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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e

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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst Parietal Lobes The portion of the cerebral cortex lying on the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e


1
Thinking About Psychology The Science of Mind
and Behavior 2e
  • Charles T. Blair-Broeker
  • Randal M. Ernst

2
Biopsychological Domain
3
The Biological Bases of Behavior Chapter
4
The Brain
  • Module 07

5
Lower-Level Brain Structures The Brainstem
  • Module 7 The Brain

6
Brainstem
  • The oldest part and central core of the brain
  • It begins where the spinal cord swells as it
    enters the skull
  • Is responsible for automatic survival functions

7
Brainstem
8
Medulla
  • Located at the base of the brainstem
  • Controls life-supporting functions like heartbeat
    and breathing
  • Damage to this area can lead to death.

9
Medulla
10
Reticular Formation
  • A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an
    important role in controlling wakefulness and
    arousal
  • Extending up and down the spinal cord into the
    brain
  • Controls an organisms level of alertness
  • Damage to this area can cause a coma.

11
Lower-Level Brain Structures The Thalamus
  • Module 7 The Brain

12
Thalamus
  • Sits atop the brainstem
  • The brains sensory switchboard
  • Directs messages to the sensory receiving areas
    in the cortex
  • Thalamus is Greek for inner chamber.

13
Thalamus
14
Lower-Level Brain Structures The Cerebellum
  • Module 7 The Brain

15
Cerebellum
  • Latin for the little brain
  • Attached to the rear of the brain
  • Helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance
  • If damaged, the person could perform basic
    movements but would lose fine coordination skills.

16
Cerebellum
17
Cerebellum
18
Lower-Level Brain Structures The Limbic System
  • Module 7 The Brain

19
Limbic System
  • A ring of structures at the border of the
    brainstem and cerebral cortex
  • Helps regulate memory, aggression, fear, hunger,
    and thirst
  • Includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and
    amygdala

20
Hypothalamus
  • A neural structure lying below the thalamus
  • Regulates the bodys maintenance activities such
    as eating, drinking, body temperature, and it
    linked to emotion
  • Plays a role in emotions, pleasure, and sexual
    function

21
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22
Hippocampus
  • A neural center located in the limbic system that
    wraps around the back of the thalamus
  • Helps processing new memories for permanent
    storage
  • Looks something like a seahorse
  • Hippo is Greek for horse.

23
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24
Amygdala
  • Two almond shaped neural cluster in the limbic
    system
  • Controls emotional responses such as fear and
    anger

25
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26
The Cerebral Cortex
  • Module 7 The Brain

27
Cerebral Cortex
  • The intricate fabric of interconnected neurons
    that form the bodys ultimate control and
    information processing center
  • Covers the brains lower level structures
  • Contains an estimated 30 billion nerve cells
  • Divided into four lobes

28
Corpus Callosum
  • The large band of neural fibers that connects the
    two brain hemispheres and allows them to
    communicate with each other
  • Is sometimes cut to prevent seizures

29
Corpus Callosum
30
Longitudinal Fissure
  • The long crevice that divides the cerebral cortex
    into left and right hemispheres
  • This and other fissures in the brain create major
    divisions in the brain called lobes

31
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32
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33
Frontal Lobes
  • The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just
    behind the forehead
  • Is involved in planning and judgments
  • Includes the motor cortex

34
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35
Parietal Lobes
  • The portion of the cerebral cortex lying on the
    top of the head and toward the rear
  • Includes the somatosensory cortex and general
    association areas used in processing information
  • Regions available for general processing,
    including mathematical reasoning
  • Designated as the association lobes
  • Behind the frontal lobes

36
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37
Occipital Lobe
  • The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the
    back of the head
  • It includes the primary visual processing areas
    of the brain

38
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39
Temporal Lobes
  • Includes the auditory (hearing) areas of the
    brain
  • Where sound information is processed
  • Located roughly above the ears

40
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41
Motor Cortex
  • The strip of brain tissue at the rear of the
    frontal lobes
  • Controls voluntary movement
  • Different parts of the cortex control different
    parts of the body.
  • The motor cortex in the left hemisphere controls
    the right side of the body and visa versa.

42
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43
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44
Somatosensory Cortex
  • The brain are located in the front of the
    parietal lobes
  • Registers and processes body sensations
  • Soma is Greek for body.

45
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46
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47
Differences Between the Two Hemispheres
  • Module 7 The Brain

48
Hemispheric Differences
  • Left-brained and right-brained debunked
  • Brain is divided into two hemispheres but works
    as a single entity.
  • Both sides continually communicate via the corpus
    callosum, except in those with split brains.

49
Differences Between the Two Hemispheres Language
and Spatial Abilities
  • Module 7 The Brain

50
The Brains Left Hemisphere
  • For most people, language functions are in the
    left hemisphere.
  • For a small percentage of people, language
    functions are in the right hemisphere.

51
Brocas Area
  • The brain area of the left frontal lobe
  • Directs the muscle movements involve in speech
  • If damaged the person can form the ideas but
    cannot express them as speech

52
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53
Wernickes Area
  • A brain area of the left temporal lobe
  • Involved in language comprehension and expression
  • Our ability to understand what is said to us
  • Usually in the left temporal lobe

54
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55
The Brains Right Hemisphere
  • Houses the brains spatial abilities
  • Our spatial ability allows us to perceive or
    organize things in a given space, judge distance,
    etc.
  • Helps in making connections between words

56
Split Brain Research
57
Split Brain Research
58
Split Brain Research
59
Split Brain Research
60
Split Brain Research
61
Split Brain Research
62
Split Brain Research
63
The End
64
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65
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