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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e

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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst Twin Studies Play The Effect of Aging on Cognitive Function ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e


1
Thinking About Psychology The Science of Mind
and Behavior 2e
  • Charles T. Blair-Broeker
  • Randal M. Ernst

2
Methods Domain
3
Introductory Chapter
4
Nature and Nurture in Psychology
  • Module 03

5
Introduction
  • Module 3 Nature and Nurture in Psychology

6
Behavior Genetics
  • The study of the relative effects of genes and
    environmental influences our behavior

7
Genes
  • The biochemical units of heredity that make up
    the chromosomes
  • Many genes together make up chromosomes

8
Environment
  • Every non-genetic influence, from prenatal
    nutrition to the people and things around us
  • Any influence, other than genetic, on an
    individuals behavior
  • Include
  • The culture someone is raised in
  • Ones family
  • Socioeconomic group

9
Nature and Nurture Issue
  • Nature side entails the genetic code passed from
    parent to child.
  • Nurture side involves all environmental
    influences from prenatal development on.
  • Which parts of human behavior can we attribute to
    nature and which can be attributed to nurture?

10
Genetics in Brief
  • Module 3 Nature and Nurture in Psychology

11
Chromosomes
  • Threadlike structures made up of DNA that contain
    the genes
  • 46 pairs in each cell
  • 23 received from each parent

12
Chromosomes
13
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) De Oxy Ribo-
Nucleic
  • A complex molecule containing the genetic
    information that makes up the chromosomes
  • The smaller sections of DNA (stairs) store your
    genetic information, your GENES.

14
Nucleotides Nuc leo - tides
  • The four letter code to distinguish genes
  • Letters A,T,C, or G are used

15
Summary
  • So, chromosomes (every cell has them) 46 (23
    from Mom, 23 from Dad)
  • Chromosomes are made up of DNA
  • Smaller sections of DNA (the stairs) are called
    GENES
  • Genes establish what we are and influence our
    behaviors.
  • Genes are distinguished by codes (ATCG).
  • Each letter is called a NUCLEOTIDE
  • In every cell nucleus, there are BILLIONS of
    nucleotides.
  • All 46 chromosomes are found in every cell
    nucleus in your body.

16
Fruit Flies
  • Fruit flies have 15,000 genes
  • Humans have 25,000 genes
  • Surprised?

17
Cellular Makeup
18
Cellular Makeup
19
Cellular Makeup
20
Predisposition
  • Genes are responsible for predisposing our
    appearance and behavior, not for concretely
    determining either.

21
Mutation
  • Random errors in gene replication that lead to a
    change in the individuals genetic code
  • The source of genetic diversity
  • Can be desirable or undesirable changes

22
Predisposition
  • The possibility of something happening through
    the genetic code
  • Genetics creates the potential for something
  • The environment may or may not trigger the
    predisposition

23
Genetic Diseases
  • Play Huntington's Disease (653) Module 12
    from The Brain Teaching Modules (2nd edition)
  • http//www.learner.org/resources/series142.html

24
Nature and Individual Differences
  • Module 3 Nature and Nurture in Psychology

25
Identical Twins
  • Twins who developed from a single fertilized egg
    that splits in two, creating two genetically
    identical organisms
  • Called monozygotic twins

26
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29
Fraternal Twins
  • Twins who developed from separate eggs the are
    genetically no more similar than other siblings,
    but they share a fetal environment
  • Called dizygotic twins

30
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32
Heritability
  • The degree to which traits are inherited
  • The proportion of an individuals characteristics
    that can be attributed to genetics (heredity)

33
Twin Studies
  • Used to determine the heritability of a given
    trait
  • Data is collected from both identical and
    fraternal twins on the trait
  • Compare the data between the two groups
  • Important not to conclude that a specific
    behavior is inherited

34
Twin Studies
  • Play The Effect of Aging on Cognitive Function
    Nature/Nurture (1009) Segment 16 from The
    Mind Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition)
  • http//www.learner.org/resources/series150.html
  • Worth Videos Twins

35
Adoption Studies
  • Compare adopted childrens traits with those of
    their biological parents and their adopted
    parents
  • Trait similarities with biological parents
    attribute the trait to heredity
  • Trait similarities with the adopted parents
    attribute the trait to the environment

36
Early Brain Development
  • Early experience is critical in brain
    development.
  • In later life continued use is necessary to
    maintain neural connections in the brain.

37
Peer Influences
  • Peer influence in adolescence is very powerful.
  • Many studies suggest a peer group is correlated
    with school performance, smoking, and other
    behaviors.

38
Culture
  • The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms and
    behaviors of a group communicated from one
    generation to the next

39
Norms
  • Understood rules for accepted and expected
    behavior
  • Consist of the proper behavior within a group

40
Individualism
  • Giving priority to ones goals over the goals of
    the group,
  • Defining ones identity in terms of personal
    attributes rather than the groups identification
  • Tend to see people as separate and independent

41
Collectivism
  • Giving priority to the goals of ones group
    (often the extended family or work group) and
    defining ones personal identity accordingly
  • See people as connected to others
  • Individual needs are sacrificed for the good of
    the group.

42
The End
43
  • Iceland Genes
  • Bringing up Monkey
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