British Navy
  • The British had the most powerful fleet and
    expeditionary forces of any of the combatants
  • Furthermore, the British could rely on the
    Prussian army to do most of the fighting on the
    continent
  • This allowed the British to bring overwhelming
    pressure against the French at sea

19
Seven Years War British Navy
  • The British Navy blockaded the French ports to
    contain commerce raiders, intercept forces bound
    for the colonies, and forestall an invasion of
    England
  • They raided the French Atlantic coast to destroy
    shipping and stores and to divert French forces
    from Germany
  • They defeated the French Navy at Quiberon Bay
    which freed the British Navy to turn its
    attention to the French colonies

The Battle of Quiberon Bay by Nicholas Pocock
20
Seven Years War French and Indian War
  • The British, French, and Spanish all had colonial
    interests in North America and this competition
    led to war in 1754
  • The French and Indian War merged with the Seven
    Years War

21
Seven Years War French and Indian War
  • The French came to place greater emphasis on the
    war in Europe than in the colonies and the
    British developed a numerical advantage
  • The British Navy played an important role in
    blockading New France which was never a
    self-sufficient colony and could not survive
    without a steady stream of support from France
  • In September 1760, the British finally conquered
    all of Canada when the combined Anglo-American
    force overwhelmed the French at Montreal

22
Seven Years War Results
  • The victory in Canada allowed the British to
    divert thousands of troops elsewhere and
    ultimately win the Seven Years War
  • Britain was now in a position to dominate world
    trade for the foreseeable future
  • The Seven Years War paved the way for the
    establishment of the British Empire of the 19th
    Century

23
Seven Years War
  • How does the Seven Years War represent the era
    of the classical international system in terms
    of
  • States acting according to self-interest
  • European dominance
  • Absolute authority
  • Limited war
  • Balance of power
  • Multipolar

24
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • The American and French Revolutions ushered in a
    period of nationalism that gave the masses a
    greater voice in the political life of their
    country
  • Mass democracy meant that the government had to
    be more sensitive to public opinion in
    formulating foreign policy, but also that the
    government could count on the total military and
    economic capabilities of their societies in
    pursuing that policy

During the French Revolution, the levee en masse
was used to mobilize the French population and
resources
25
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • Nationalism led to the appearance of new states
  • Freedom gained from colonial masters
  • Political unification of culturally similar
    groups
  • At the same time, nationalistic impulses touched
    off a new wave of European imperialism that
    subjugated people in Africa and elsewhere

Simon Bolivar was one of the chief heroes in
Latin Americas struggle for independence from
Spain
26
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • Imperialism was effected not just through the
    force of arms, but also through trade,
    investment, and business activities that enabled
    the imperial powers to profit from subject
    societies and influence their affairs without
    going to the trouble of exercising direct
    political control
  • Conflict could be avoided only as long as there
    was enough colonial territory to go around

Colonial disputes in Africa was one of the causes
of World War I
27
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • After World War I there were additional pressures
    for national self-determination and by the end
    of the transitional period there were over 50
    nation-states
  • In addition to increased nation-states, there
    were increasing numbers of people during this
    period
  • In 1830 the world population reached 1 billion
  • Just 100 years later it reached 2 billion

28
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • The increased industrialization that occurred in
    Europe and America during the 19th and early 20th
    Centuries contributed to a growing disparity in
    wealth between societies in the Northern and
    Southern Hemispheres
  • The transitional era marked increasing
    interdependence, especially in the economic
    sphere
  • The Global Depression of the 1920s and 1930s
    showed the dangers of this interdependence

By the end of the 19th Century, the factory had
become the predominant site of industrial
production in Europe and America
29
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • The Industrial Revolution largely bypassed the
    Southern Hemisphere, creating an unprecedented
    rich-poor gap
  • The Industrial Revolution skewed not just the
    distribution of wealth in favor of certain
    states, but also the distribution of power
  • Economic advantage was easily converted to
    military advantage
  • Several states dominated the rest of the system,
    but Britain was considered first among equals

30
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • Two non-European states rose to power during this
    transitional era
  • The United States with its victory in the
    Spanish-American War (1898)
  • Japan with its victory in the Russo-Japanese War
    (1905)
  • The transitional era marked both the peak of the
    European-centered world and the beginning of its
    decline

Retreat of Russian soldiers during the
Russo-Japanese War
31
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • On Oct 24-25, 1917, the Bolsheviks stormed the
    Winter Palace, seized control of Russia, and
    transitioned the country to a socialist
    government
  • After that Russia took on special significance in
    the international system as a communist power

Vladimir Lenin headed the Bolsheviks, the radical
wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party
32
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • Additional components of growing ideological
    conflict emerged during the transitional era with
    the rise of national socialism and fascism
  • The transitional era marked the first time
    competition between rival political philosophies
    would be injected into international relations
    and would foreshadow the extreme polarization of
    the post-World War II era

In May 1939, Mussolini and Hitler signed a
ten-year Pact of Steel between Italy and Germany
33
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • Still the international system of the
    transitional era was flexible enough to remain
    multipolar in that countries reached across
    ideological philosophies to form alliances
  • The British and American democracies joined
    forces with the communist Soviets against the
    fascist Germans and Italians in World War II

Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin
34
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • The transitional era was marked by increases in
    total war
  • Total war describes a war in which nations use
    all of their resources to destroy another
    nations ability to engage in war.
  • French Revolutions levee en masse
  • US Civil War and Shermans March to the Sea
  • World War I and the increased lethality that
    resulted from diverting advances in
    industrialization to military applications
  • World War II and the atomic bomb

35
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • Traditional nation-states have difficulties
    handling problems of a global magnitude
  • Nonstate actors began to appear
  • The first intergovernmental international
    organization, The Central Committee for the
    Navigation of the Rhine, was created in 1815
  • The International Committee of the Red Cross was
    founded in 1863
  • The League of Nations was formed in 1919

1919 British cartoon criticizing the failure of
the United States to join the League of Nations
36
Transitional International System (1789-1945)
  • Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
  • Established on a regional or global basis by
    member governments in response to problems that
    transcend national boundaries and seem to call
    for institutional responses
  • Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
  • Formed among private groups of individuals
    sharing specialized interests across national
    borders

37
Case Study
  • Global Depression

38
Global Depression
  • In the 1920s, the world economy was beginning to
    return to normal after World War I
  • Beneath the surface however there were some
    serious flaws
  • Tangled financial system
  • Second order effects of technological advances
  • Weakened agricultural base

39
Tangled Financial System
  • The Treaty of Versailles imposed heavy reparation
    payments on Germany and Austria to France and
    Britain
  • Germany and Austria relied on US loans and
    investment capital to finance these reparations
  • The French and British, in turn, relied on these
    reparations to repay loans to the US taken out
    during World War I
  • By the summer of 1928, US lenders and investors
    started to withdraw capital from Europe which
    placed an intolerable strain on the system

40
Second Order Effects of Technological Advances
  • Improvements in industrial processes reduced
    demand for some raw resources, causing an
    increase in supplies and a drop in demand
  • Tires could now be made with reclaimed rubber
    which crippled the economies of the Dutch East
    Indies, Ceylon, and Malaysia which relied on
    exports of rubber
  • Increased use of oil reduced demand for coal
  • Synthetics reduced demand for cotton
  • Artificial nitrogen reduced demand for nitrates
    from Chile

41
Weakened Agricultural Base
  • Agricultural production in Europe declined
    significantly during World War I, so farmers in
    the US, Canada, Argentina, and Australia
    increased their production
  • After World War I, European farmers restored
    their production which created worldwide
    surpluses
  • The situation was exacerbated by above average
    global harvests between 1925 and 1929
  • By 1929 the price of a bushel of wheat was its
    lowest in 400 years

42
Crash of 1929
  • The US had enjoyed an economic boom after World
    War I
  • Many people began buying stock on margin (paying
    as little as 3 of the stocks price in cash and
    borrowing the remainder)
  • By October 1929, indications of a worldwide
    economic slowdown and overvalued stock prices
    prompted investors to pull out of the market

43
(No Transcript)
44
Black Thursday (October 24)
  • Panic selling on the New York Stock Exchange
    caused stock prices to plummet
  • Thousands lost their lifesavings
  • By the end of the day, eleven financiers had
    committed suicide
  • When lenders called in their loans, investors
    were forced to sell their securities at any price

45
Economic Contraction Spreads
  • There was no longer consumer demand for all the
    goods businesses produced
  • Businesses cut back on production and laid off
    workers
  • A vicious downward spiral of business failures
    and unemployment followed
  • By 1932, industrial production was half of its
    1929 level
  • National income was down approximately 50
  • 44 of US banks had closed

46
Global Effects
  • Much of the world depended on the export of US
    capital and the strength of US imports, so the US
    economic contraction had worldwide impact
  • Germany and Japan were especially hard hit

Toronto Stock Market after the day after the New
York Stock Market crashes
47
Economic Nationalism
  • The Great Depression destroyed international
    economic cooperation and governments began
    practicing economic nationalism
  • Trade barriers, import quotas, import
    prohibitions
  • US passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff in 1930 raising
    duties on most manufactured products to
    prohibitive levels
  • Governments of other nations retaliated with
    their own tariffs on US products

Congressman Willis Hawley
48
Economic Nationalism
  • The world economy was too interdependent for
    protectionism to work
  • Between 1929 and 1932, world production went down
    38 and trade dropped over 66
  • By 1933, unemployment in industrialized nations
    was five times higher than in 1929

Unemployed men vying for jobs at the American
Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles during
the Great Depression.
49
Global Depression
  • How does the Global Depression represent the era
    of the transitional international system in terms
    of
  • Impact of industrialization
  • Increased interdependence
  • Shifting away from European dominance
  • Growth of nonstate actors

50
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • Following World War II, the international system
    became bipolar as the United States and the
    Soviet Union matched competing ideologies in the
    Cold War
  • The Cold War was a state of political tension and
    military rivalry that stopped short of full-scale
    war, but involved everything from the Olympics to
    the space race to indirect fighting through
    surrogates

51
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • The US and the USSR led two collective security
    organizations, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, that
    reflected the bipolar world
  • Because a direct superpower confrontation was
    potentially catastrophic, the superpowers fought
    through surrogates in places like Korea, Vietnam,
    and Afghanistan

52
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • Still there were several tense moments of
    brinkmanship where the US and the USSR came close
    to confrontation such as the construction of the
    Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis

1962 British cartoon showing Kennedy and
Khrushchev arm wrestling on top of nuclear weapons
53
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • After the US-USSR arms race reached the point of
    Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), the superpowers
    resigned themselves to maintain a peaceful
    coexistence
  • A gradual loosening of bloc unity ensued with
    France exercising increased independence in the
    West and Romania and China in the East

French President Charles de Gaulle declared,
France has no permanent friends, only permanent
interests.
54
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • One organization that offered an alternative to
    the post-World War II global reconstruction
    independent of the Cold War was the United
    Nations
  • Charter finalized by delegates from 50 nations in
    1945
  • Dedicated to maintaining international peace and
    security and promoting friendly relations among
    the worlds nations
  • Still the ideological differences of the Cold War
    dominated the post-World War II international
    system and largely marginalized UN effectiveness

55
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • Because of widespread aversion to foreign rule,
    the two superpowers sought to gain influence over
    Third World nations rather than physically occupy
    them
  • Third World countries were the newly
    independent nation-states, usually in the
    Southern Hemisphere, that were often
    underdeveloped or just developing

56
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • After World War II, many colonial powers granted
    independence to their former colonies
  • The decolonization process doubled the number of
    nation-states from roughly 60 in 1945 to over 130
    in 1973

57
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • In 1945 almost a quarter of the worlds people
    and its land were under colonial rule
  • By 1973 less than 1 of the worlds population
    and territory still lacked self-governments
  • However many of the newly independent states
    lacked the experience and institutions necessary
    to smoothly transition to self-government and in
    many cases civil war, corruption, and
    dictatorships followed independence

58
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • During the1980s, Cold War tensions increased as
    Ronald Reagan pursued a vigorous anti-Soviet
    policy
  • While the US was spending at levels the USSR was
    finding difficult to match, the Soviets were
    having their own problems with their economy and
    the war in Afghanistan
  • Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev tried to correct
    the situation with a series of reforms, but by
    the summer of 1990 the reforms had spent
    themselves

Reagan delivering his Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down
This Wall! speech in 1987
59
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • Revolutions broke out throughout eastern Europe
    as people overthrow communist dictators in places
    like Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania and countries
    such as Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia broke apart
  • The Berlin Wall came down on November 9, 1989 and
    East and West Germany united in 1990

The 1989 Romanian Revolution was a violent
overthrow of the communist regime of Nicolae
Ceausescu
60
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • In August 1991, Soviet republics began declaring
    their independence from the USSR
  • By the end of 1991, the USSR had ceased to exist
  • The demise of the Soviet Union left the US as the
    worlds sole superpower

Division of the former USSR into 15 independent
states
61
Post- World War II International System
(1946-1991)
  • On Aug 2, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait
  • The United Nations adopted resolutions condemning
    Iraq and authorizing the use of force
  • Thirty-six countries (as well as Kuwait)
    contributed forces
  • The end of the Cold War and Russias willingness
    to join the US in opposing Iraq created an
    unprecedented level of international cooperation
    and hopes for a more favorable new world order

62
Case Study
  • The Truman Doctrine and the Greek Civil War

63
George Kennan and Containment
  • Kennan was a Soviet expert and director of the
    State Departments Policy Planning Staff
  • In the July 1947 issue of Foreign Affairs he
    wrote an article under the pen name Mr. X
    titled The Sources of Soviet Conduct.
  • He described the USSR as being driven by an
    aggressive and uncompromising ideology that would
    stop only when it meets some unanswerable force.

64
George Kennan and Containment
  • Kennan wrote that the US must adopt a policy of
    firm containment designed to confront the
    Russians with unalterable counterforce at every
    point where they show signs of encroaching upon
    the interests of a peaceful and stable world.

65
Greek Civil War
  • During the German occupation of Greece during
    WWII, the Communists and other parts of the Greek
    Left formed a resistance army called the National
    People's Liberation Army (ELAS)
  • By 1944, ELAS controlled large areas of the
    country and continued to have success against the
    British liberation force after the war.

66
Truman Doctrine
  • On Feb 21, 1947, the British informed the US that
    they were pulling out of Greece.
  • On March 3, the Greek government requested US
    aid.
  • On March 12, President Truman announced the
    Truman Doctrine
  • I believe that it must be the policy of the
    United States to support free peoples who are
    resisting attempted subjugation by armed
    minorities or by outside pressures.

Harry Truman
67
JUSMAPG
  • On 22 May, Truman signed a bill authorizing 400
    million in aid to Greece and Turkey.
  • By 1952, Greek forces would receive 500 million
    in US aid.
  • Even more important was LTG James Van Fleet and
    his 350-man Joint US Military Advisory and
    Planning Group.

Grumman Avengers and Curtis Helldivers aboard the
USS Leyte preparing for operations over Greece in
1948
68
Success
  • Van Fleet set out to retrain and reorganize the
    Greek Army and cut off the flow of supplies
    reaching guerrillas from Yugoslavia, Albania, and
    Bulgaria
  • On Oct 16, 1949, Greeces Communist leaders
    announced a cease-fire

As in Greece, the enemy strikes from sanctuary
69
UN Special Committee on the Balkans
  • In addition to the US effort, Greek Civil War
    involved the United Nations Special Committee on
    the Balkans (UNSCOB)
  • First attempt by the UN to deploy an observation
    mission in the midst of an armed conflict
  • In Aug 1946 the USSR vetoed a proposal to
    establish an investigative commission to look
    into the violence along the Greek-Albania border
  • In December, Greece brought the complaint before
    the Security Council and the US repeated the
    earlier proposal
  • This time the USSR acquiesced to the commission
    but proceeded to repeatedly veto resolutions
    based on its findings of Albanian, Yugoslav, and
    Bulgarian support to the Greek guerrillas

70
UN Special Committee on the Balkans
  • The US was able to move the matter from the
    Security Council to the General Assembly to avoid
    a Soviet veto and on October 21, 1947, the UN
    created the eleven member Special Committee on
    the Balkans (UNSCOB)
  • Two of the nations appointed to UNSCOB, Poland
    and the USSR, refused to participate
  • UNSCOB functioned until December 7, 1951, when it
    was dissolved by the General Assembly and
    replaced on January 23, 1952 by a Balkan
    Sub-Commission of the standing Peace Observation
    Commission
  • In each of its annual reports, UNSCOB had found
    continuing aid to the guerilla forces in Greece

71
UN Special Committee on the Balkans
  • The UNSCOB was the first UN mission created
    directly as a result of Cold War competition
  • It was plagued by a lack of cooperation from the
    communist governments who refused to allow it to
    operate in their territories
  • While UNSCOB had no great impact on the Greek
    Civil War, it did teach the UN valuable lessons
    about the importance of obtaining consent from
    all local parties before deploying on a
    peacekeeping mission and the necessity of
    political impartiality once deployed

72
The Truman Doctrine and the Greek Civil War
  • How does the Truman Doctrine and the Greek Civil
    War represent the Post- World War II
    international system in terms of
  • Competing ideologies
  • The bipolar world
  • Superpowers militarily confronting each other
    through surrogates
  • The role of the UN

73
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • The collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of
    the Cold War abruptly opened up possibilities for
    trans-global connections that had previously been
    limited
  • Globalization is the increasing
    interconnectedness of all parts of the world in
    all areas, most notably communication, commerce,
    culture, and politics
  • It is welcomed by some and vilified by others

74
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • We stand today at a unique and extraordinary
    moment. The crisis in the Persian Gulf, as grave
    as it is, also offers a rare opportunity to move
    toward an historic period of cooperation. Out of
    these troubled times, . a new world order can
    emerge a new era -- freer from the threat of
    terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice, and
    more secure in the quest for peace. An era in
    which the nations of the world, East and West,
    North and South, can prosper and live in
    harmony.

75
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • .A hundred generations have searched for this
    elusive path to peace, while a thousand wars
    raged across the span of human endeavor. Today
    that new world is struggling to be born, a world
    quite different from the one weve known. A world
    where the rule of law supplants the rule of the
    jungle. A world in which nations recognize the
    shared responsibility for freedom and justice. A
    world where the strong respect the rights of the
    weak.
  • President George H. W. Bush Sept 11, 1990

76
Post- Cold War International System (1992-present)
  • Cold War threats were potentially catastrophic
    but they were also measurable and somewhat
    predictable
  • The bipolar structure and the desire to avoid
    superpower confrontation had provided a certain
    degree of order and stability
  • The post Cold War period was much more ambiguous
    and uncertain and many new threats emerged

CIA Director James Woolsey described the
post-Cold War environment by saying, We have
slain a large dragon (the U.S.S.R.) but we now
live in a jungle filled with a bewildering
variety of poisonous snakes. In many ways, the
dragon was easier to keep track of.
77
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • The Cold War structure had kept in check ethnic
    divisions in many countries and limited military
    interventions
  • The end of the Cold War changed all that
  • UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali
    advocated the legitimate involvement of the UN
    in peace enforcement and peacemaking
    operations
  • After the Cold War, the United Nations went from
    an average of three or four peacekeeping
    operations a year to 13 in December 1992

78
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • Bosnia
  • Somalia
  • Rwanda
  • East Timor
  • Kosovo
  • Liberia
  • Sudan

Rwandan children in the refugee camp at Ndosha,
Zaire
79
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • In a globalized war, bad things that happen in
    other countries spread more quickly to our
    shores. Genocides spawn refugees, who
    destabilize their neighbors. Corruption sparks
    financial meltdowns, which rock the world
    economy. Pandemics hopscotch across the globe.
  • Peter Beinart in explaining why the US intervened
    in Kosovo where there was no direct threat to
    the US (Time, 23 Apr 2007, 28)

80
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • The United Nations Charter proclaims one of the
    UNs principle purposes as being to maintain
    international peace and security
  • Sometimes the UN effectively intervened in these
    crises, sometimes it didnt
  • Same for the United States
  • The US found that its status as world economic
    and military superpower would not necessarily
    equate to unchallenged world leadership
  • The US would meet a host of challenges within the
    UN and from non-governmental organizations as
    well as from new enemies

81
Post- Cold War International System (1992-present)
  • UN Charter Chapter VI
  • Pacific Settlement of Disputes
  • Security Council can investigate any dispute, or
    any situation which might lead to international
    friction or give rise to a dispute
  • Council can recommend action but the
    recommendations are not binding on its members
  • UN Charter Chapter VII
  • Council is not limited to recommendations
  • Can take action, including the use of armed
    force, to maintain or restore international peace
    and security
  • Peacekeeping operations often are called Chapter
    VI and a half

82
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • Limitations of the UN
  • No army of its own
  • Reliant on ad hoc contributions from its members
  • Can never divorce itself from the political
    agendas of its members
  • Inadequately trained staff of military
    professionals and managers

83
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • The post-Cold War era included an ever-widening
    gap between rich industrialized nations (mostly
    in the Northern Hemisphere) and poor agricultural
    ones (mostly in the Southern Hemisphere)
  • The goal of all poor nations is economic growth,
    but most lack the requirements for industrial
    development
  • Trapped in a cycle of poverty lack of capital
    resulting from low production leads to low
    savings which in turn means little or no
    available capital for future development projects

84
Post- Cold War International System (1992-present)
  • The collapse of communism in the USSR and Eastern
    Europe opened up huge economic markets
  • On the other hand West Germanys previously
    booming economy struggled as it tried to
    integrate the much poorer former East Germany
  • In 2004, the EU swelled to 25 members including
    the former Soviet republics of Latvia, Lithuania,
    and Estonia

As Germany moved its capital from Bonn to Berlin,
construction projects were rampant
85
Post- Cold War International System
(1992-present)
  • Failed states became fertile ground for terrorist
    safe havens, black market activities,
    humanitarian crises, and general chaos
  • Lack of state capacity in poor countries has
    come to haunt the developed world much more
    directly.. Suddenly the ability to shore up or
    to create from whole cloth missing state
    capabilities and institutions has risen to the
    top of the global agenda and seems likely to be a
    major condition for security in important parts
    of the world. Thus state weakness is both a
    national and an international issue of the first
    order.
  • Francis Fukuyama, State-Building, x-xi

86
Case Study
  • September 11

87
Islamism
  • As globalization spread, many Muslims became
    skeptical about European and American models of
    economic development and political and cultural
    norms
  • Blamed the Western models for their own economic
    and political problems as well as for
    secularization and its attendant breakdown of
    traditional social and religious values
  • Saw the Muslim world as slipping into a state of
    decline brought about by the abandonment of
    Islamic traditions and many blamed the US

The Saudi Arabian Mutaween, or religious police,
enforce the Islamic dress code
88
Islamist Reaction
  • Many saw the solution to the problems faced by
    Muslim societies as being a revival of Islamic
    identity, values, and power
  • Most sought to bring about change through
    peaceful means, but an extremist minority has
    claimed a mandate from God that calls for violent
    transformations

Supporters of Hizbut Tahrir, a hardline Muslim
group, protesting in front of the US Embassy in
Jakarta, Indonesia
89
Jihad
  • Convinced that the Muslim world is under siege,
    extremists used the concept of the jihad to
    rationalize and legitimize terrorism and
    revolution
  • Jihad is sometimes called the Sixth Pillar of
    Islam and is an exertion or struggle in achieving
    the ways of Allah
  • It invokes the right and duty to defend Islam and
    the Islamic community from unjust attack

Members of the Islamic Jihads military wing, the
Al-Quds Brigade, in Gaza
90
Extremist Rhetoric
  • God has blessed a group of vanguard Muslims, the
    forefront of Islam, to destroy America."
  • Osama bin Laden in a videotaped statement
    broadcast by Al Jazeera, October 7, 2001
  • We issue the following fatwa to all Muslims The
    ruling to kill the Americans and their allies --
    civilians and military -- is an individual duty
    for every Muslim who can do it in any country in
    which it is possible to do it....We -- with God's
    help -- call on every Muslim who believes in God
    and wishes to be rewarded to comply with God's
    order to kill the Americans and plunder their
    money wherever and whenever they find it.
  • World Islamic Front Statement, February 23, 1998

91
Clash of Civilizations
  • On both sides the interaction between Islam and
    the West is seen as a clash of civilizations.
  • Samuel Huntington

92
Huntingtons Civilizations
Western
Slavic- Orthodox
Sinic
Japanese
Latin American
Islamic
Hindu
African
93
Osama bin Laden
  • Osama bin Laden began his militancy in response
    to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • He helped found the Maktab al-Khadamat (MAK)
    which recruited and funded mujahideen to fight
    the Soviets
  • Ironically, the US also supported the mujahideen
    based on the Cold War philosophy that the enemy
    of my enemy is my friend

94
al-Qaeda
Part of the post-Desert Storm US military
presence at Prince Sultan Air Base, 80 km south
of Riyadh
  • In 1988, bin Laden split from the MAK and formed
    a new group comprised of some of the most
    militant mujahideen that would become the
    al-Qaeda terrorist group
  • With the US involvement in Desert Storm and its
    subsequent continued presence in Saudi Arabia,
    home of the Muslim holy sites of Mecca and
    Medina, bin Laden became irreconcilably
    infuriated by the Western influence

95
September 11, 2001
  • On Sept 11, 2001, 19 men affiliated with al-Qaeda
    hijacked four planes and crashed two into the
    World Trade Towers in New York City and one into
    the Pentagon
  • The fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania after
    passengers attacked the terrorists

96
Terrorism
  • The deliberate and systematic use of violence
    against civilians with the aim of advancing
    political, religious, or ideological cause
  • Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but its impact
    has been magnified in a globalized world
    distinguished by rapid technological advances in
    transportation, communications, and weapons
    development
  • Worldwide television coverage has transformed
    terrorism by expanding its visibility and impact

97
al-Qaedas International Presence at the Time of
the Sept 11 Attack
98
Global War on Terrorism
  • On Sept 20, President Bush addressed the nation
    and declared Our war on terror begins with al
    Qaeda, but it does not end there.  It will not
    end until every terrorist group of global reach
    has been found, stopped and defeated Our
    response involves far more than instant
    retaliation and isolated strikes.  Americans
    should not expect one battle, but a lengthy
    campaign, unlike any other we have ever seen.  It
    may include dramatic strikes, visible on TV, and
    covert operations, secret even in success.

99
Global War on Terrorism
  •  We will starve terrorists of funding, turn them
    one against another, drive them from place to
    place, until there is no refuge or no rest.  And
    we will pursue nations that provide aid or safe
    haven to terrorism.  Every nation, in every
    region, now has a decision to make. Either you
    are with us, or you are with the
    terrorists.  From this day forward, any nation
    that continues to harbor or support terrorism
    will be regarded by the United States as a
    hostile regime.

100
Operation Enduring Freedom
  • The Sept 11 attack was quickly traced to Osama
    bin Laden who had been operating from Afghanistan
    since his 1996 expulsion from Saudi Arabia
  • On Oct 7, 2001, the US led a coalition attack
    into Afghanistan to destroy terrorist training
    camps and infrastructure, capture al-Qaeda
    leaders, and eliminate terrorist activities in
    Afghanistan
  • By mid-March 2002, the Taliban government had
    been removed from power and the al-Qaeda network
    in Afghanistan had been severely crippled

CENTCOM Commander General Tommy Franks explains
Operation Enduring Freedom
101
September 11
  • How does the terrorist attack of September 11 and
    the Global War on Terrorism represent Post- Cold
    War International System international system in
    terms of
  • Globalization
  • Changing threats
  • The New World Order
  • Clashes of civilizations
  • The role of the UN
  • The role of the US

102
Nontraditional Actors
  • Global media
  • Nongovernmental organizations
  • Global corporations

103
Media Coverage The Old Way
  • 1938 the first regular broadcast of daily news
    began on radio, with the World Today program on
    CBS for 15 minutes every evening,
  • 1948 the CBS TV News began
  • 1963 CBS Evening News expanded from 15 to 30
    minutes, followed shortly by NBC, and then by ABC
    in 1967
  • 1968 CBS began the 60 Minutes news
    magazine/documentary weekly show

CBS News correspondent Eric Sevareid, 1955
104
24/7 News
  • 1980 Cable News Network (CNN) became the world's
    first 24-hour cable television news channel
  • 1996 MSNBC and Fox News Channel began 24-hour
    news
  • Collectively, expanded television news coverage
    creates the CNN effect which affects political,
    diplomatic, and military decision making on a
    global level

105
al Jazeera
  • Founded in 1996 and based in Qatar
  • Fastest growing network among Arab communities
    and Arabic speaking people around the world 
  • Focuses primarily on news coverage and analysis
    with a markedly anti-Western slant

106
bin Laden and al Jazeera
  • For someone who scorned modernity and
    globalization, and who took refuge in an Islamic
    state that banned television, bin Laden proved
    remarkably adept at public diplomacy. In the
    wake of the September 11 attacks, bin Laden
    turned to al Jazeera to reach the two audiences
    that were essential to his plans the Western
    news media and the Arab masses.
  • David Hoffman, Beyond Public Diplomacy

107
Influence of the Media
  • Agenda setting
  • Shaping public opinion
  • Policy-makers

Tiananmen Square, June 4, 1989
108
Agenda Setting
  • The mass media may not be successful in telling
    people what to think, but the media are
    stunningly successful in telling their audience
    what to think about.
  • If a tree falls in the woods and CNN doesnt
    cover it, did it really fall?
  • Bruce W. Jentleson, American Foreign Policy The
    Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century

109
Shaping Public Opinion
  • Framing
  • How the media casts an issue affects the
    sustentative judgments people make about the
    issue.
  • Priming
  • The priority the media gives to an issue affects
    the priority people give to the issue.

110
Donald Rumsfeld on the Media Coverage of OIF
  • And interestingly we have seen mood swings in
    the media from highs to lows to highs and back
    again, sometimes in a single 24-hour period.
  • For some, the massive volume of television - and
    it is massive - and the breathless reports can
    seem to be somewhat disorienting. Fortunately,
    my sense is that the American people have a very
    good center of gravity and can absorb and balance
    what they see and hear.

111
Policy-makers
  • Policy-makers often ask themselves What will the
    media think? as they formulate a course of
    action
  • Political spin becomes extremely important

112
Case Study
  • Somalia

113
Somalia
  • Drought, famine, clan violence, corruption, and
    inefficient government had created a humanitarian
    crisis in Somalia in the 1990s.
  • One of the main sources of power had been the
    control of food supplies. 
  • Hijacked food was used to secure the loyalty of
    clan leaders, and food was routinely exchanged
    with other countries for weapons.
  • In the early 1990s up to 80 of internationally
    provided food was stolen. 
  • Between 1991 and 1992 over 300,000 Somalis were
    estimated to have died of starvation. 
  • UN relief efforts were unsuccessful, largely due
    to looting.
  • The U.N. asked its member nations for assistance. 

114
Somalia
  • In December 1992, President George Bush proposed
    to the U.N. that United States combat troops lead
    the intervention force. 
  • The U.N. accepted this offer and 25,000 U.S.
    troops were deployed to Somalia.

115
Somalia Entry
  • Stark images from Somalia, transmitted to the
    world via satellite, helped shape public opinion
    and pressured the United Nations to take action
  • One famous picture was this one of Aabiba Nuur,
    who weighed only 46 pounds

116
Somalia Entry
  • President Bush said that as he and his wife,
    Barbara, watched television and saw those
    starving kids in quest of a little pitiful cup
    of rice, he called Secretary of Defense Dick
    Cheney and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
    General Colin Powell and told them Please come
    over to the White House. I we cant watch
    this anymore. Youve got to do something.
  • Craig Hines in a Houston Chronicle article titled
    Pity, not U. S. Security, Motivated Use of GIs
    in Somalia

117
Somalia Exit
  • Two Black Hawk helicopters were shot down in the
    battle of Mogadishu in Oct 1993
  • Pictures included a US soldier being dragged
    through the streets of Mogadishu

118
Somalia Perception
  • Nineteen US soldiers were killed and over 70 were
    wounded
  • Conservative estimates say more than 500
    Somalians were killed and over 1,000 injured
  • "The perception of an operation can be as
    important to success as the execution of that
    operation."
  • MG Charles McClain

119
Somalia
  • We went into Somalia because of horrible
    television images we will leave Somalia because
    of horrible television images.
  • Marianne Means
  • We had been drawn to this place by television
    images now we were being repelled by them. The
    President immediately conducted a policy review
    that resulted in a plan for withdrawal over the
    next six months.
  • Colin Powell

120
Sudan and Somalia
  • As the contrasting responses to the seemingly
    similar Somalia and Sudan cases suggest, media
    coverage can have a significant impact.
  • Arnold Kanter, Intervention Decisionmaking in the
    Bush Administration

Refugees in Sudan
121
Why?
  • Why should international institutions exist at
    all in a world dominated by sovereign states?
  • Rhetorical question posed by Robert Keohane

122
Because.
  • Global problems require global solutions. We
    fall together or we succeed together.
  • Joseph Deiss, Minister of Economic Affairs of
    Switzerland

Air pollution obscures the ground in this aerial
photo of China
Diseases such as bird flu threaten to become
pandemics
123
Tension of Globalization
  • Traditional nation-states have difficulties
    handling problems of a global magnitude
  • A plethora of nongovernmental international
    organizations that do not respect territorial
    boundaries and are beyond the reach of national
    governments have sprung up to try to tackle the
    problem
  • Usually focus on a largely singular agenda

124
Some NGOs and their Agendas
  • Red Cross
  • Relieve suffering to wounded soldiers and
    prisoners of war
  • Greenpeace
  • Preserve the earths natural resources and animal
    and plant life
  • Amnesty International
  • Ensure human rights

125
Some IGOs and their Agendas
  • An organization of sovereign nations devoted to a
    agenda of international scope or character
  • United Nations
  • Maintain international peace and security
  • World Trade Organization
  • Foster free trade

126
The Reduction of Sovereignty
  • Under the WTO, member countries cannot tax or
    limit imports made under unfair or unsafe labor
    conditions. The same can be said for those
    imports that significantly harm the global
    environment during production. National
    sovereignty is what is at stake, since countries
    do not retain the ability to choose for
    themselves.
  • David Carstens, Bringing Environmental and
    Economic Internationalism into US Strategy

Pro-democracy protests in China in 1989 resulted
in the massive government crackdown at Tiananmen
Square
127
Corporations
  • International corporations sought to extend
    business activities across borders in pursuit of
    specific activities such as importation,
    exportation, and the extraction of raw materials
  • Multinational corporations conducted business in
    several countries but had to operate within the
    confines of specific laws and customs of a given
    society

128
Corporations
  • Global corporations rely on a small headquarters
    staff while dispersing all other corporate
    functions across the globe in search of the
    lowest possible operating costs
  • Treat the world as a single market and act as if
    the nation-state no longer exists
  • Some 50,000 global corporations exist, including
    General Motors, Siemens AG, and Nestle

129
Case Study
  • United Fruit Company

130
Latin American Dependence
  • Latin America in the 19th Century was plagued by
    division, rebellion, caudillo rule, civil war,
    instability, and conflict
  • Add that to colonial legacies that lacked
    economic development and local industry in Latin
    America and the pattern was set for foreign
    dependence
  • Because its economy required foreign investment
    to survive, Latin America became subject to
    decisions made in the interests of foreign
    investors
  • Latin American governments were controlled by the
    elites who profited from foreign involvement at
    the expense of the citizenry, so the governments
    actually encouraged Latin Americas economic
    dependence

131
Case Study United Fruit Company
  • From 1899 to 1970, UFCO was prominent in the
    trade of bananas and other fruit from Latin
    America to Europe and the US
  • An archetypal example of multinational influence
    extending deeply into the internal politics
  • Banana republics and neocolonialism

The Peten, one of many ships in UFCOs Great
White Fleet
132
Case Study United Fruit Company
  • In addition to owning vast tracts of land, the
    UFCO dominated regional transportation networks
    and owned a major railroad corporation
  • In 1913, UFCO extended its reach by creating the
    Tropical Radio and Telegraph Company
  • By the end of the decade there would be virtually
    no aspect of the economic infrastructure of Latin
    American banana production untouched by the UFCO

133
Case Study United Fruit Company
  • One of the companys primary tactics for
    maintaining market dominance was to control the
    distribution of banana lands.
  • UFCO claimed that hurricanes, blight and other
    natural threats required them to hold extra land
    or reserve land.
  • In practice that meant UFCO was able to prevent
    the government from distributing banana lands to
    peasants who wanted a share of the banana trade.
  • For UFCO to maintain its unequal land holdings,
    it had to have government concessions.
  • This in turn meant that UFCO had to be
    politically involved in the region even though it
    was an American company.

134
Case Study United Fruit Company
  • When Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
    tried to seize thousands of acres of uncultivated
    land owned by the UFCO in 1953, President
    Eisenhower empowered the CIA to engineer the
    overthrow of Arbenzs government
  • A US-supported coup toppled Arbenzs government
    in 1954 and returned the land to the UFCO

Castillo Armas established a military government
after the ouster of the democratically elected
Arbenz, who the US feared had communist leanings
135
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